The Kawasaki GPZ1000RX was a motorcycle made by Kawasaki from 1986 to 1988. It had a 997 cc 16-valve, twin cam engine; the GPZ1000RX was to be the replacement for the original Ninja, the GPZ900R, but as it turned out the GPZ900R not only lived on alongside the GPZ1000RX, but outlived it. Just as the GPZ900R two years before, the 1000RX was the fastest production bike at the time; until in 1988 the GPZ 1000RX was superseded by the ZX-10 "Tomcat". Yet still the GPZ900R remained beyond the 1990 release of Kawasaki's new flagship, the ZZ-R1100, until 2003
In both road and rail vehicles, the wheelbase is the distance between the centers of the front and rear wheels. For road vehicles with more than two axles, the wheelbase is the distance between the steering axle and the centerpoint of the driving axle group. In the case of a tri-axle truck, the wheelbase would be the distance between the steering axle and a point midway between the two rear axles; the wheelbase of a vehicle equals the distance between its rear wheels. At equilibrium, the total torque of the forces acting on a vehicle is zero. Therefore, the wheelbase is related to the force on each pair of tires by the following formula: F f = d r L m g F r = d f L m g where F f is the force on the front tires, F r is the force on the rear tires, L is the wheelbase, d r is the distance from the center of mass to the rear wheels, d f is the distance from the center of gravity to the front wheels, m is the mass of the vehicle, g is the gravity constant. So, for example, when a truck is loaded, its center of gravity shifts rearward and the force on the rear tires increases.
The vehicle will ride lower. The amount the vehicle sinks will depend on counter acting forces, like the size of the tires, tire pressure, the spring rate of the suspension. If the vehicle is accelerating or decelerating, extra torque is placed on the rear or front tire respectively; the equation relating the wheelbase, height above the ground of the CM, the force on each pair of tires becomes: F f = d r L m g − h c m L m a F r = d f L m g + h c m L m a where F f is the force on the front tires, F r is the force on the rear tires, d r is the distance from the CM to the rear wheels, d f is the distance from the CM to the front wheels, L is the wheelbase, m is the mass of the vehicle, g is the acceleration of gravity, h c m is the height of the CM above the ground, a is the acceleration. So, as is common experience, when the vehicle accelerates, the rear sinks and the front rises depending on the suspension; when braking the front noses down and the rear rises.:Because of the effect the wheelbase has on the weight distribution of the vehicle, wheelbase dimensions are crucial to the balance and steering.
For example, a car with a much greater weight load on the rear tends to understeer due to the lack of the load on the front tires and therefore the grip from them. This is why it is crucial, when towing a single-axle caravan, to distribute the caravan's weight so that down-thrust on the tow-hook is about 100 pounds force. A car may oversteer or "spin out" if there is too much force on the front tires and not enough on the rear tires; when turning there is lateral torque placed upon the tires which imparts a turning force that depends upon the length of the tire distances from the CM. Thus, in a car with a short wheelbase, the short lever arm from the CM to the rear wheel will result in a greater lateral force on the rear tire which means greater acceleration and less time for the driver to adjust and prevent a spin out or worse. Wheelbases provide the basis for one of the most common vehicle size class systems; some luxury vehicles are offered with long-wheelbase variants to increase the spaciousness and therefore the luxury of the vehicle.
This practice can be found on full-size cars like the Mercedes-Benz S-Class, but ultra-luxury vehicles such as the Rolls-Royce Phantom and large family cars like the Rover 75 came with'limousine' versions. Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Tony Blair was given a long-wheelbase version of the Rover 75 for official use, and some SUVs like the VW Tiguan and Jeep Wrangler come in LWB models In contrast, coupé varieties of some vehicles such as the Honda Accord are built on shorter wheelbases than the sedans they are derived from. The wheelbase on many commercially available bicycles and motorcycles is so short, relative to the height of their centers of mass, that they are able to perform stoppies and wheelies. In skateboarding the word'wheelbase' is used for the distance between the two inner pairs of mounting holes on the deck; this is different from the distance between the rotational centers
A touring motorcycle is a type of motorcycle designed for touring. Although any motorcycle can be used for this purpose, manufacturers have developed specific models designed to address the particular needs of these riders. Touring motorcycles have large displacement fairings and windshields that offer a high degree of weather and wind protection, large-capacity fuel tanks for long ranges between fill-ups, engines with a great deal of low-end horsepower, a more relaxed, upright seating position than sport bikes. In the USA, touring motorcycles may be given names such as bagger, full bagger, full dresser, full dress tourer, or dresser; these monikers applied to cruisers with full sets of saddlebags or panniers such as Harley-Davidsons. Full-dress touring motorcycles are characterized by large fairings and ample bodywork compared to other types of tourers. Hard luggage, e.g. panniers and a top box, are integrated into the design of the motorcycle which has a large displacement, torquey engine with a upright, comfortable riding position.
Additionally, optional amenities for full-dress tourers might include equipment not offered on other motorcycles such as complete stereos, satellite radio, heated seats and hand-grips, GPS navigation systems, custom windshields, integrated air compressors, air bags. Beyond what manufacturers supply,'full dressers' are customized by owners with additional accessories. Full-dress tourers are designed for riding on pavement. A few examples of full-dress tourers are the Yamaha Royal Star Venture, the Honda Gold Wing, Harley-Davidson Electra Glide. A recent type, the adventure touring motorcycle is a dual-sport motorcycle that allows long-range touring both on-road and off-road capabilities. Adventure tourers have high ground clearance, large fuel capacity, under-stressed engines for high reliability, they may have rugged GPS navigation systems, wire-spoked wheels with road-legal knobby tyres, skid plates, tough metal panniers. Modified adventure tourers are sometimes used in gruelling rally events, such as the Dakar Rally.
Adventure tourer models include the BMW R1200GS, the KTM 990 Adventure series, Suzuki V-Strom 1000, many others. Although most modern adventure tourers are large capacity bikes, that has not always been so: the first winner of the Dakar Rally did so on a Yamaha XT500. Sport tourers are a hybrid form of motorcycle between tourers. Forming a niche market, sport tourers combine the performance of a sport bike with the long-distance capabilities and comfort of a touring motorcycle, they exhibit much greater emphasis on sporting performance than conventional tourers. Although Honda has three sports-touring models, BMW has four, most motorcycle manufacturers tend to have a single sport tourer, such as the Triumph Sprint ST or Yamaha FJR1300. Sports-tourers may have hard luggage as an optional extra. Lists of models: Category:Touring motorcycles Category:Sport touring motorcycles Outline of motorcycles and motorcycling
Types of motorcycles
There are many systems for classifying types of motorcycles, describing how the motorcycles are put to use, or the designer's intent, or some combination of the two. Six main categories are recognized: cruiser, touring, dual-purpose, dirt bike. Sometimes sport touring motorcycles are recognized as a seventh category. Strong lines are sometimes drawn between motorcycles and their smaller cousins, mopeds and underbones, but other classification schemes include these as types of motorcycles. There is no universal system for classifying all types of motorcycles. There are strict classification systems enforced by competitive motorcycle sport sanctioning bodies, or legal definitions of a motorcycle established by certain legal jurisdictions for motorcycle registration, road traffic safety rules or motorcyclist licensing. There are informal classifications or nicknames used by manufacturers and the motorcycling media; some experts do not recognize sub-types, like naked bike, that "purport to be classified" outside the six usual classes, because they fit within one of the main types and are recognizable only by cosmetic changes.
Street motorcycles are motorcycles designed for being ridden on paved roads. They have smooth tires with a light tread pattern and engines in the 125 cc and over range. Most are capable of speeds up to 100 mph, many of speeds in excess of 125 mph. Standards called naked bikes or roadsters, are versatile, general-purpose street motorcycles, they are recognized by their upright riding position, partway between the reclining rider posture of the cruisers and the forward leaning sport bikes. Footpegs are below the rider and handlebars are high enough to not force the rider to reach too far forward, placing the shoulders above the hips in a natural position; because of their flexibility, lower costs, moderate engine output, standards are suited to motorcycle beginners. Standards do not come with fairings or windscreens, or if they have them, they are small. Standard is a synonym for naked bike, a term that became popular in the 1990s in response to the proliferation of faired sport bikes; the standard seemed to have disappeared, fueling nostalgia for the return of the Universal Japanese Motorcycle, which were admired for their simplicity and versatility.
Muscle bike is a nickname for a motorcycle type, derived from either a standard or sport bike design, that puts a disproportionately high priority on engine power. Roadster is naked. Cruisers are styled after American machines from the 1930s to the early 1960s, such as those made by Harley-Davidson and Excelsior-Henderson. Harley-Davidsons define the cruiser category, large-displacement V-twin engines are the norm, although other engine configurations and small to medium displacements exist, their engines are tuned for low-end torque, making them less demanding to ride because it is not necessary to shift as to accelerate or maintain control. The riding position places the feet forward and the hands are up high, so that the spine is erect or leaning back slightly. At low to moderate speeds, cruisers are more comfortable than other styles, but riding for long periods at freeway speeds can lead to fatigue from pulling back on the handlebars to resist the force of the wind against the rider's chest.
Cruisers have limited cornering ability due to a lack of ground clearance. Choppers are a type of cruiser, so called because they are a "chopped", or cut-down, version of a production cruiser. Choppers are custom projects that result in a bike modified to suit the owner's ideals, and, as such, are a source of pride and accomplishment. Stereotypically, a chopper may have small fuel tanks and high handlebars. Choppers were popularised in the Peter Fonda film Easy Rider. Being designed for visual effect, choppers will not be the most efficient riding machines. Related to the chopper motorcycle is the bobber, created by "bobbing" a factory bike by removing dead weight and bodywork from a motorcycle to reduce mass and increase performance. A common element of these motorcycles is a shortened rear fender. A distinguishing feature between a chopper and a bobber is that bobbers reuse the factory motorcycle frame, whereas choppers use custom frames with increased rake; the more conservative steering geometry of a bobber will in most cases lead to superior cornering performance relative to a chopper.
Power cruiser is a name used to distinguish bikes in the cruiser class that have higher levels of power. They come with upgraded brakes and suspensions, better ground clearance, premium surface finishes, as well as more exotic or non-traditional styling. Sport bikes emphasize top speed, braking and grip on paved roads at the expense of comfort and fuel economy in comparison to less specialized motorcycles; because of this, there are certain design elements. Sport bikes have comparatively high performance engines resting inside a lightweight frame. Inline-four engines dominate the sport bike category, with V-twins having a significant presence, nearly every other engine configuration appearing in small numbers at one time or another; the combination of these elements helps maintain chassis rigidity. Braking systems combine higher performance brake pads and multi-piston calipers that clamp onto oversized vented rotors. Suspension systems are advanced in terms of adjustments and materials for increased stability and durability.
Most sport bikes have fairings
The Kawasaki Z800 is a Z series four-cylinder standard motorcycle made by Kawasaki from 2013 through 2016, replaced by the Z900 for 2017. Using the nomenclature of the Kawasaki's Z series begun in 1972, the Z800 is the follow-up of the Z750, introduced in 2004 as successor of the ZR-7. Official website Z800 review at topspeed.com – with UK specs Z800 road test at 1000ps.at – with picture gallery and videos
The Kawasaki Zephyr is a range of retro-styled naked superbikes, manufactured during the 1990s. All models were built by Kawasaki with air-cooled, transverse inline, dual-overhead-cam, four-cylinder engines. There were a number of Zephyr models available, in four engine capacities - 400, 550, 750, 1100cc; the 400 was produced for Japan since 1989 due to the demand for 400cc motorcycles in that market. It was popular. Many aftermarket parts were produced, with companies like Over Racing producing exhausts, swingarms and engine modifications. Zephyr styling is based on the old Kawasaki Z1, with twin shock rear suspension, a upright riding position and air-cooled power units; the 400, 550 and 750 engines were developed from the old Z400/500/550/650/750/900 series. The 1100 engine is based upon the venerable air-cooled DOHC, eight-valve inline-four that traces its roots back through the GPz1100 to the Z1000, it is the only Zephyr built with two spark plugs per cylinder. The Zephyr offered the customer retro styling coupled with reliability.
Performance of the line was adequate for normal riding and the engines were tuned for low to mid range power. The Zephyr started the Naked/Retro bike boom in the UK and Europe in the early 1990s and for a while moved Kawasaki to the 2nd best selling manufacturer of motorcycles in the UK Market; the Zephyr Z750 engine reappeared in the late 1990s in the short lived ZR7. The Zephyr 1100 had a Z1 restyle in its last year of sale including a return to wire wheels. Wire wheels appeared on the 750, it was replaced in the Kawasaki UK range by the popular Z1100R styled ZRX1100. The ZRX series of motorcycles had a great impact on the growing market for retro style motorcycles in the United States, it was modeled after Kawasaki's superbike championship winning KZ1000R-S1 that propelled Eddie Lawson to Superbike dominance in the early 1980s and spawned an international owners association known as the ZRXOA. Kawasaki Z series Kawasaki ZRX1100 Kawasaki ZRX1200R
The Kawasaki ZRX1100 was a standard motorcycle made by Kawasaki from 1997 to 2001 with an engine loosely based on the ZX-11. It replaced the Zephyr 1100. Since the Zephyr 1100 sold poorly in the US, the ZRX1100 was not sold in that market until 1999. In 2001, the ZRX1100 was replaced by the larger engined ZRX1200, that were sold in the US until 2005, they were updated in 2008 and still sold in Japan as the ZRX1200 DAEG model until 2016. The ZRX1100 and the ZRX1200 were styled like 1980s muscle bikes, which were large bikes with large engines, they were considered Universal Japanese Motorcycles. The Suzuki Bandit 1200 has been credited with leading this niche, taking a large-displacement from an early air/oil-cooled engined race replica sport bike and detuning the engine for greater low-rpm torque and easier riding, replacing the aluminum frame with steel, leaving off the full fairings, lowering cost while losing road racing focus in favor of all-around street sport riding. One of the colour schemes replicates Eddie Lawson's 1982 and 1983 AMA Superbike Series-winning Kawasaki GPZ1100s.
There were several models, such as the R. The ZRX1100 had a top speed of 230 km/h, 0 to 1⁄4 mile time of 11.19 seconds at 120 mph, a 0 to 60 mph time of 2.9 seconds. Kawasaki Z series