The Karenni known as the Red Karen, the Kayah or the Kayahli, are a Sino-Tibetan people living in Kayah State, Myanmar. According to a 1983 census, the Karenni consist of the following groups: Kayah, Geba, Bre, Manu-Manau, Yinbaw and Pao. Several of the groups belong to a subgroup of Karenni; the groups Bre and Manu-Manau belong to the Kayaw subgroup. The Karenni States were a collection of small states inhabited by Karenni people, ruled by petty princes named myozas; these included Kantarawadi, the only state whose ruler was promoted to a saopha or sawba, Bawlake and Naungpale. They were independent until British rule in Burma, had feudal ties to the Burmese kingdom; the states bordered the Shan States of Mong Pai and Mawkmai to the north, Thailand to the east, the Papun district of Lower Burma to the south, a stretch of the Karen Hills inhabited by the Bre and various other small tribes to the west. During British rule, the Karenni had a garrison of military police, stationed at the village of Loikaw.
The British government formally recognised and guaranteed the independence of the Karenni States in an 1875 treaty with Burmese king Mindon Min, by which both parties recognised the area as belonging neither to Burma nor to Great Britain. The Karenni States were never incorporated into British Burma; the Karenni States were recognized as tributary to British Burma in 1892, when their rulers agreed to accept a stipend from the British government. In the 1930s, the Mawchi Mine in Bawlake was the most important source of tungsten in the world; the Constitution of the Union of Burma in 1947 proclaimed that the three Karenni States be amalgamated into a single constituent state of the union, called Karenni State. It provided for the possibility of secession from the Union after 10 years. In 1952, the former Shan state of Mong Pai was added, the whole renamed Kayah State with the intent of driving a wedge between the Karenni and the rest of the Karen people, both fighting for independence. "Huay Pu Keng".
Retrieved January 12, 2016. "Traditional Dresses in Kayah State". Technological University. Archived from the original on May 27, 2013. Retrieved January 12, 2016
Myanmar the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and known as Burma, is a country in Southeast Asia. Myanmar is bordered by India and Bangladesh to its west and Laos to its east and China to its north and northeast. To its south, about one third of Myanmar's total perimeter of 5,876 km forms an uninterrupted coastline of 1,930 km along the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea; the country's 2014 census counted the population to be 51 million people. As of 2017, the population is about 54 million. Myanmar is 676,578 square kilometres in size, its capital city is Naypyidaw, its largest city and former capital is Yangon. Myanmar has been a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations since 1997. Early civilisations in Myanmar included the Tibeto-Burman-speaking Pyu city-states in Upper Burma and the Mon kingdoms in Lower Burma. In the 9th century, the Bamar people entered the upper Irrawaddy valley and, following the establishment of the Pagan Kingdom in the 1050s, the Burmese language and Theravada Buddhism became dominant in the country.
The Pagan Kingdom fell. In the 16th century, reunified by the Taungoo dynasty, the country was for a brief period the largest empire in the history of Mainland Southeast Asia; the early 19th century Konbaung dynasty ruled over an area that included modern Myanmar and controlled Manipur and Assam as well. The British took over the administration of Myanmar after three Anglo-Burmese Wars in the 19th century and the country became a British colony. Myanmar was granted independence as a democratic nation. Following a coup d'état in 1962, it became a military dictatorship under the Burma Socialist Programme Party. For most of its independent years, the country has been engrossed in rampant ethnic strife and its myriad ethnic groups have been involved in one of the world's longest-running ongoing civil wars. During this time, the United Nations and several other organisations have reported consistent and systematic human rights violations in the country. In 2011, the military junta was dissolved following a 2010 general election, a nominally civilian government was installed.
This, along with the release of Aung San Suu Kyi and political prisoners, has improved the country's human rights record and foreign relations, has led to the easing of trade and other economic sanctions. There is, continuing criticism of the government's treatment of ethnic minorities, its response to the ethnic insurgency, religious clashes. In the landmark 2015 election, Aung San Suu Kyi's party won a majority in both houses. However, the Burmese military remains a powerful force in politics. Myanmar is a country rich in jade and gems, natural gas and other mineral resources. In 2013, its GDP stood at its GDP at US$221.5 billion. The income gap in Myanmar is among the widest in the world, as a large proportion of the economy is controlled by supporters of the former military government; as of 2016, Myanmar ranks 145 out of 188 countries in human development, according to the Human Development Index. Both the names Myanmar and Burma derive from the earlier Burmese Mranma, an ethnonym for the majority Bamar ethnic group, of uncertain etymology.
The terms are popularly thought to derive from "Brahma Desha" after Brahma. In 1989, the military government changed the English translations of many names dating back to Burma's colonial period or earlier, including that of the country itself: "Burma" became "Myanmar"; the renaming remains a contested issue. Many political and ethnic opposition groups and countries continue to use "Burma" because they do not recognise the legitimacy of the ruling military government or its authority to rename the country. In April 2016, soon after taking office, Aung San Suu Kyi clarified that foreigners are free to use either name, "because there is nothing in the constitution of our country that says that you must use any term in particular"; the country's official full name is the "Republic of the Union of Myanmar". Countries that do not recognise that name use the long form "Union of Burma" instead. In English, the country is popularly known as either "Burma" or "Myanmar". Both these names are derived from the name of the majority Burmese Bamar ethnic group.
Myanmar is considered to be the literary form of the name of the group, while Burma is derived from "Bamar", the colloquial form of the group's name. Depending on the register used, the pronunciation would be Myamah; the name Burma has been in use in English since the 18th century. Burma continues to be used in English by the governments of countries such as the United Kingdom. Official United States policy retains Burma as the country's name, although the State Department's website lists the country as "Burma" and Barack Obama has referred to the country by both names; the government of Canada has in the past used Burma, such as in its 2007 legislation imposing sanctions, but as of the mid-2010s uses Myanmar. The Czech Republic uses Myanmar, although its Ministry of Foreign Affairs mentions both Myanmar and Burma on its website; the United Nations uses Myanmar, as do the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Russia, China, Bangladesh, Norway and Switzerland. Most English-speaking international news media refer to the country by the name Myanmar, including the BBC, CNN, Al Jazeera and the Australian Broadcasting Corporation /Ra
Saw Ba U Gyi
Saw Ba U Gyi was the first President of the Karen National Union. Ba U Gyi graduated with a bachelor's degree from Rangoon University in 1925 and studied law in England, passing the English bar in 1927. From 1937 to 1939, he served as the Minister of Revenue of British Burma, from February to April 1947, as the Minister for Transport and Communications of Burma, he was killed in an ambush by the Burmese Army on 12 August 1950. Ba U Gyi's four principles are still held as the guiding Principles of the Revolution of the Karen National Union: Surrender is out of the question The recognition of the Karen State must be completed. We shall retain our arms. We shall decide our own political destiny. Saw Ba U Gyi was born in 1905 to a wealthy land-owning Karen family in Burma. After he completed his degree at Rangoon University in 1925, he went to London, studied at Cambridge University and became a lawyer, he passed the English bar in 1927. In 1937 he joined the government of Ba Maw as Minister of Revenue.
He joined the pre-independence cabinet and became Information Minister of Burma. During this time, he began to work to gain independence for the Karen people. In September 1945, he was one of the leaders of the Karen Central Organization, he and the KCO asked the British. On 25 August 1946, other Karen leaders arrived in London to get Karen their homeland. At this time, the British controlled Karen land and he went to Great Britain in an effort to regain control of the land for his people, but the British refused and did not give it back to them. Instead the British gave it to Burma. On 27 January 1947, the British agreed with Aung San-Attlee, the Burmese president, gave him and the Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League rule over Burma. Saw Ba U Gyi had joined the AFPFL in 1944, struggling for Burmese independence, he resigned to lead the Karen National Union. According to Paul Keenan of the Karen History and Culture Preservation Society, "The Aung San-Attlee agreement gave no provisions for Karen aspirations for their own land."
To form their case, between 5 and 7 February 1947, 700 members of the Karen Norberg Associates, Baptist KNA, Buddhist Karen National Association, Karen Central Organization and its youth branch the Karen Youth Organization, formed in October 1945, met at Vinton Memorial Hall in Rangoon and formed the Karen National Union. That union asked for representation in government, they asked for a seaboard on their own land. Not only that, they asked for all Karen units in the armed forces; the British ignored the KNU. After the negotiations with the AFPFL government for the benefit of the Karen nation were not successful, Saw Ba U Gyi led an armed rebellion as commander of the Karen National Liberation Army in 1949, he was killed on 12 August 1950 at a small village near Moulmein, 170 miles from Rangoon, with other Karen leaders and an English major who were imprisoned for supplying arms. His corpse was transported four miles out to sea where it was thrown overboard, thus ensuring there would be no martyr's grave for him.
After Saw Ba U Gyi died, the Karen people started celebrating Karen Martyr Day, on 12 August, the day Saw Ba U Gyi was gunned down by the Burmese government forces, becoming a martyr to his people who are Karen.. Martyr Day pays tribute to all of Karen fallen soldiers
The Karen, Kariang or Yang people refer to a number of individual Sino-Tibetan language-speaking ethnic groups, many of which do not share a common language or culture. These Karen groups reside in Kayin State and southeastern Myanmar; the Karen make up seven percent of the total Burmese population with five million people. A large number of Karen have migrated to Thailand, having settled on the Thailand–Myanmar border. Few Karens settled in Andaman and Nicobar islands and other South-East Asian and East Asian countries; the Karen groups as a whole are confused with the Padaung tribe, best known for the neck rings worn by their women, but they are just one sub-group of Red Karens, one of the tribes of Kayah in Kayah State, Myanmar. Some of the Karen, led by the Karen National Union, have waged a war against the central Burmese government since early-1949; the aim of the KNU at first was independence Since 1976 the armed group has called for a federal system rather than an independent Karen State.
In Thailand, they are known as Thai: กะเหรี่ยง. Karen legends refer to a "river of running sand". Many Karen think; the Karen constitute the third largest ethnic population in Myanmar, after the Shans. Karen refers to a heterogeneous lot of ethnic groups that do not share a common language, religion, or material characteristics. A pan-Karen ethnic identity is a modern creation, established in the 19th century with the conversion of some Karen to Christianity and shaped by various British colonial policies and practices and the introduction of Christianity."Karen" is an Anglicisation of the Burmese word Kayin, whose etymology is unclear. The word, a derogatory term referring to non-Buddhist ethnic groups, may have come from the Mon language, or is a corruption of Kanyan, the name of a vanished civilization. In pre-colonial times, the low-lying Burmese and Mon-speaking kingdoms recognised two general categories of Karen, the Talaing Kayin lowlanders who were recognised as the "original settlers" and essential to Mon court life, the Karen, highlanders who were subordinated or assimilated by the Bamar.
The Karen people live in the hills bordering the eastern mountainous region and Irrawaddy delta of Myanmar in Kayin State, with some in Kayah State, southern Shan State, Ayeyarwady Region, Tanintharyi Region, Bago Division and in northern and western Thailand. The total number of Karen is difficult to estimate; the last reliable census of Myanmar was conducted in 1931. A 2006 VOA article cites an estimate of seven million in Myanmar. There are another 400,000 Karen in Thailand; some Karen have left the refugee camps in Thailand to resettle elsewhere, including in North America, New Zealand, Scandinavia. In 2011, the Karen diaspora population was estimated to be 67,000. Following British victories in the three Anglo-Burmese wars, Myanmar was annexed as a province of British India in 1886. Baptist missionaries introduced Christianity to Myanmar beginning in 1830, they were successful in converting many Karen. Christian Karens were favoured by the British colonial authorities and were given opportunities not available to the Burmese ethnic majority, including military recruitment and seats in the legislature.
Some Christian Karens began asserting an identity apart from their non-Christian counterparts, many became leaders of Karen ethno-nationalist organisations, including the Karen National Union. In 1881 the Karen National Associations was founded by western-educated Christian Karens to represent Karen interests with the British. Despite its Christian leadership, the KNA sought to unite all Karens of different regional and religious backgrounds into one organisation, they argued at the 1917 Montagu–Chelmsford hearings in India that Myanmar was not "yet in a fit state for self-government". Three years after submitting a criticism of the 1920 Craddock Reforms, they won 5 seats in the Legislative Council of 130 members; the majority Buddhist Karens were not organised until 1939 with the formation of a Buddhist KNA. In 1938 the British colonial administration recognised Karen New Year as a public holiday. During World War II, when the Japanese occupied the region, long-term tensions between the Karen and Burma turned into open fighting.
As a consequence, many villages were destroyed and massacres committed by both the Japanese and the Burma Independence Army troops who helped the Japanese invade the country. Among the victims were a pre-war Cabinet minister, Saw Pe Tha, his family. A government report claimed the "excesses of the BIA" and "the loyalty of the Karens towards the British" as the reasons for these attacks; the intervention by Colonel Suzuki Keiji, the Japanese commander of the BIA, after meeting a Karen delegation led by Saw Tha Din, appears to have prevented further atrocities. The Karen people aspired to have the regions where they formed the majority turned into a subdivision or "state" within Myanmar similar to what the Shan and Chin peoples had been given. A goodwill mission led by Saw Tha Din and Saw Ba U Gyi to London in August 1946 failed to receive any encouragement from
The Irrawaddy or Ayeyarwady River is a river that flows from north to south through Myanmar. It is most important commercial waterway. Originating from the confluence of the N'mai and Mali rivers, it flows straight North-South before emptying through the Irrawaddy Delta into the Andaman Sea, its drainage basin of about 404,200 square kilometres covers a large part of Burma. After Rudyard Kipling's poem, it is sometimes referred to as'The Road to Mandalay'; as early as the sixth century, the river was used for transport. Having developed an extensive network of irrigation canals, the river became important to the British Empire after it had colonized Burma; the river is still as vital today. Rice is produced in the Irrawaddy Delta, irrigated by water from the river. In 2007, Myanmar's military dictatorship signed an agreement for the construction of seven hydroelectric dams, yielding a total 13,360 MW, in the N'mai and Mali Rivers, including the 3,600 MW Myitsone Dam at the confluence of both rivers.
Environmental organisations have raised concerns about the ecological impacts on the river's biodiverse ecosystems. Animals impacted include the threatened Irrawaddy dolphin and the Irrawaddy river shark, an endangered species; the native Kachin people named the river Mali-Nmai-Hka. The Burmese name of Irrawaddy is derived from a Pali name for the Ravi River of India, Irāvatī. Airavati was the Pali version of the name of the elephant mount of Sakka, Indra in Hinduism. Saka is an important deva in Buddhism. Elephants were a symbol for water and was used as the name for several others rivers, such as the Achiravati; the Irrawaddy gives its name to the Irrawaddy dolphin, found in the lower reaches of the river and known to help fishermen who practice cast-net fishing. Though called Irrawaddy dolphin, it has been found in the Bay of Bengal and the Indian ocean; the Irrawaddy River bisects Myanmar from north to south and empties through the nine-armed Irrawaddy Delta into the Indian Ocean. The Irrawaddy River arises by the confluence of the Mali Rivers in Kachin State.
Both the N'mai and Mali Rivers find their sources in the Himalayan glaciers of Upper Burma near 28° N. The eastern branch of the two, N'mai, is the larger and rises in the Languela Glacier north of Putao, it is unnavigable because of the strong current whereas the smaller western branch, the Mali river, is navigable, despite a few rapids. Herefore, the Mali river is still called by the same name as the main river by locals; the controversial Myitsone Dam is under construction at the convergence of these rivers. The town of Bhamo, about 240 kilometres south of the Mali and N'mai river confluence, is the northernmost city reachable by boat all the year round although during the monsoons most of the river cannot be used by boats; the city of Myitkyina lies 50 kilometres south of the confluence and can be reached during the dry season. Between Myitkyina and Mandalay, the Irrawaddy flows through three well-marked defiles: About 65 kilometres downstream from Myitkyinā is the first defile. Below Bhamo the river makes a sharp westward swing, leaving the Bhamo alluvial basin to cut through the limestone rocks of the second defile.
This defile is about 90 metres wide at its narrowest and is flanked by vertical cliffs about 60 to 90 metres high. About 100 kilometres north of Mandalay, at Mogok, the river enters the third defile. Between Katha and Mandalay, the course of the river is remarkably straight, flowing due south, except near Kabwet, where a sheet of lava has caused the river to bend westward; this sheet of lava is a volcanic field from the Holocene. This field consists of magma from the fissure vents and covers an area of about 62 square kilometres; the plateau is known as Letha Taung. Leaving this plateau at Kyaukmyaung, the river follows a broad, open course through the central dry zone – the ancient cultural heartland – where large areas consist of alluvial flats. From Mandalay, the river makes an abrupt westward turn before curving southwest to unite with the Chindwin River, after which it continues in a southwestern direction, it is probable that the upper Irrawaddy flowed south from Mandalay, discharging its water through the present Sittaung River to the Gulf of Martaban, that its present westward course is geologically recent.
Below its confluence with the Chindwin, the Irrawaddy continues to meander through the petroleum producing city of Yenangyaung, below which it flows southward. In its lower course, between Minbu and Pyay, it flows through a narrow valley between forest-covered mountain ranges—the ridge of the Arakan Mountains to the west and that of the Pegu Yoma Mountains to the east; the delta of the Irrawaddy begins about 93 kilometres above Hinthada and about 290 kilometres from its curved base, which faces the Andaman Sea. The westernmost distributary of the delta is the Pathein River, while the easternmost stream is the Yangon River, on the left bank of which stands Myanmar's former capital city, Yangon; because the Yangon River is only a minor channel, the flow of water is insufficient to prevent Yangon Harbour from silting up, dredging is necessary. The relief of the delta's landscape is low but not flat; the soils consist of fine silt, replenished continuously by fertile alluvium carried downstream by the river.
As a result of heavy
Kayin State is a state of Myanmar. The capital city is Hpa-An spelled Pa-An; the relief of Kayin State is mountainous with the Dawna Range running along the state in a NNW - SSE direction and the southern end of the Karen Hills in the northwest. It is bordered by Mae Hong Son and Kanchanaburi provinces of Thailand to the east; the region that forms today's Kayin State was part of successive Burmese kingdoms since the formation of the Pagan Empire in mid-11th century. During the 13th to 16th centuries, much of the region belonged to the Hanthawaddy Kingdom, while the northern part of the region belonged to Taungoo,a vassal state of Ava Kingdom; the region became part of Konbaung Dynasty from 16th to 19th centuries. The British seized the southern third of today's Kayin State after the First Anglo-Burmese War, the rest after the Second Anglo-Burmese War of 1852. Towards the end of the British colonial era, the Karen leadership insisted on a separate state covering today's Kayin State and much of Mon State and Taninthayi Region, within the British Empire.
They refused to sign the Panglong Agreement of February 1947, the basis for the 1947 Constitution of Burma, boycotted the pre-independence elections of April 1947. Nonetheless, the constitution granted the Karen a state, though with an area less than what the Karen leadership had asked for from the British; the constitution guaranteed states with the right to secede from the Union after a period of 10 years. The Karen National Union, which dominated the Karen leadership, was not satisfied, wanted outright independence. In 1949, the KNU raised a rebellion; the KNU celebrates January 31 as'revolution day', marking the day they went underground at the battle of Insein. Much of the state has been a battlefield since then; the civilians have taken the brunt of the war. The KNU today forms the world's longest-running resistance; the military government changed the English name of the state to Kayin State from Karen State in 1989. Located between latitudes 15° 45' north and 19° 25' north and longitudes 96° 10' east and 98° 28' east.
It has a hot and humid climate because of the mountain ranges that lie in its backdrop and its location, near the sea, in the tropics. The temperature of the hottest month in eastern mountain regions never falls below 22.2 °C. Lowlands in the west and south of the state are located in the tropical monsoon climate; the lowest annual rainfall in the region is 3,000 millimetres and the highest is 4,800 millimetres. The regions get most of the rain in summer; some of the rivers and creeks in Kayin State are flowing from south to north due to the location of mountains. The main rivers in the state are Thanlwin, Thaungyin and Attaran. Kayin State consists of nine towns, it has seven townships and 4092 villages. Hpa-an District Myawaddy District Kawkareik District Hpapun District Hpa-an Township Hlaingbwe Township Hpapun Township Thandaunggyi Township Myawaddy Township Kawkareik Township Kyainseikgyi Township Paing Kyone Township Hpa-an Hlaingbwe Hpapun Thandang Thandanggyi Myawaddy Kawkareik Kyainseikgyi Payathonsu Kyaikdon Kyondoe Sukali Wawlay Kamamaung Paingkyon Shanywathit Bawgali Due to the mountainous terrain in Kayin State, most villages are small and contain less than 40 households so a large amount of Kayin's population is dotted across the countryside over hundreds, if not thousands of villages.
Since the 1973 Census, the population of Kayin State has increased from 858,429 to 1,055,359 in the 1983 census and 1,574,079 in the census of 2014. This means the population of Kayin State has increased by about 49 percent between the 1983 and the 2014 census; the population of Kayin State ranks eleventh in size when compared with other States and Regions in the country, only higher than Tanintharyi Region, Nay Pyi Taw Union Territory and Chin State. In terms of the proportion of the total population, the population of Kayin State has marginally increased from 3.0 percent in 1983 to 3.1 percent in 2014. The primary religions practised in Kayin State are Buddhism and Islam. Tourism is one of the main economy of Kayin State. After the signing of the preliminary ceasefire between the KNU and the Myanmar government in 2012, the number of visitors to Kayin State increased largely. Kayin State experienced over 40,000 tourists in 2013, followed by 50,000 in 2014. In 2016, the number of visitors reached a record 150,000.
Myawaddy border trading post of Kayin State is the second biggest among Myanmar’s 15 border trading posts. It is the main border crossing trade route between Myanmar. According to Thailand’s Chamber of Commerce, the monthly trade between the two countries in 2015 through the Mae Sot to Myawaddy crossing was worth over 3 billion baht. Kayin State is a farming state. There are over 460,000 acres of paddy fields and 260,000 acres of rubber tree plantations in Kayin State. There is over 9000 acres of coffee land in Thandaung area; the Kayin State government is trying to implement new farming technology to improve its agriculture sector. In 2016, the government announced a strategy to attract domestic and foreign investors to the Hpa-An industrial zone. However, shortage of electricity supply hinders the development of Hpa-An i