A botanical garden or botanic garden is a garden dedicated to the collection, cultivation and display of a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names. It may contain specialist plant collections such as cacti and other succulent plants, herb gardens, plants from particular parts of the world, so on. Visitor services at a botanical garden might include tours, educational displays, art exhibitions, book rooms, open-air theatrical and musical performances, other entertainment. Botanical gardens are run by universities or other scientific research organizations, have associated herbaria and research programmes in plant taxonomy or some other aspect of botanical science. In principle, their role is to maintain documented collections of living plants for the purposes of scientific research, conservation and education, although this will depend on the resources available and the special interests pursued at each particular garden; the origin of modern botanical gardens is traced to the appointment of professors of botany to the medical faculties of universities in 16th century Renaissance Italy, which entailed the curation of a medicinal garden.
However, the objectives and audience of today’s botanic gardens more resembles that of the grandiose gardens of antiquity and the educational garden of Theophrastus in the Lyceum of ancient Athens. The early concern with medicinal plants changed in the 17th century to an interest in the new plant imports from explorations outside Europe as botany established its independence from medicine. In the 18th century, systems of nomenclature and classification were devised by botanists working in the herbaria and universities associated with the gardens, these systems being displayed in the gardens as educational "order beds". With the rapid rise of European imperialism in the late 18th century, botanic gardens were established in the tropics, economic botany became a focus with the hub at the Royal Botanic Gardens, near London. Over the years, botanical gardens, as cultural and scientific organisations, have responded to the interests of botany and horticulture. Nowadays, most botanical gardens display.
The role of major botanical gardens worldwide has been considered so broadly similar as to fall within textbook definitions. The following definition was produced by staff of the Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium of Cornell University in 1976, it covers in some detail the many functions and activities associated with botanical gardens: A botanical garden is a controlled and staffed institution for the maintenance of a living collection of plants under scientific management for purposes of education and research, together with such libraries, herbaria and museums as are essential to its particular undertakings. Each botanical garden develops its own special fields of interests depending on its personnel, extent, available funds, the terms of its charter, it may include greenhouses, test grounds, an herbarium, an arboretum, other departments. It maintains a scientific as well as a plant-growing staff, publication is one of its major modes of expression; this broad outline is expanded: The botanic garden may be an independent institution, a governmental operation, or affiliated to a college or university.
If a department of an educational institution, it may be related to a teaching program. In any case, it is not to be restricted or diverted by other demands, it is not a landscaped or ornamental garden, although it may be artistic, nor is it an experiment station or yet a park with labels on the plants. The essential element is the intention of the enterprise, the acquisition and dissemination of botanical knowledge. A contemporary botanic garden is a protected natural urban green area, where a managing organization creates landscaped gardens and holds documented collections of living plants and/or preserved plant accessions containing functional units of heredity of actual or potential value for purposes such as scientific research, public display, sustainable use and recreational activities, production of marketable plant-based products and services for improvement of human well-being; the "New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening" points out that among the various kinds of organisations now known as botanical gardens are many public gardens with little scientific activity, it cites a more abbreviated definition, published by the World Wildlife Fund and IUCN when launching the ’’Botanic Gardens Conservation Strategy’’ in 1989: "A botanic garden is a garden containing scientifically ordered and maintained collections of plants documented and labelled, open to the public for the purposes of recreation and research."
This has been further reduced by Botanic Gardens Conservation International to the following definition which "encompasses the spirit of a true botanic garden": "A botanic garden is an institution holding documented collections of living plants for the purposes of scientific research, conservation and education." Worldwide, there are now about 1800 botanical gardens and arboreta in about 150 countries of which about 550 are in Europe, 2
University of Warsaw
The University of Warsaw, established in 1816, is the largest university in Poland. It employs over 6,000 staff including over 3,100 academic educators, it provides graduate courses for 53,000 students. The University offers some 37 different fields of study, 18 faculties and over 100 specializations in Humanities, technical as well as Natural Sciences, it was founded as a Royal University on 19 November 1816, when the Partitions of Poland separated Warsaw from the oldest and most influential University of Kraków. Alexander I granted permission for the establishment of five faculties – law and political science, philosophy and the humanities; the university expanded but was closed during November Uprising in 1830. It was reopened in 1857 as the Warsaw Academy of Medicine, now based in the nearby Staszic Palace with only medical and pharmaceutical faculties. All Polish-language campuses were closed in 1869 after the failed January Uprising, but the university managed to train 3,000 students, many of whom were important part of the Polish intelligentsia.
The university was resurrected during the First World War and the number of students reached 4,500 in 1918. After Poland's independence the new government focused on improving the university, in the early 1930s it became the country's largest. New faculties were established and the curriculum was extended. Following the Second World War and the devastation of Warsaw, the University reopened in 1945. Today, the University of Warsaw consists of 126 buildings and educational complexes with over 18 faculties: biology, chemistry and political science and sociology, physics and regional studies, history, applied linguistics and Slavic philology, philology, Polish language and public administration, applied social sciences and mathematics, computer science and mechanics; the University of Warsaw is one of the top Polish universities. It was ranked by Perspektywy magazine as best Polish university in 2010, 2011, 2014 and 2016. International rankings such as ARWU and University Web Ranking rank the university as the best Polish higher level institution.
On the list of 100 best European universities compiled by University Web Ranking, the University of Warsaw was placed as 61st. QS World University Rankings positioned the University of Warsaw as the best higher level institution among the world's top 400. In 1795 the partitions of Poland left Warsaw with access only to the Academy of Vilnius. In 1815, the newly established autonomous Congress Poland de facto belonging to the Russian Empire found itself without a university at all, as Vilnius was incorporated into Russia; the first to be established in Congress Poland were the Medical School. In 1816 Tsar Alexander I permitted the Polish authorities to create a university, comprising five departments: Law and Administration, Philosophy and Art and Humanities; the university soon grew to 50 professors. After most of the students and professors took part in the November 1830 Uprising the university was closed down. After the Crimean War, Russia entered a brief period of liberalization, the permission was given to create a Polish medical and surgical academy in Warsaw.
In 1862 departments of Law and Administration and History, Mathematics and Physics were opened. The newly established academy gained importance and was soon renamed the "Main School". However, after the January 1863 Uprising the liberal period ended and all Polish-language schools were closed down again. During its short existence, the Main School educated over 3,000 students, many of whom became part of the backbone of the Polish intelligentsia; the Main School was replaced with a Russian-language "Imperial University of Warsaw". Its purpose was to provide education for the Russian military garrison of Warsaw, the majority of students were Poles; the tsarist authorities believed that the Russian university would become a perfect way to Russify Polish society and spent a significant sum on building a new university campus. However, various underground organizations soon started to grow and the students became their leaders in Warsaw. Most notable of these groups joined the ranks of the 1905 Revolution.
Afterwards a boycott of Russian educational facilities was proclaimed and the number of Polish students dropped to below 10%. Most of the students who wanted to continue their education left for Western Europe. After the fall of the January Uprising, the Tsarist authorities' decided to convert the Main School into a Russian-language university, which functioned under the name of Imperial University for 46 years. There were two times. During the 1905–1907 revolution, such a proposal was made by some of the professors, in the face of a boycott of the university by Polish students. Talks on that subject were conducted with a number of Russian cities, including Voronezh and Saratov; the Russian government decided to keep a university in Warsaw, but as a result of the boycott, the university was Russian not only in the sense of the language used, but of the nationality of its professors and students. For the second time the question emerged during th
Poggio Reale (villa)
The Poggio Reale villa or Villa Poggio Reale was an Italian Renaissance villa commissioned in 1487 by Alfonso II of Naples as a royal summer residence. The Italian phrase "poggio reale" translates to "royal hill" in English; the villa was designed and built by Giuliano da Maiano and located in the city of Naples, in the district now known as Poggioreale, between the present Via del Campo, Via Santa Maria del Pianto and the new and old Via Poggioreale. At the time it was built, a period when the capitol city of the Kingdom of Naples was renowned for elegant homes with expansive vistas of the surrounding landscape and Mount Vesuvius, the villa was outside the city walls of Naples and was one of the most important architectural achievements of the Neapolitan Renaissance. Imitated, robbed of its treasures by another king, left in ruins and destroyed, the summer palace of the King of Naples lives on in name as a style. At the villa's building site there was a bubbling aqueduct that carried the waters of the Sarno with connected underground pipelines, and, connected to the Piscina Mirabilis reservoir called Dogliuolo, from the Latin Doliolum or Dolium.
The valley area of Dogliuolo was a swampy expanse of wetlands, despite several attempts at reclamation by Neapolitan sovereigns of the Anjou and Aragon families. In 1485, King Ferdinand I of Naples decreed the reclamation of the area when he realized that drainage issues were the source and cause of malaria in the capital, so issued his Fosso Fosso del Graviolo to eradicate the problem. During the same period and in the same area, numerous villas were built for the Neapolitan Renaissance nobility. Around 1487, the Duke of Calabria, crown prince and future king Alfonso II, bought farmland in the Poggioreale valley Dogliolo, having decided to build a royal summer residence outside the city walls in imitation of what his ally Lorenzo de' Medici was making at the time at Villa di Castello, as Alfonso hired away Lorenzo's architect. Lorenzo's favorite architect, Giuliano da Sangallo visited Naples during the villa's construction, Alfonso sent him back to Florence with gifts of money and antique sculpture for Lorenzo.
For the construction of the building and its annexes, Alfonso used his authority to expropriate land from others without compensation, for example, during construction he removed the standing water flowing to some mills that belonged to Gian Battista Brancaccio. For the residence's design, he hired the Florentine architect Giuliano da Maiano, who arrived in Naples in 1487 with a model for the villa which he had developed while still in Florence. Giuliano da Maiano began the work that year and continued to direct construction until his death in 1490, when the building was completed and occupied. Construction continued by Francesco di Giorgio Martini and students of Maiano, the Villa Poggio Reale became the seat of the Neapolitan court; the design of the villa was a considerable success and was mentioned in Book III of Sebastiano Serlio's architectural treatise of sixteenth century Italian architecture. During the Italian wars, in 1494 Charles VIII invaded Italy, King Alfonso fled to Sicily with some of the villa's most valuable furnishings, soon after, the building was abandoned.
Charles helped himself to the villa's remaining treasures while Alfonso was in hiding to avoid him, while there Charles became so enthralled by the villa's charms that he induced the villa's garden designers Fra'Giocondo and Pacello da Mercogliano to follow him to France to design the gardens of his own royal residences. On, King Ferdinand II of Naples ceded parts of the villa to others during a time when he was in financial difficulty, including the gardens, which by that time were used for cultivation. Beginning to crumble by the time of the sack of Rome in 1527, at the end of the High Renaissance the villa found itself at the center of Odet de Foix's battle for the conquest of Naples. With the villa's aqueduct ruined in the battle, a malaria epidemic broke out that destroyed his army, the French were forced to withdraw. In the aftermath, nature took its course: the area around the Villa Poggio Reale returned to its natural swamp-like state, years passed before the reclamation of the surrounding land began again.
The ruined villa was used as a meeting place in 1535 by Naples' sovereign at the time, Charles V. Because of repeated earthquakes, by 1582 it was necessary to strengthen the villa's remaining structure to avoid it collapsing altogether. By 1604, King Philip III of Spain was the ruler of Naples, a revival of Villa Poggio Reale was started by his viceroy Juan Alonso Pimentel de Herrera, who decided to beautify the approach to the royal villa with an avenue of trees and fountains. However, with the resurgence of bubonic plague in 1656, the villa and its gardens again fell into disrepair; the remains of the villa became, from that time, a burial place for lepers, thus King Alfonso II's villa was abandoned to death, given, as evidenced by eighteenth century documents, to the Miroballo family. In 1762, an official cemetery was built a short distance from the villa's site by Ferdinando Fuga, the Cemetery of the 366 Fosse. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, another burial place, this time the Cemetery of Poggioreale, was built atop the ruins of the villa, obliterating the villa and making the determination of the exact location of the former villa's premises difficult.
Further difficulties for historians and archaeologists are presented by the fact that Naples suf
A portal is an opening in a wall of a building, gate or fortification a grand entrance to an important structure. Doors, metal gates, or portcullis in the opening can be used to control exit; the surface surrounding the opening may be made of simple building materials or decorated with ornamentation. The elements of a portal can include the voussoir, tympanum, an ornamented mullion or trumeau between doors, columns with carvings of saints in the westwork of a church; the term portal is applied to the ends of a tunnel
Chęciny is a town in Kielce County, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, with 4,252 inhabitants. It was first mentioned in historical documents from 1275, obtained its city charter in 1325. At that time was one of major urban centers of northern Lesser Poland; the most important sight in Chęciny is the royal castle built in the late 13th or early 14th century on the Castle Hill above the town. It remains in that state to this day. For centuries Chęciny had a Jewish community and it had been the center of the Hasidic Chentshin dynasty, Chęciny is located in Lesser Poland, for centuries it belonged to Sandomierz Voivodeship; the distance to Kielce is 15 kilometres. The town lies among the hills of western Świętokrzyskie Mountains, is an important center of building materials, where the so-called Chęciny Marble is excavated; the town does not have a rail station, the nearest one is 5 km away in Radkowice. Chęciny is served by Kielce's mass transit system, east of the town goes Expressway S7. With the ruins of the castle and Jaskinia Raj nearby, Chęciny is an important tourist center.
There are several tourist trails, marked by different colors. The town is first mentioned in historical documents from 1275, it obtained its city charter in 1325. At that time Chęciny was an important urban center, where in May 1331 King Ladislaus I of Poland organized a meeting of Lesser Poland's and Greater Poland's nobility, to discuss the oncoming war with the Teutonic Knights. In 1465 Chęciny burned in a great fire, the same happened again in 1507. In the 16th century Chęciny was a local center of mining and commerce, with its marble famous across the Kingdom of Poland and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, it was a center of Protestant Reformation. Chęciny was destroyed in the Zebrzydowski Rebellion, but real destruction came during the Swedish invasion in 1655 – 1660. On April 1, 1657 the town was destroyed by the Transilvanians of George II Rakoczi. In 1660 there were only 48 houses, out of 341 in 1655. In 1764 Chęciny was designated as legal center for northern Lesser Poland, for Radom, Chęciny and Opoczno counties.
In 1795 the town was annexed by the Austrian Empire, next year, the seat of the county was moved to Kielce. Most of this time, Jews were not permitted to live in Kielce, had to find dwellings in nearby towns. By 1827 the Jews were 70% of the population. 70 years they were 4,361, still 70%. A series of fires and recessions caused the Jewish population to dwindle to 61% in 1905, with 3,414 Jewish residents. By the end of World War I only 512 homes stood erect, by 1921 there were only 2,825 Jewish residents, a mere 51%, living along the main road and around the town center. An account from the period depicts the town as being unclean. At the end of 1939, after the invasion of Poland, a Judenrat and the Jewish Ghetto Police was established by the Nazi German occupiers. In the spring of 1940 several dozen Jews from the new ghetto were murdered in a forest on the outskirts of town. In June 1940 there were 2,800 local Jews and another 1,000 refugees remaining in the ghetto. In January 1941 the Germans planned to move 5,000 Jews from the Kielce Ghetto to Chęciny in exchange for 2,500 Polish forced-labourers, but due to a typhus epidemic in the town, this plan was postponed.
On July 5, 1941 the order was given to establish the ghetto and by July 22 it was resettled during the Jewish "3 weeks of mourning". The ghetto had no walls, due to a shortage in materials; some 500 Jews from poor families, were chosen by the Judenrat, under German orders and sent to the HASAG labour camp in April 1942. In June another 105 Jews were rounded up to be sent to the HASAG camps, but vanished, were shot. 919 Jews from Luposzno were brought to the town in September 1942, small groups of Jews were brought in from other nearby cities, with the population rising 4000. Under the orders of Gerulf Mayer, the local Gendarme commander, the ghetto was liquidated on September 12; the Jews were chased to the market square and marched to the Wolice train station 7 km away, where they were sent to the Treblinka death camp. Dozens were shot on the way during the march. 40 Jews "unfit for travel" were shot on the 14th, two days later. A second group of 30 Jews from the Judenrat and other officials was left to search for valuables and bring them to the remaining synagogue.
Some of these Jews escaped, the rest were killed in December by the Gendarmes. Royal Castle – The construction of the fortress began around the 13th or 14th century. Around this date the upper part of the castle, consisting of the upper courtyard with housing unit and two rounded defensive towers, was built; the castle had its own chapel, located by the eastern tower. The castle treasure was being kept in the room above the chapel, it is certain that the castle existed in 1306, when King Ladislaus I presented it to the Archbishop of Kraków, Jan Muskata. In following years a dispute on ownership title of Lesser Poland has been raised between the king and the bishop; as a result of the dispute, after detection of a plot against the royal power, the castle was returned to the king. King Ladislaus soon made the royal castle in Chęciny the centre of his military power. In 1318 the treasure of the Archdiocese of Gniezno was transferred and hidden inside the castle to prevent it from being captured by Teutonic Knights.
The castle played a significant role as a place of concentration of Polish troops departing for B
A salon is a gathering of people under the roof of an inspiring host, held to amuse one another and to refine the taste and increase the knowledge of the participants through conversation. These gatherings consciously followed Horace's definition of the aims of poetry, "either to please or to educate". Salons in the tradition of the French literary and philosophical movements of the 17th and 18th centuries were carried on until as as the 1940s in urban settings; the salon was an Italian invention of the 16th century, which flourished in France throughout the 17th and 18th centuries. The salon continued to flourish in Italy throughout the 19th century. In 16th-century Italy, some brilliant circles formed in the smaller courts which resembled salons galvanized by the presence of a beautiful and educated patroness such as Isabella d'Este or Elisabetta Gonzaga. One important place for the exchange of ideas was the salon; the word salon first appeared in France in 1664. Literary gatherings before this were referred to by using the name of the room in which they occurred, like cabinet, réduit and alcôve.
Before the end of the 17th century, these gatherings were held in the bedroom: a lady, reclining on her bed, would receive close friends who would sit on chairs or stools drawn around. This practice may be contrasted with the greater formalities of Louis XIV's petit lever, where all stood. Ruelle meaning "narrow street" or "lane", designates the space between a bed and the wall in a bedroom; the first renowned salon in France was the Hôtel de Rambouillet not far from the Palais du Louvre in Paris, which its hostess, Roman-born Catherine de Vivonne, marquise de Rambouillet, ran from 1607 until her death. She established the rules of etiquette of the salon which resembled the earlier codes of Italian chivalry; the history of the salon is far from straightforward. The salon has been studied in depth by a mixture of feminist, cultural and intellectual historians; each of these methodologies focuses on different aspects of the salon, thus have varying analyses of its importance in terms of French history and the Enlightenment as a whole Major historiographical debates focus on the relationship between the salons and the public sphere, as well as the role of women within the salons.
Breaking down the salons into historical periods is complicated due to the various historiographical debates that surround them. Most studies stretch from the early 16th century up until around the end of the 18th century. Goodman is typical in ending her study at the French Revolution where, she writes:'the literary public sphere was transformed into the political public'. Steven Kale is alone in his recent attempts to extend the period of the salon up until Revolution of 1848:A whole world of social arrangements and attitude supported the existence of French salons: an idle aristocracy, an ambitious middle class, an active intellectual life, the social density of a major urban center, sociable traditions, a certain aristocratic feminism; this world did not disappear in 1789. In the 1920s, Gertrude Stein's Saturday evening salons gained notoriety for including Pablo Picasso and other twentieth-century luminaries like Alice B. Toklas; the content and form of the salon to some extent defines the character and historical importance of the salon.
Contemporary literature about the salons is dominated by idealistic notions of politesse, civilité and honnêteté, but whether the salons lived up to these standards is matter of debate. Older texts on the salons tend to paint an idealistic picture of the salons, where reasoned debate takes precedence and salons are egalitarian spheres of polite conversation. Today, this view is considered an adequate analysis of the salon. Dena Goodman claims that rather than being leisure based or'schools of civilité' salons were instead at'the heart of the philosophic community' and thus integral to the process of Enlightenment. In short, Goodman argues, the 17th and 18th century saw the emergence of the academic, Enlightenment salons, which came out of the aristocratic'schools of civilité'. Politeness, argues Goodman, took second-place to academic discussion; the period in which salons were dominant has been labeled the'age of conversation'. The topics of conversation within the salons - that is, what was and was not'polite' to talk about - are thus vital when trying to determine the form of the salons.
The salonnières were expected, ideally, to moderate the conversation. There is, however, no universal agreement among historians as to what was and was not appropriate conversation. Marcel Proust'insisted that politics was scrupulously avoided'. Others suggested that little other than government was discussed; the disagreements that surround the content of discussion explain why the salon's relationship with the public sphere is so contested. Individuals and collections of individuals that have been of cultural significance overwhelmingly cite some form of engaged, explorative conversation held with an esteemed group of acquaintances as the source of inspiration for their contributions to culture, art and politics, leading some scholars to posit the salon's influence on the public sphere as being more widespread than pre
Marie Louise Gonzaga
Marie Louise Gonzaga was Queen of Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuania by marriage to two Kings of Poland and grand dukes of Lithuania, brothers Władysław IV and John II Casimir. She was born in Nevers to Charles I, Duke of Mantua, Catherine of Guise. An active and energetic woman, she was a strong supporter of monarchy and religious persecution, for which she was disliked by the democratic Polish court and Polish nobility. However, she managed to stay involved in the Commonwealth's politics, which led to the foundation of the first Polish newspaper as well as other public institutions. Together with Bona Sforza, she is regarded as one of the most influential and most powerful queens of the Kingdom of Poland and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Marie Louise Gonzaga was born on 18 August 1611 in the city of Nevers, France to Charles I, Duke of Mantua, Catherine of Guise, who died in 1618. Marie Louise was supposed to marry Gaston, Duke of Orléans in 1627, but King Louis XIII of France opposed the marriage and subsequently imprisoned her in the Vincennes fortress and in a small convent.
The first proposal that she'd marry the newly elected King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, Władysław IV Vasa, was made in 1634, but Władysław married Cecilia Renata of Austria, the daughter of Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor and Maria Anna of Bavaria. This decision was unfavorable for France and angered Louis XIII because of the newly established alliance between the Austrian Empire and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. In 1640, Marie Louise met John Casimir with whom she had an early affair, she invited Prince John Casimir to France for her annual literary salon organised in Paris. Following the death of Cecilia Renata in 1644, Cardinal Jules Mazarin was determined to diminish and destroy the alliance between the Polish Vasa dynasty and the Austrian Habsburg dynasty, the rivals of the French state and a possible future threat to France. Mazarin insisted that Marie Louise should marry the widowed sovereign and in cruel, but purposeful ways made sure that she was the only candidate.
Under the pressure of the French government and other Western nations Marie Louise Gonzaga married Władysław by proxy on 5 November 1645. The proper wedding of Marie Louise and Władysław IV took place in Warsaw on 10 March 1646, she was forced by the Polish parliament and the zealous nobility to change her name from Marie Louise to Ludwika Maria in order for the marriage to take place, as in Poland the first name Maria was at that time considered reserved only for Mary, mother of Jesus. Two years on 20 May 1648, Marie Louise was widowed by the sudden death of Władysław IV. John Casimir was elected the next King of Poland by the parliament, married her on 30 May 1649. During an 18-year marriage with John Casimir, she gave birth to two children, Maria Anna Teresa and John Sigismund, who died in infancy, she suffered several miscarriages. From the moment she became queen once more, Marie Louise focused on influencing the political views of her new husband. Marie Louise believed that she was more able to control John Casimir rather than his deceased brother Władysław, described as stubborn, self-centered and overwhelmingly supportive of the nobility, which Marie Louise opposed and sought to decrease the power of the nobles in the parliament.
Intelligent and with a strong personality, at many times she not only supported John Casimir, but guided him throughout entire political and several military campaigns. This was noticed by a Brandenburgian diplomat named Hoverberk who stated in his diaries that "by incessant insistence, molestation and other tricks she controlled the poor king and therefore the entire ill-fated country itself." In contrast to her husband, Marie Louise was not sympathetic towards the servants and lower classes, but sought to achieve the set goals and was determined to strengthen the Polish nation in case of war with the powerful and dangerous eastern empires - the Turkish Empire, Swedish Empire and Russian Empire. Marie Louise was an active and energetic woman, with ambitious economic and political plans for the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth; the Polish nobility were scandalized at the queen's political meddling, believing that no foreign woman should interfere. She played an instrumental role leading the Polish in repulsing the Swedish during the Swedish invasion of Poland known as the "Deluge".
She wished to grant the king more power. However, she was unable to do so as such actions would result in a rebellion of the higher and wealthy classes that could devastate the economy of the Commonwealth, she had no qualms. Marie Louise opposed Poland's policy of religious toleration, she believed" and wanted them burnt at the stake. Marie Louise made use of bribery and false promises to the aristocracy, she brought many noble ladies to the Polish court from France that would be obliged to marry voivodes and wealthy landowners, serve as a defensive shield if the higher classes decide to rebel against the government, one of the most well known examples being her favorite Klara Izabella Pacowa. Marie Louise strongly followed French cultural patterns and introduced new French customs to the Commonwealth, she was known to always wear French clothing and collect small memorabilia like coins and perfume bottles - this was a common practice during the reign of Louis XIII and subsequently Louis XIV. All the features of the Marie Louise, the persi