Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Bukkake is a sex act in which one participant is ejaculated on by two or more other participants. It is portrayed in pornographic films. Bukkake videos are a prevalent niche in contemporary pornographic films. Originating in Japan in the 1980s, the genre subsequently spread to North America and Europe, crossed over into gay pornography. Bukkake is the noun form of the Japanese verb bukkakeru, means "to dash", "splash", or "heavy splash"; the compound verb can be decomposed into a verb: butsu and kakeru. Butsu is a prefix derived from the verb "buchi", which means to hit, but the usage of the prefix is a verb-intensifier. Kakeru in this context means to pour; the word bukkake is used in Japanese to describe pouring out a liquid with sufficient momentum to cause splashing or spilling. Indeed, bukkake is used in Japan to describe a type of dish where hot broth is poured over noodles, as in bukkake udon and bukkake soba. Bukkake was first represented in pornographic films in the mid to late 1980s in Japan.
According to one commentator, a significant factor in the development of bukkake as a pornographic form was the mandatory censorship in Japan where genitals must be pixelated by a "mosaic". One consequence of this is that Japanese pornography tends to focus more on the face and body of actresses rather than on their genitals. Since film producers could not show penetration, they sought other ways to depict sex acts without violating Japanese law and since semen did not need to be censored, a loophole existed for harder sex scenes. However, popularization of the act and the term for it has been credited to director Kazuhiko Matsumoto in 1998; the Japanese adult video studio Shuttle Japan registered the term "ぶっかけ/ＢＵＫＫＡＫＥ" as a trademark in January 2001. The practice spread from Japan to the United States and Europe in the late 1990s; the appearance of bukkake videos was part of a trend towards "harder" pornography in the 1990s, preceded by a fashion for double penetration videos in the mid-1990s, occurring in parallel to the appearance of gang bang videos towards the end of that decade.
There was an economic advantage for Western pornographers to produce bukkake films since they only require one actress, amateur male performers whose pay-rates are low. However, Western-style bukkake videos differ in some aspects from those in Japan. Another Japanese variant of bukkake is gokkun, in which several men ejaculate into a container for the receiver to drink. Bukkake is less popular than some other porn niches in the West because the implicit subordination of the woman does not appeal to many consumers, because cum shots are the climax of a scene, rather than the main events; the genre has spread to gay pornography, featuring scenes in which several men ejaculate on another man. "Lesbian bukkake" videos are produced. The 17th World Congress of Sexology in Montreal in July 2005 included a presentation on bukkake. American editor and publisher Russ Kick, quoting a sexologist, states that men enjoy a "sense of closure and finality about sex", something that watching other men ejaculate provides.
The viewer identifies with the ejaculating men, experiencing a sense of vicarious pleasure. According to English–American anti-pornography campaigner Gail Dines, the ejaculate on the female performer's body "also marks the woman as used goods", conveying a sense of ownership. I believe that we serve a purpose by showing that; the most violent we can get is the cum shot in the face. Men get off behind that because they get with the women they can't have." A number of authors have described bukkake as premised on humiliation. Forensic psychologist Karen Franklin has described bukkake as symbolic group rape, characterising its primary purpose as the humiliation and objectification of women. Lisa Jean Moore and Juliana Weissbein view the use of ejaculation in bukkake as part of a humiliation ritual, noting that it does not involve any of the female participants experiencing orgasm. Feminist anti-pornography activist Gail Dines describes the money shot of a man ejaculating on the face or body of a woman, taken to a new extreme in bukkake through the involvement of multiple men, as "one of the most degrading acts in porn".
Tristan Taormino, feminist author and sex educator, has likened bukkake to a "gay circle jerk", noting the inconsistency between its billing as a heterosexual practice and the fact that it features a group of naked men standing in close proximity to each other, masturbating together. Phillip Vannini, associate professor in the School of Communication and Culture at Royal Roads University, quotes "self-proclaimed net sex commentator" George Kranz, who views recent American interpretations of bukkake as a "significant advance in human behaviour", emphasising the lively party-like atmosphere of American bukkake videos compared to the more subdued Japanese style. BDSM Cum shot Gokkun Facial Gang bang pornography Group sex Pornography in Japan
Gokkun is a Japanese term for sexual activity in which a person consumes the semen of one or more people from some kind of container. Used containers include cups, large beakers, baking pans, wine or cocktail glasses. Most of these scenarios involve the semen of multiple men. "Gokkun" can refer to the sexual act of swallowing semen after performing fellatio or participating in a bukkake. The word "gokkun" is onomatopoetic, translates as the English word "gulp", the sound made by swallowing
A film director is a person who directs the making of a film. A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfilment of that vision; the director has a key role in choosing the cast members, production design, the creative aspects of filmmaking. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film; the film director gives direction to the cast and crew and creates an overall vision through which a film becomes realized, or noticed. Directors need to be able to mediate differences in creative visions and stay within the boundaries of the film's budget. There are many pathways to becoming a film director; some film directors started as screenwriters, producers, film editors or actors. Other film directors have attended a film school. Directors use different approaches; some outline a general plotline and let the actors improvise dialogue, while others control every aspect, demand that the actors and crew follow instructions precisely.
Some directors write their own screenplays or collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners. Some directors appear in their films, or compose the music score for their films. A film director's task is to envisage a way to translate a screenplay into a formed film, to realize this vision. To do this, they oversee the technical elements of film production; this entails organizing the film crew in such a way to achieve their vision of the film. This requires skills of group leadership, as well as the ability to maintain a singular focus in the stressful, fast-paced environment of a film set. Moreover, it is necessary to have an artistic eye to frame shots and to give precise feedback to cast and crew, excellent communication skills are a must. Since the film director depends on the successful cooperation of many different creative individuals with strongly contradicting artistic ideals and visions, he or she needs to possess conflict resolution skills in order to mediate whenever necessary.
Thus the director ensures that all individuals involved in the film production are working towards an identical vision for the completed film. The set of varying challenges he or she has to tackle has been described as "a multi-dimensional jigsaw puzzle with egos and weather thrown in for good measure", it adds to the pressure that the success of a film can influence when and how they will work again, if at all. The sole superiors of the director are the producer and the studio, financing the film, although sometimes the director can be a producer of the same film; the role of a director differs from producers in that producers manage the logistics and business operations of the production, whereas the director is tasked with making creative decisions. The director must work within the restrictions of the film's budget and the demands of the producer and studio. Directors play an important role in post-production. While the film is still in production, the director sends "dailies" to the film editor and explains his or her overall vision for the film, allowing the editor to assemble an editor's cut.
In post-production, the director works with the editor to edit the material into the director's cut. Well-established directors have the "final cut privilege", meaning that they have the final say on which edit of the film is released. For other directors, the studio can order further edits without the director's permission; the director is one of the few positions that requires intimate involvement during every stage of film production. Thus, the position of film director is considered to be a stressful and demanding one, it has been said that "20-hour days are not unusual". Some directors take on additional roles, such as producing, writing or editing. Under European Union law, the film director is considered the "author" or one of the authors of a film as a result of the influence of auteur theory. Auteur theory is a film criticism concept that holds that a film director's film reflects the director's personal creative vision, as if they were the primary "auteur". In spite of—and sometimes because of—the production of the film as part of an industrial process, the auteur's creative voice is distinct enough to shine through studio interference and the collective process.
Some film directors started as screenwriters, film producers or actors. Several American cinematographers have become directors, including Barry Sonnenfeld the Coen brothers' DP. Other film directors have attended a film school to get a bachelors degree studying cinema. Film students study the basic skills used in making a film; this includes, for example, shot lists and storyboards, protocols of dealing with professional actors, reading scripts. Some film schools are equipped with post-production facilities. Besides basic technical and logistical skills, students receive education on the nature of professional relationships that occur during film production. A full degree course can be designed for up to five years of studying. Future directors complete short films during their enrollment; the National Film School of Denmark has the student's final projects presented on national TV. Some film schools retain the rights for their students' works. Many directors prepared for making feature films by working in television.
The German Film and Television Academy Berlin cooperate
Weekly Playboy known as Shūpure or WPB, is a Japanese weekly magazine published by Shueisha since 1966. Although the magazine publishes a variety of news and special interest articles, celebrity interviews, manga, it is considered an adult magazine; the target demographic is heterosexual men, each issue features several nude pictorials of female models. This magazine is not a regional edition of the American Playboy magazine. Geinokai: AKB48Writers: Gravure idols: AV idols: Pink film actresses Naomi Tani Circuit no Ōkami II: Modena no Tsurugi by Satoshi Ikezawa Lady Snowblood by Kazuo Koike and Kazuo Kamimura Modena no Ken by Satoshi Ikezawa My Favorite Carrera by Kia Asamiya Ore no Sora by Hiroshi Motomiya Polo Shirt and Upper Cut by Norifusa Mita The First President of Japan by Yoshiki Hidaka and Ryuji Tsugihara Taiyō no Makibaō by Tsunomaru Ultimate Muscle by Yudetamago Weekly Playboy Online WPB-net "雑誌". Tisen.jp. Retrieved 26 September 2011. (Lists appearances in Weekly Playboy from 1966-2011
An AV idol known as adult video idol or AV actress, is a Japanese idol who works in the pornographic business both as an actress as well as a model as the video performances vary from suggestive softcore imagery to hardcore pornography. The industry is noted for having frequent turnovers. Few notable AV idols have careers spanning longer than a decade, have a wide general public recognition, or make a significant impact on the industry in some other manner; the line between "adult" and "family" entertainment in Japan is not as clear-cut as it is in some other countries. A celebrity may appear in AVs after having established a career in mainstream television, it is not rare for a popular AV actress to go on to mainstream celebrity. The AV, or "Adult Video" market is a major industry in Japan worth about ¥400 billion per year. In 1992, it was reported that over 11 AVs were being made every day by over 70 production companies in Tokyo alone; the AV market was estimated to make up about 30 percent of Japan's video rentals.
It was estimated in 1994 that, between legal and illegal videos, around 14,000 AVs a year were being made in the country, in contrast to about 2,500 in the United States. In an English language interview in 2011, AV idol Azusa Maki estimated that as many as 10,000 girls attempt to get into the Japanese AV industry each year. AV performers were struggling actresses who could not find work in the theatrical Roman Porno films and girls from the soaplands. AV star Kaoru Kuroki has been credited with raising the status of AV idols in the public's eye. According to cultural essayist Rosemary Iwamura, "she didn't seem to be making videos because of a lack of options but rather as an informed choice." AV actresses are recruited by scouts in Tokyo neighborhoods such as Roppongi and Matahine. These scouts are affiliated with talent agencies who hire the actresses to the AV production companies; some women wishing to appear in AVs apply to the production companies, but they are referred to the talent agencies.
The production companies are charged ¥1.5 million or more for an actress to appear in a video. AV actresses make between ¥ 4 million yen per video. Steve Scott, president of Third World Media, an importer of Japanese adult movies to the United States, estimated a top-tier AV star could make up to nearly ¥36 million for an eight-picture deal. AV fans are invited to follow the progress of a prominent AV actress' career over several video appearances. In her AV debut video, the actress is introduced as a "new face," and her inexperience is played up in interviews preceding the modeling and sex scenes. Following this debut video, the AV audience follows the actress' journey through sexual awakening, her eventual specialization, after about five AV appearances, in a specific genre such as lesbianism or SM. Once the actress has established herself as a mature AV star, she has the options of continuing into some of the more outrageous AV genres, retiring, or, sometimes, re-emerging under a new name as a "new face."
Bornoff identifies some Japanese AV stereotypes as "the prim Office Lady, the virgin-next-door, the randy farm girl, the leotarded aerobics enthusiast, the sexy predator in the hot-spring resort and, last but not least, the self-assertive slut, put in her place by being gang-banged on the floor of the cutting room." Noted AV director "Tarzan" Yagi says that a successful AV actress should fit into an identifiable type which "can be identified at a glance, making it easier for viewers to recognize the type they prefer." Yagi mentions "the'slender' type,'Lolita' type,'buxom' type and so on."Some major AV types include: While a few early AV idols such as Kyoko Nakamura and Eri Kikuchi made their careers off their large busts, Noriyuki Adachi singles Kimiko Matsuzaka's 1989 debut as the point at which the "Big Bust Boom" was set on fire. In the years following Matsuzaka's debut, the AV world was never without another major big-bust AV idol, including Hitomi Tanaka, Miki Sawaguchi, Mariko Morikawa, Rin Aoki, Anna Ohura.
By the mid-1990s, the Big Bust genre had become a staple of the AV industry. The vast majority of AV actresses make their debuts in their late teens. However, in the mid-1990s, a trend for "mature women" models in AVs became evident. While youthful debuts would still remain the norm, this broadening in tastes would pave the way for the debuts of future "mature" AV stars like Aki Tomosaki in 2000, Asuka Yūki in 2005 and Maki Tomoda in 2006, all of whom had passed their 30th birthdays at the time of their debuts; these older actresses became popular in AVs with an incest theme. Of the hundreds of women who make AV debuts in Japan yearly, this is a partial list of AV idols who are notable for reasons such as a making a major impact on the industry, for their high public visibility, or for their extraordinarily long careers. Chronology of adult videos in Japan Pornography in Japan Junior idol Adachi, Noriyuki. アダルトな人びと - Adaruto na Hitobito. Tokyo: Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-205546-5. Bornoff, Nicholas. "18".
Pink Samurai: An Erotic Exploration of Japanese Society. London: HarperCollins. Pp. 589–621. ISBN 0-586-20576-4. B-v.co.jp AV Idol Interviews AVアイドル Fornander, Kjell. "A Star is Porn". Tokyo Journal. Archived from the original on 2006-05-16. Retrieved 2007-02-18
Orgasm is the sudden discharge of accumulated sexual excitement during the sexual response cycle, resulting in rhythmic muscular contractions in the pelvic region characterized by sexual pleasure. Experienced by males and females, orgasms are controlled by the involuntary or autonomic nervous system, they are associated with other involuntary actions, including muscular spasms in multiple areas of the body, a general euphoric sensation and body movements and vocalizations. The period after orgasm is a relaxing experience, attributed to the release of the neurohormones oxytocin and prolactin as well as endorphins. Human orgasms result from physical sexual stimulation of the penis in males and of the clitoris in females. Sexual stimulation can be with a sex partner; the health effects surrounding the human orgasm are diverse. There are many physiological responses during sexual activity, including a relaxed state created by prolactin, as well as changes in the central nervous system such as a temporary decrease in the metabolic activity of large parts of the cerebral cortex while there is no change or increased metabolic activity in the limbic areas of the brain.
There is a wide range of sexual dysfunctions, such as anorgasmia. These effects impact cultural views of orgasm, such as the beliefs that orgasm and the frequency/consistency of it are either important or irrelevant for satisfaction in a sexual relationship, theories about the biological and evolutionary functions of orgasm. In a clinical context, orgasm is defined by the muscular contractions involved during sexual activity, along with the characteristic patterns of change in heart rate, blood pressure, respiration rate and depth; this is categorized as the sudden discharge of accumulated sexual tension during the sexual response cycle, resulting in rhythmic muscular contractions in the pelvic region. However, definitions of orgasm vary and there is sentiment that consensus on how to classify it is absent. At least twenty-six definitions of orgasm were listed in the journal Clinical Psychology Review. There is some debate whether certain types of sexual sensations should be classified as orgasms, including female orgasms caused by G-spot stimulation alone, the demonstration of extended or continuous orgasms lasting several minutes or an hour.
The question centers around the clinical definition of orgasm, but this way of viewing orgasm is physiological, while there are psychological and neurological definitions of orgasm. In these and similar cases, the sensations experienced are subjective and do not involve the involuntary contractions characteristic of orgasm. However, the sensations in both sexes are pleasurable and are felt throughout the body, causing a mental state, described as transcendental, with vasocongestion and associated pleasure comparable to that of a full-contractionary orgasm. For example, modern findings support distinction between male orgasm. For this reason, there are views on both sides as to whether these can be defined as orgasms. Orgasms can be achieved by a variety of activities, including vaginal, anal or oral sex, non-penetrative sex or masturbation. Orgasm may be achieved by the use of a sex toy, such as a sensual vibrator or an erotic electrostimulation, it can additionally be achieved by stimulation of the nipples or other erogenous zones, though this is rarer.
In addition to physical stimulation, orgasm can be achieved from psychological arousal alone, such as during dreaming or by forced orgasm. Orgasm by psychological stimulation alone was first reported among people who had spinal cord injury. Although sexual function and sexuality after spinal cord injury is often impacted, this injury does not deprive one of sexual feelings such as sexual arousal and erotic desires. A person may experience multiple orgasms, they may experience an involuntary orgasm, such as in the case of rape or other sexual assault. Scientific literature focuses on the psychology of female orgasm more than it does on the psychology of male orgasm, which "appears to reflect the assumption that female orgasm is psychologically more complex than male orgasm," but "the limited empirical evidence available suggests that male and female orgasm may bear more similarities than differences. In one controlled study by Vance and Wagner, independent raters could not differentiate written descriptions of male versus female orgasm experiences".
In men, the most common way of achieving orgasm is by physical sexual stimulation of the penis. This is accompanied by ejaculation, but it is possible, though rare, for men to orgasm without ejaculation or to ejaculate without reaching orgasm. Men may achieve orgasm by stimulation of the prostate; the traditional view of male orgasm is that there are two stages: emission following orgasm instantly followed by a refractory period. In 1966, Masters and Johnson published pivotal research about the phases of sexual stimulation, their work included women and men, unlike Alfred Kinsey in 1948 and 1953, tried to determine the physiological stages before and after orgasm. Masters and Johnson argued that, in the first stage, "accessory organs contract and the male can feel the