Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Toyo Ito is a Japanese architect known for creating conceptual architecture, in which he seeks to express the physical and virtual worlds. He is a leading exponent of architecture that addresses the contemporary notion of a "simulated" city, has been called "one of the world's most innovative and influential architects."In 2013, Ito was awarded the Pritzker Prize, one of architecture's most prestigious prizes. He was a front-runner for the Pritzker Prize for the previous 10 years. A recent trend has seen less experienced and well-known winners, for example Chinese architect Wang Shu in 2012, the award to Toyo Ito is seen as recognition of a lifetime's achievement in architecture. Ito was born in Seoul, Korea to Japanese parents on 1 June 1941. In 1943, he moved to Japan with his mother and two sisters living until middle school age in rural Shimosuwa, Nagano Prefecture. Ito attended Hibiya High School in central Tokyo and graduated from the University of Tokyo's department of architecture in 1965.
After working for Kiyonori Kikutake Architect and Associates from 1965 to 1969, in 1971 he started his own studio in Tokyo, named Urbot. In 1979, the studio name was changed to Toyo Associates. Throughout his early career Ito constructed numerous private house projects that expressed aspects of urban life in Japan, his most remarkable early conceptual contributions were made through projects of this scale, such as White U and Silver Hut. With the Pao for the Tokyo Nomad Girl projects in 1985 and 1989, Ito presented a vision of the life of an urban nomad, illustrative of typical lifestyles during the bubble economy period in Japan. Tower of Winds and Egg of Winds are interactive landmarks in public spaces, resulting from a creative interpretation of contemporary technical possibilities. Whilst their function is in fact exhaust air outlets for the underground system below, their significance lies in Ito's treatment of their opacity, one of the hallmarks of his work. Whilst appearing solid during the day, the perforated aluminium structures "dissolve" at night through the use of computer-controlled light systems which form an interactive display representing measured data such as noise levels in their surrounding vicinity.
Toyo Ito's office is known as a training ground for talented younger architects. Architects who worked for his office include Kazuyo Sejima and Ryue Nishizawa, Astrid Klein and Mark Dytham, Katsuya Fukushima, Makoto Yokomizo, Akihisa Hirata. Ito's work is said to have affinities with the ideas of philosophers such as Munesuke Mita and Gilles Deleuze. Ito has defined architecture as "clothing" for urban dwellers in the contemporary Japanese metropolis; this theme revolves around the equilibrium between the private life and the metropolitan, "public" life of an individual. The current architecture of Toyo Ito expands on his work produced during the postmodern period, aggressively exploring the potentials of new forms. In doing so, he seeks to find new spatial conditions that manifest the philosophy of borderless beings. Ito's work has been exhibited widely. In 1991, Ito used 130 video projectors to simulate the urban environment of Tokyo for the Visions of Japan exhibition at The Victoria and Albert Museum in London.
In 2000, his Vision and Reality at the Louisiana Museum of Modern Art became a traveling exhibition. Ito exploited the effect of video projection as a medium with which to exhibit architecture in his Blurring Architecture exhibition, initiated at the Suermondt-Ludwig-Museum in Aachen and traveling to four other cities. Ito designed the Berlin-Tokyo/Tokyo-Berlin Exhibition at the Neue Berlin; the design featured a smooth, undulating landscape that occupied the entirety of the museum's main exhibition space. This exhibition, in collaboration with the Mori Art Museum, was one of the largest undertakings in the museum's history. A major retrospective of Ito's work was shown at the Tokyo Opera City Art Gallery in 2006 as Toyo Ito: The New "Real" in Architecture. Source: 1976 – White U House 1984 – Silver Hut 1986 – Tower of Winds, West Exit, Yokohama Station, Nishi-ku, Yokohama 1991 – Yatsushiro Municipal Museum 1994 – Old People's Home in Yatsushiro 2001 – Sendai Mediatheque: a multi-function complex accommodating a mixed programme of library, art gallery, audio-visual library, film studio and café.
It was a competition winning scheme chosen in 1995 from amongst 235 competing proposals. Recognised as one of Ito's seminal works. 2002 – Temporary Serpentine Gallery Pavilion, in Kensington Gardens, London 2002 – Bruges pavilion 2004 – Matsumoto Performing Art Center, Matsumoto 2004 – Tod's Omotesandō Building, Tokyo 2006 – First Prize "Taichung Opera International Competition" in Taiwan 2006 – VivoCity Singapore at HarbourFront 2007 – Library of Tama Art University, Tokyo 2008 – World Games Stadium in Kaohsiung, Taiwan 2008 – Villa for Chilean architectural project Ochoalcubo. 2008 – Huge Wine Glass in Pescara 2009 – Suites Avenue Building, Spain 2009 – Torre Realia BCN and Hotel Porta Fira, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain 2009 – Za-Koenji Public Theater, Kōenji, Tokyo 2011 – Toyo Ito Museum of Architecture, Ehime, Japan 2011 – Ken Iwata Mother and Child Museum, Ehime, Japan 2014 – Koo Chen-Fu Memorial Library, College of Social Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taiwan 2014 – National Taichung Theater, Taiwan 2015 – Meiso no Mori Municipal Funeral Hall Kakamigahara-shi, Japan 2016 – International Museum of
Tokyo Institute of Technology
Tokyo Institute of Technology is a national research university located in Greater Tokyo Area, Japan. Tokyo Tech is the largest institution for higher education in Japan dedicated to science and technology, is considered to be one of the most prestigious universities in Japan. Tokyo Tech's main campus is located at Ōokayama on the boundary of Meguro and Ota, with its main entrance facing the Ōokayama Station. Other campuses are located in Tamachi. Tokyo Tech is organised into 6 schools, within which there are over 40 departments and research centres. Tokyo Tech enrolled 4,734 undergraduates and 1,464 graduate students for 2015–2016, it employs around 1,100 faculty members. Tokyo Institute of Technology was founded by the government of Japan as the Tokyo Vocational School on May 26, 1881, 14 years after the Meiji Restoration. To accomplish the quick catch-up to the West, the government expected this school to cultivate new modernized craftsmen and engineers. In 1890, it was renamed Tokyo Technical School.
In 1901, it changed name to Tokyo Higher Technical School. In early days, the school was located in Kuramae, the eastern area of the Greater Tokyo Area, where many craftsmens' workshops had been since the old Shōgun's era; the buildings in Kuramae campus were destroyed by the Great Kantō earthquake in 1923. In the following year, the Tokyo Higher Technical School moved from Kuramae to the present site in Ookayama, a south suburb of the Greater Tokyo Area. In 1929 the school became Tokyo Institute of Technology, gaining a status of national university, which allowed the university to award degrees; the university had the Research Laboratory of Building Materials in 1934, its five years the Research Laboratory of Resources Utilisation and the Research Laboratory of Precision Machinery were constructed. The Research Laboratory of Ceramic Industry was made in 1943, one year before the World War Two finished the Research Laboratory of Fuel Science and the Research Laboratory of Electronics were made.
After World War II, the new education system was promulgated in 1949 with the National School Establishment Law, Tokyo Institute of Technology was reorganized. Many three-year courses were turned into four-year courses with the start of the School of Engineering this year; the university started graduate programmes in engineering in 1953. In the following year, the five research laboratories were integrated and reorganised into four new labs: the Research Laboratory of Building Materials, the Research Laboratory of Resources Utilization, the Precision and Intelligence Laboratory and the Research Laboratory of Ceramic Industry, the School of Engineering was renamed the School of Science and Engineering. Throughout the post-war reconstruction of the 1950s, the high economic growth era of the 1960s, the aggressive economic era marching to the Bubble Economy of the 1980s, TIT kept providing Japan its leading engineers and business persons. Since April 2004, it has been semi-privatized into the National University Incorporation of Tokyo Institute of Technology under a new law which applied to all national universities.
Operating the world-class supercomputer Tsubame 2.0, making a breakthrough in high-temperature superconductivity, Tokyo Tech is a major centre for supercomputing technology and condensed matter research in the world. In 2011, it celebrated the 130th anniversary of its founding. In 2014, it joined the edX consortium and formed the Online Education Development Office to create MOOCS, which are hosted on the edX website. In its 130 years, Tokyo Tech has provided scientific researchers and engineers and many social leaders, including Naoto Kan, a former prime minister. Tokyo Tech has three campuses, the Ōokayama campus in Ōokayama Meguro as the main campus, Tamachi campus in Shibaura and the Suzukakedai campus, located in Nagatsuta, Midori-ku in Yokohama. Ōokayama Station campus Tamachi campus Suzukakedai campus The university is undergoing an educational reform and schools and departments are being reorganized. School of Science School of Engineering School of Bioscience and Biotechnology Graduate School of Science and Engineering Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering Graduate School of Information Science and Engineering Graduate School of Decision Science and Technology Graduate School of Innovation Management Chemical Resources Laboratory Precision and Intelligence Laboratory Materials and Structures Laboratory Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors Quantum Nano Electronics Research Centre Earth-Life Science Institute Centre for Research in Advanced Financial Technology Precision and Intelligence Laboratory Solutions Research Laboratory Integrated Research Institute Global Edge Institute Productive Leader Incubation Platform Academy for Global Leadership Centre for Research and Development of Educational Technology Research Centre for Educational Facilities Creative Research Laboratory Research Centre for the Science of Institutional Management of Technology Collaboration Centre for Design and Manufacturing Centre for Agent-Based Social Systems Sciences Foreign Language Research and Teaching Centre Centre for the Study of World Civilisations Asia-Africa Biology Research Centre Centre for CompView Research and Education Career Advancement Professional School Organization for Life Design and Engineering Centre for Liberal Arts Materials and Structure Laboratory Frontier Research Centre Imaging Science and Engineering Laboratory Global Scientific
The Venice Biennale refers to an arts organization based in Venice and the name of the original and principal biennial exhibition the organization presents. The organization changed its name to the Biennale Foundation in 2009, while the exhibition is now called the Art Biennale to distinguish it from the organisation and other exhibitions the Foundation organizes; the Art Biennale, a contemporary visual art exhibition and so called because it is held biennially, is the original biennale on which others in the world have been modeled. The Biennale Foundation has a continuous existence supporting the arts as well as organizing the following separate events: On April 19, 1893 the Venetian City Council passed a resolution to set up an biennial exhibition of Italian Art to celebrate the silver anniversary of King Umberto I and Margherita of Savoy. A year the council decreed "to adopt a'by invitation' system; the first exhibition was seen by 224,000 visitors. The event became international in the first decades of the 20th century: from 1907 on, several countries installed national pavilions at the exhibition, with the first being from Belgium.
In 1910 the first internationally well-known artists were displayed- a room dedicated to Gustav Klimt, a one-man show for Renoir, a retrospective of Courbet. A work by Picasso was removed from the Spanish salon in the central Palazzo because it was feared that its novelty might shock the public. By 1914 seven pavilions had been established: Belgium, Germany, Great Britain and Russia. During World War I, the 1916 and 1918 events were cancelled. In 1920 the post of mayor of Venice and president of the Biennale was split; the new secretary general, Vittorio Pica brought about the first presence of avant-garde art, notably Impressionists and Post-Impressionists. 1922 saw an exhibition of sculpture by African artists. Between the two World Wars, many important modern artists had their work exhibited there. In 1928 the Istituto Storico d'Arte Contemporanea opened, the first nucleus of archival collections of the Biennale. In 1930 its name was changed into Historical Archive of Contemporary Art. In 1930, the Biennale was transformed into an Ente Autonomo by Royal Decree with law no. 33 of 13-1-1930.
Subsequently, the control of the Biennale passed from the Venice city council to the national Fascist government under Benito Mussolini. This brought on a restructuring, an associated financial boost, as well as a new president, Count Giuseppe Volpi di Misurata. Three new events were established, including the Biennale Musica in 1930 referred to as International Festival of Contemporary Music. In 1933 the Biennale organised an exhibition of Italian art abroad. From 1938, Grand Prizes were awarded in the art exhibition section. During World War II, the activities of the Biennale were interrupted: 1942 saw the last edition of the events; the Film Festival restarted in 1946, the Music and Theatre festivals were resumed in 1947, the Art Exhibition in 1948. The Art Biennale was resumed in 1948 with a major exhibition of a recapitulatory nature; the Secretary General, art historian Rodolfo Pallucchini, started with the Impressionists and many protagonists of contemporary art including Chagall, Braque, Delvaux and Magritte, as well as a retrospective of Picasso's work.
Peggy Guggenheim was invited to exhibit her collection to be permanently housed at Ca' Venier dei Leoni. 1949 saw the beginning of renewed attention to avant-garde movements in European—and worldwide—movements in contemporary art. Abstract expressionism was introduced in the 1950s, the Biennale is credited with importing Pop Art into the canon of art history by awarding the top prize to Robert Rauschenberg in 1964. From 1948 to 1972, Italian architect Carlo Scarpa did a series of remarkable interventions in the Biennales exhibition spaces. In 1954 the island San Giorgio Maggiore provided the venue for the first Japanese Noh theatre shows in Europe. 1956 saw the selection of films following an artistic selection and no longer based upon the designation of the participating country. The 1957 Golden Lion went to Satyajit Ray's Aparajito. 1962 included Arte Informale at the Art Exhibition with Jean Fautrier, Hans Hartung, Emilio Vedova, Pietro Consagra. The 1964 Art Exhibition introduced continental Europe to Pop Art.
The American Robert Rauschenberg was the first American artist to win the Gran Premio, the youngest to date. The student protests of 1968 marked a crisis for the Biennale. Student protests hindered the opening of the Biennale. A resulting period of institutional changes opened and ending with a new Statute in 1973. In 1969, following the protests, the Grand Prizes were abandoned; these resumed in 1980 in 1986 for the Art Exhibition. In 1972
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website