Ermoupoli known by the formal older name Ermoupolis or Hermoupolis, is a town and former municipality on the island of Syros, in the Cyclades, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform, it is part of the municipality Syros-Ermoupoli, of which it is the seat and a municipal unit, it is the capital of the South Aegean region. The municipal unit has an area of 11.181 km2. Ermoupoli was founded during the Greek Revolution in the 1820s, as an extension to the existing Ano Syros township, by refugees from other Greek islands because of the War, it soon became the leading industrial center of Greece, as well as its main port. The renowned Greek Steamship Company was founded in the city in 1856. Thousands of ships were built in the various Syros shipyards. Ermoupoli was eclipsed by Piraeus in the late 19th century. In the following decades the city declined, its economy has improved, based on the service industry. Emmanouil Benakis and politician Olga Broumas and translator Manos Eleutheriou, lyricist Stelios Mainas, actor Michael Melas, father of Pavlos Melas, fighter of the Greek Struggle for Macedonia Emmanuel Rhoides and journalist Georgios Souris, poet Markos Vamvakaris, rebetiko musician Demetrius Vikelas, businessman and the first president of the International Olympic Committee Official website of Ermoupoli University of the Aegean in Ermoupoli
Kalymnos, is a Greek island and municipality in the southeastern Aegean Sea. It belongs to the Dodecanese and is located to the west of the peninsula of Bodrum, between the islands of Kos and Leros: the latter is linked to it through a series of islets. Kalymnos lies between five hours away by sea from Rhodes. In 2011 the island had a population of 16,001, making it the third most populous island of the Dodecanese, after Kos and Rhodes, it is known in Greece for the affluence of much of its population, stands as both the wealthiest member of the Dodecanese and one of the wealthiest Greek islands overall. The Municipality of Kalymnos, which includes the populated offshore islands of Pserimos, Kalolimnos, Pláti, as well as several uninhabited islets, has a combined land area of 134.544 square kilometres and a total population of 16,179 inhabitants. The island is known as Kelemez in Turkish; the island is rectangular in shape, with a length of 21 km and a width of 13 km, covers an area of 109 square kilometres.
Moreover, on the north side there is a peninsula. Kalymnos is mountainous with complicated topography. There are three main chains going from W-NW to E-SE, a fourth which extends NW the length of the peninsula; the coastline is irregular, with many sheltered coves. There are one among them being thermal; the soil is limestone-based, but in the valleys there is a compact bank of volcanic tuff, the relic of an ancient volcano, located in Vigles, between the villages of Myrties and Kantouni. The island is barren, except for the two fertile valleys of Vathys and Pothia, where olives and vines are grown. There is an ostrich farm in Argos, near the airport. Earthquakes are a frequent occurrence around Kalymnos, a fact, connected with the volcanoes in surrounding islands; the last earthquake occurred was the 2017 Aegean Sea earthquake with a magnitude of 6.7Mw, which injured two people in Kalymnos. Kalymnos is neighbored by the small island of Telendos, once part of Kalymnos, but split off after a major earthquake in 554 AD and is now separated from Kalymnos by a channel of water.
Between Kalymnos and Kos lies the islet of Pserimos, inhabited and, with an area of 11 square kilometres, is one of the largest of the lesser islands of the Dodecanese. Near Pserimos lies the islet of Platí, about 5 km to the NE lies the small islet of Kalolimnos. Inhabited by Carians, in Antiquity Kalymnos depended on Kos, followed its history; the island's Hellenistic Temple of Apollo was excavated by the British archaeologist Charles Newton in the nineteenth century. In the Middle Ages it was under the influence of the Byzantine Empire, during the 13th century it was used by the Venetian Republic as a naval base. In 1310 it came under the control of the Knights of Rhodes, was attacked by the Ottomans, who conquered it in 1522. Unlike Rhodes and Kos, during the Ottoman period there was no Turkish immigration to Kalymnos. On May 12, 1912, during the Italo-Turkish War, Kalymnos was occupied by Italian sailors of the Regia Marina. Italy took control of the island along with other islands of the Dodecanese until 1947, when the Dodecanese were united with mainland Greece, as part of the modern Greek state.
The majority of Kalymnians are Orthodox Christians. The island belongs to that small part of Greece that does not depend on the Church of Greece, but rather on the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople based in Istanbul, Turkey. Kalymnos belongs to the Metropolis of Leros and Astypalaia. Kalymnos is known and billed as the "Sponge-divers' island". Sponge diving has long been a common occupation on Kalymnos and sponges were the main source of income of Kalymnians, bringing wealth to the island and making it famous throughout the Mediterranean; the Kalymnians harvested sponges from the sea-bed as far as North Africa. Early diving was done without equipment. Sponges are still fished individually, by hand; the Greek sponge trade was centered close in the Dodecanese, featuring Kalymnos until mid-80s, when a disease hit the eastern Mediterranean destroying a great number of sponges and damaging the sponge-fishing industry as a result. Today, Kalymnos faces a lack of sponges due to the outbreak of a disease which has decimated sponge crops.
An annual celebration, Sponge Week, occurs a week after Easter to honour this "Kalymnian gold.” Much has been written and filmed about the legendary courage and recklessness of the sponge divers themselves. Kalymnos offers rock bouldering during the whole year. Being barren, agriculture has always played a minor role in the economy of the island, except for the valley of Vathi; the island is famous for its citrus fruits grown in this area. Another industrial activity typical of Kalymnos was the production of painted head scarfs, which were the most original component of the female dress. In recent times, tourism has become important for the island for rock climbing. In 2006, the island acquired an airport, the Kalymnos Island National Airport in Argos, a village between Pothia and Brosta, to better link the island with the mainland. Since th
Makronisos, or Makronisi, is an island in the Aegean sea, in Greece, notorious as the site of a political prison from the 1940s to the 1970s. It is located facing the port of Lavrio; the island has an elongated shape, 13 km north to south, around 500 m east to west, its terrain is arid and rocky. It is the largest uninhabited Greek island, it is part in the municipality of Kea. In ancient times the island was called Helena, was situated so as to protect the harbours of Thoricus and Sunium, it was called Macris, from its length. Strabo describes it as 60 stadia in length, it was uninhabited in antiquity. Both Strabo and Pausanias derive its name from Helen of Troy, the wife of Menelaus: the latter writer supposes that it was so called because Helen landed here after the capture of Troy. There can not, however, be any doubt; the Kea Channel between Makronisos and neighbouring Kea was the site of the sinking, in 1916, of HMHS Britannic, sister ship of the RMS Titanic. Makronisos was used as a military prison island from the time of the Greek Civil War until the restoration of democracy, following the collapse of the Regime of the Colonels in 1974.
Because of its history, it is considered as a monument of the civil war era. Among the prisoners of Makronisos were Apostolos Santas, Nikos Koundouros, Mikis Theodorakis, Leonidas Kyrkos and Thanasis Vengos. Le Nouveau Parthénon by Kostas Chronopoulos and Giogos Chryssovitsianos. Happy Day by Pantelís Voúlgaris. Makronissos, by Ilias Giannakakis and Evi Karabatsou. Like Stone lions at the gateway into night, by Olivier Zuchuat Hamilakis, Yannis, "The Other'Parthenon': Antiquity and National Memory at Makronisos", Journal of Modern Greek Studies 20:2, pp. 307–338. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "Helena". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray. Segeln bei Makronisos http://www.abettergreece.com/Makronissos_en.html
Regional units of Greece
The 74 regional units are administrative units of Greece. They are subdivisions of the country's 13 regions, further subdivided into municipalities, they were introduced as part of the "Kallikratis" administrative reform on 1 January 2011 and are comparable in area and, in the mainland, coterminous with the pre-"Kallikratis" prefectures of Greece
Mykonos is a Greek island, part of the Cyclades, lying between Tinos, Syros and Naxos. The island spans an area of 85.5 square kilometres and rises to an elevation of 341 metres at its highest point. There are 10,134 inhabitants, most of whom live in the largest town, which lies on the west coast; the town is known as Chora. Mykonos's nickname is "The Island of the Winds". Tourism is a major industry and Mykonos is known for its vibrant nightlife and has many establishments catering for the LGBT community. Herodotus mentions Carians as the original inhabitants of the island. Ionians from Athens seem to have followed next in the early 11th century BC. There were many people living on the neighbouring island of Delos, only 2 km away, which meant that Mykonos became an important place for supplies and transit, it was, during ancient times a rather poor island with limited agricultural resources. Its inhabitants were worshipped many gods. Mykonos came under the control of the Romans during the reign of the Roman Empire and became part of the Byzantine Empire until the 12th century.
In 1204, with the fall of Constantinople in the Fourth Crusade, Mykonos was occupied by Andrea Ghisi, a relative of the Doge of Venice. The island was ravaged by the Catalans at the end of the 13th century and given over to direct Venetian rule in 1390. In 1537, while the Venetians still reigned, Mykonos was attacked by Hayreddin Barbarossa, the admiral of Suleiman the Magnificent, an Ottoman fleet established itself on the island; the Ottomans, under the leadership of Kapudan Pasha, imposed a system of self-governance comprising a governor and an appointed council of syndics. When the castle of Tinos fell to the Ottomans in 1718, the last of the Venetians withdrew from the region. Up until the end of the 18th century, Mykonos prospered as a trading centre, attracting many immigrants from nearby islands, in addition to regular pirate raids. In June 1794 the Battle of Mykonos was fought between British and French ships in the island's main harbour; the Greek Revolution against the Ottoman Empire broke out in 1821 and Mykonos played an important role, led by the national heroine, Manto Mavrogenous.
Mavrogenous, a well-educated aristocrat guided by the ideas of the Enlightenment, sacrificed her family's fortune for the Greek cause. Greece became an independent state in 1830. A statue of her sits in the middle of Mando Mavrogenous square in the main town; as a result of sailing and merchant activity, the island's economy picked up but declined again during the late 19th century and after the opening of the Corinth Canal in 1904 and the First World War at the beginning of the 20th century. Many Mykonians left the island to find work in mainland Greece and many foreign countries the United States. Tourism soon came to dominate the local economy, owing a lot to the important excavations carried out by the French School of Archaeology, which began work in Delos in 1873. In Greek mythology, Mykonos was named after its first ruler, the son or grandson of the god Apollo and a local hero; the island is said to have been the location of a great battle between Zeus and Titans and where Hercules killed the invincible giants having lured them from the protection of Mount Olympus.
According to myth, the large rocks all over the island are said to be the petrified testicles of the giants. The island spans an area of 85.5 square kilometres and rises to an elevation of 341 metres at its highest point. It is situated 150 kilometres east of Athens in the Aegean Sea; the island features no rivers, but numerous seasonal streams two of which have been converted into reservoirs. The island is composed of granite and the terrain is rocky with many areas eroded by the strong winds. High quality clay and baryte, a mineral used as a lubricant in oil drilling, were mined on the eastern side of Mykonos until the late 1900s, it produces 4,500 cubic metres of water daily, by reverse osmosis of sea water in order to help meet the needs of its population and visitors. The island has a population of nearly 12,500. Mykonos has a typical Mediterranean climate; the sun shines for up to 300 days a year. The rainy season lasts from October until March. Vegetation follows the typical pattern for the region and grows around mid-autumn and ends in the beginning of the summer.
Although temperatures can rise as high as 40 °C in the summer months, average high temperature is around 28 °C and because of the seasonal cool "meltemi" wind, summer days are dry and pleasant. In the winter, average high temperature is around 15 °C; the winters in general are mild and wet, with many sunny days still in mid-winter. Snow doesn't stay long on the ground when it falls. There are ten villages: Local specialities: The municipality of Mykonos is a separate regional unit of the South Aegean region, the sole municipality in the regional unit; as a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit Mykonos was created out of part of the former Cyclades Prefecture. The municipality, unchanged at the Kallikratis reform includes the islands Delos and several uninhabited islets; the total area of the municipality is 105.183 km2. In the 2012 elections, the centre right New Democracy obtained the highest vote on Mykonos followed by the Coalitio
Kimolos is a Greek island in the Aegean Sea. It lies near the bigger island of Milos. Kimolos is the administrative center of the municipality of Kimolos, which includes the uninhabited islands of Polyaigos, Agios Efstathios and Agios Georgios; the island has a land area of 36 square kilometres, while the municipality's land area is 53.251 square kilometres, it reported a population of 910 inhabitants in the 2011 census. Kimolos is an island with rich history records. According to tradition, it is named after Kimolos, the first resident of the island. Echinousa is a recorded name of the island during the ancient times because of the snake Echidna, being common today on the island. Since the ancient era, it was a battlefield between Ancient Athens, the ruler of the island, Sparta, the ruler of Milos. In the Middle Ages it was known as Argentiera, because of the silver-colored rocky lands of its southern coast. Since those times, these rocky lands provided Kimolia Gi-Kimolian Earth, a valuable trade good, which made the island a major trade hub.
It was ruled by the Ottoman Empire until 1829, when it was annexed by the Greek state along with the rest of the Cyclades. Kimolos lies to the northwest of larger Milos island, separated from it by a 1 km wide channel, it is round-shaped 7 km in radius. The island has a total area of 36 square kilometres; the highest point is mount Paleokastro, at 364 metres The only town is Chorio, located on a hill on the west of the island. There are smaller settlements of Psathi, Kara, Aliki and Dekas. To the east of Kimolos lies the island of Polyaigos, half its size. Polyaigos is the largest uninhabited island of Aegean, it is part of the municipality of Kimolos. Kimolos and the smaller islands that surround them belong to the Aegean volcanic arc and consist of acidic volcanic rocks. In some places, the pre-volcanic bedrock can be observed. Large areas of Kimolos are covered by tuffs and the volcanic activity can be obvious from the hot springs, existence of a notable geothermal field, the characteristic landscape and strange landforms.
The island is rich in minerals of the silica group and in significant industrial minerals. One of the most famous geologic formations on Kimolos is Skiadi. Skiadi is a huge mushroom-shaped stone that dominates the middle of a small valley in the interior of the island, it is created by a process called ablation, in which the dust carried by the wind continuously scratches the rock, eroding the softer layers at the bottom much more than the harder layers at the top. Through centuries, the stone has been shaped into a unique form. According to the last censuses, the population of Kimolos is decreasing, no more than 600 residents remain during winter; the underage population is no more than 100, according to the school records. Most of the working population is involved with the tourist industry of the island in combination with agriculture activities during winter. After the municipal/prefectural elections held in October 2006, the mayor of the island for the period 2007-2010 was Theodoros-Gerasimos Maganiotis, who publishes the only newspaper of the island, Kimoliaka Nea.
However, the current mayor of Kimolos is Ventouris Emanuel Konstantinos. Kimolos has a local Police Department; the Kimolos Port Authority is a department of Milos Coast Guard. Kimolos is part of the Milos regional unit. Internal On the island all vehicles are permitted, but during the summer months, the lack of parking space is the most important problem in populated areas, such as Chorio Kimolou and Psathi. Common kinds of fuels are available at the local fuel station. There are public means of transport, such as bus and taxi, performing routes to popular beaches. External Kimolos belongs to the line of the Western Cyclades and it's connected to nearby islands and Piraeus port of Athens via year-round ferry boat and a catamaran ferry running only during the tourist season. Routes frequency varies with the season. During the tourist period, it has daily connection to Piraeus and other islands. Transport via Milos is possible, because of the frequent connection of the two islands with local ferry boat.
Kimolos is a station for the local connections between Cyclades islands. Kimon Digenis, military officer List of islands of Greece The Official Website of the Municipality of Kimolos Kimolos Travel Guide A View of Kimolos from Milos
Syros, or Siros or Syra is a Greek island in the Cyclades, in the Aegean Sea. It is located 78 nautical miles south-east of Athens; the area of the island is 83.6 km2 and it has 21,507 inhabitants. The largest towns are Ermoupoli, Ano Syros, Vari. Ermoupoli is the capital of the island and of the Cyclades, it has always been a significant port town, during the 19th century it was more significant than Piraeus. Other villages are Galissas, Pagos, Manna and Poseidonia. Ermoupoli stands on a amphitheatrical site, with neo-classical buildings, old mansions, white houses cascading down to the harbour, it was built during the Greek War of Independence in the 1820s. The city hall is in the center of the town, in Miaoulis Square, ringed with cafés, seating areas, palm trees. Dubbed the "City of Hermes", Syros has numerous churches, such as Metamorphosis, Koimisis, St. Demetrius, Three Hierarchs, Evangelistria, St. Nicolas. There is a municipal library; the quarter of Vaporia is. There are numerous neo-classical mansions along the quarter’s narrow streets.
Ano Syros is the second town of Syros and was built by the Venetians at the beginning of the 13th century on the hill of San Giorgio, north-west of Hermoupolis. Ano Syros maintains a medieval atmosphere. Innumerable steps between narrow streets and houses with coloured doors lead to the top of the town; the medieval settlement of Ano Syros is accessible by car. The distance from the harbour up to the main entry point of the town is 1000 metres; the Catholic cathedral of Saint George dominates Ano Syros. The cathedral church was constructed during the 13th century. From the cathedral visitors have a panoramic view of the neighbouring islands of Tinos, Mykonos, Paros and Naxos; the history of settlement on Syros goes back at least 5,000 years, to the Early Bronze Age of the Cycladic civilization. This is. Archaeologists describe Early Cycladic III culture as Kastri culture. Kastri, dated by archaeologists to 2800-2300 BC, was one of the earliest settlements in Greece that were protected by stone walls with rounded bastions.
The cemetery of Chalandriani is associated with Kastri. Inside the fortification, the houses were packed close together, it is estimated. The site was first discovered and excavated in 1898 by Christos Tsountas, the "father of Cycladic research". Kastri had some of the earliest metalwork in the region, some of the earliest use of potter's wheel. Throughout history, the island was known as Syra Syros or Siros. In times, it appears to have been inhabited by the Phoenicians. In the Odyssey, Syros was the country of the swineherd Eumaeus; the island was the home of the philosopher Pherecydes, the teacher of Pythagoras. It possessed two leading cities and another city on the western coast where Galissas now stands; the island did not play an important role during antiquity nor the early Christian years, it was not a diocese at a time when the smallest island possessed its bishop. During Roman times the capital of Syros was situated in the area of contemporary Ermoupoli. At the end of ancient times, barbarian raids and piracy, which affected the Aegean for many centuries, led Syros to decline.
The island, along with the other Cyclades, was devastated several times during the Middle Ages by raiders from different directions including Sicilians, Arabs and Venetians. In the Byzantine years Syros constituted part of the Theme of the Aegean Sea, along with the rest of the Cycladic islands. After the overthrow of Byzantium in the Fourth Crusade by the Venetians and Franks in 1204, the island was definitively conquered by the Venetians under the leadership of Marco Sanudo; as part of the Duchy of the Archipelago, Syros would remain under Venetian rule until 1522. It was at this time. During the Latin period, the majority of the local community were Roman Catholics, but maintained the Greek language. During the reign of three and a half centuries of the Duchy of the Archipelago, Syros had a singular feudal regime. By the 16th century, the Ottoman fleet became dominant in the Aegean and the Duchy fell apart. In 1522 the corsair Barbarossa took possession of the island, which would be known as "Sire" during Ottoman rule.
However, negotiations of the local authorities with the Ottomans gave the Cyclades substantial privileges, such as the reduction of taxes and religious freedom. At the same time, following an agreement of France and the Holy See with the Ottoman authorities, the Catholics of the island came under the protection of France and Rome and so Syros sometimes was called "the Pope's island"; the Roman Catholic diocese of Syros was a Latin diocese, suffragan of Naxos. The Venetians had established there a Latin bishopric, subject to the Latin Archbishopric of Athens until 1525. From the time of the island's occupation by the Turks in the 16th century, the Greeks established an Orthodox metropolitan on Syros: Joseph is the earliest known, along with Symeon who died in 1594 and Ignatius in 1596; the island became for the most part Catholic. The list of titular bishops may be found in Eubel; the most celebrated among them is John Andrew Carga, whom the Turks strangled in 1617 because he refused to convert to Islam and because he was helping Greek revolutionaries hiding on the island.
After the second half of the 17th