Armenia, officially the Republic of Armenia, is a sovereign state in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. The Republic of Armenia constitutes only one-tenth of historical Armenia, Armenia is a unitary, multi-party, democratic nation-state with an ancient cultural heritage. Urartu was established in 860 BC and by the 6th century BC it was replaced by the Satrapy of Armenia, in the 1st century BC the Kingdom of Armenia reached its height under Tigranes the Great. Armenia became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as its official religion, in between the late 3rd century to early years of the 4th century, the state became the first Christian nation. The official date of adoption of Christianity is 301 AD. The ancient Armenian kingdom was split between the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires around the early 5th century, under the Bagratuni dynasty, the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia was restored in the 9th century. Declining due to the wars against the Byzantines, the fell in 1045. An Armenian principality and a kingdom Cilician Armenia was located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea between the 11th and 14th centuries.
By the 19th century, Eastern Armenia had been conquered by the Russian Empire, during World War I, Armenians living in their ancestral lands in the Ottoman Empire were systematically exterminated in the Armenian Genocide. By 1920, the state was incorporated into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, in 1936, the Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transforming its constituent states, including the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, into full Union republics. The modern Republic of Armenia became independent in 1991 during the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Republic of Armenia recognises the Armenian Apostolic Church, the worlds oldest national church, as the countrys primary religious establishment. The unique Armenian alphabet was invented by Mesrop Mashtots in 405 AD, Armenia is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union, the Council of Europe and the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Armenia supports the de facto independent Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, which was proclaimed in 1991, the native Armenian name for the country is Հայք.
The name in the Middle Ages was extended to Հայաստան, by addition of the Persian suffix -stan, the further origin of the name is uncertain. It is postulated that the name Hay comes from one of the two confederated, Hittite vassal states—the Ḫayaša-Azzi. The exonym Armenia is attested in the Old Persian Behistun Inscription as Armina, the ancient Greek terms Ἀρμενία and Ἀρμένιοι are first mentioned by Hecataeus of Miletus. Xenophon, a Greek general serving in some of the Persian expeditions, describes many aspects of Armenian village life and he relates that the people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians. According to the histories of both Moses of Chorene and Michael Chamchian, Armenia derives from the name of Aram, a descendant of Hayk
Mount Carmel is a coastal mountain range in northern Israel stretching from the Mediterranean Sea towards the southeast. The range is a UNESCO biosphere reserve and a number of towns are located there, most notably the city of Haifa, Israels third largest city, located on the northern slope. The phrase Mount Carmel has been used in three ways, To refer to the 39 km-long mountain range, stretching as far in the southeast as Jenin. To refer to the northwestern 19 km of the mountain range, to refer to the headland at the northwestern end of the range. The Carmel range is approximately 6.5 to 8 kilometres wide, sloping gradually towards the southwest, the Jezreel Valley lies to the immediate northeast. The mountain formation is an admixture of limestone and flint, containing many caves, the sloped side of the mountain is covered with luxuriant vegetation, including oak, pine and laurel trees. There is a small kibbutz called Beit Oren, which is located on one of the highest points in the range to the southeast of Haifa.
As part of a 1929–1934 campaign, between 1930 and 1932, Dorothy Garrod excavated four caves, and a number of shelters, in the Carmel mountain range at el-Wad, el-Tabun. Garrod discovered Neanderthal and early human remains, including the skeleton of a Neanderthal female, named Tabun I. The excavation at el-Tabun produced the longest stratigraphic record in the region, the four caves and rock-shelters together yield results from the Lower Paleolithic to the present day, representing roughly a million years of human evolution. Taken together, these emphasize the paramount significance of the Mount Carmel caves for the study of cultural and biological evolution within the framework of palaeo-ecological changes. In 2012, UNESCOs World Heritage Committee added sites of human evolution at Mount Carmel to the List of World Heritage Sites, the World Heritage Site includes four caves on the southern side of the Nahal Me’arot/Wadi El-Mughara Valley. The site fulfils criteria in two categories and cultural.
According to the Books of Kings, Elisha travelled to Carmel straight after cursing a group of men because they had mocked him. After this, bears out of the forest and mauled 42 of them. During World War I, Mount Carmel played a significant strategic role, the Battle of Megiddo took place at the head of a pass through the Carmel Ridge, which overlooks the Valley of Jezreel from the south. General Allenby led the British in the battle, which was the point in the war against the Ottoman Empire. Archaeologists have discovered ancient wine and oil presses at various locations on Mt. Carmel, according to the Books of Kings, there was an altar to God on the mountain, which had fallen into ruin by the time of Ahab, but Elijah built a new one
The vertebral column, known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton. The vertebral column houses the spinal canal, a cavity that encloses, there are about 50,000 species of animals that have a vertebral column. The human vertebral column is one of the most-studied examples, the articulating vertebrae are named according to their region of the spine. There are seven cervical vertebrae, twelve thoracic vertebrae and five lumbar vertebrae, the number of vertebrae in a region can vary but overall the number remains the same. The number of those in the region however is only rarely changed. There are ligaments extending the length of the column at the front and the back, the vertebrae in the human vertebral column are divided into different regions, which correspond to the curves of the spinal column. The articulating vertebrae are named according to their region of the spine, vertebrae in these regions are essentially alike, with minor variation. These regions are called the spine, thoracic spine, lumbar spine, sacrum.
There are seven cervical vertebrae, twelve thoracic vertebrae and five lumbar vertebrae, the number of vertebrae in a region can vary but overall the number remains the same. The number of those in the region however is only rarely changed. The vertebrae of the cervical and lumbar spines are independent bones, the vertebrae of the sacrum and coccyx are usually fused and unable to move independently. Two special vertebrae are the atlas and axis, on which the head rests, a typical vertebra consists of two parts, the vertebral body and the vertebral arch. The vertebral arch is posterior, meaning it faces the back of a person, these enclose the vertebral foramen, which contains the spinal cord. Because the spinal cord ends in the spine, and the sacrum and coccyx are fused. Two transverse processes and one process are posterior to the vertebral body. The spinous process comes out the back, one transverse process comes out the left, the spinous processes of the cervical and lumbar regions can be felt through the skin.
Above and below each vertebra are joints called facet joints and these restrict the range of movement possible, and are joined by a thin portion of the neural arch called the pars interarticularis. In between each pair of vertebrae are two small holes called intervertebral foramina, the spinal nerves leave the spinal cord through these holes
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. The country contains geographically diverse features within its small area. Israels economy and technology center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, in 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Mandatory Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency for Palestine, next year, the Jewish Agency declared the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz Israel, to be known as the State of Israel. Israel has since fought several wars with neighboring Arab states, in the course of which it has occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and it extended its laws to the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. Israels occupation of the Palestinian territories is the worlds longest military occupation in modern times, efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in peace.
However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have successfully been signed, the population of Israel, as defined by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, was estimated in 2017 to be 8,671,100 people. It is the worlds only Jewish-majority state, with 74. 8% being designated as Jewish, the countrys second largest group of citizens are Arabs, at 20. 8%. The great majority of Israeli Arabs are Sunni Muslims, including significant numbers of semi-settled Negev Bedouins, other minorities include Arameans, Assyrians, Black Hebrew Israelites, Circassians and Samaritans. Israel hosts a significant population of foreign workers and asylum seekers from Africa and Asia, including illegal migrants from Sudan, Eritrea. In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a Jewish, Israel is a representative democracy with a parliamentary system, proportional representation and universal suffrage. The prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature, Israel is a developed country and an OECD member, with the 35th-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2016.
The country benefits from a skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentage of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. The country has the highest standard of living in the Middle East and the third highest in Asia, in the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term Israeli to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have historically used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel. The name Israel in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, jacobs twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites, known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. The earliest known artifact to mention the word Israel as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt. The area is known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Islam
Ofer Bar-Yosef is an Israeli archaeologist whose main field of study is the Palaeolithic period. He was Professor of Prehistoric Archaeology at Hebrew University in Jerusalem, the Natufian Culture in the Levant, International Monographs in Prehistory,1992. Late Quaternary Chronology and Paleoclimates of the Eastern Mediterranean and Sedentism, Archaeological Perspectives from Old and New World Sites, Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology,1998. From Africa to Eurasia - Early Dispersals
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate, about 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. The first geologist to distinguish limestone from dolomite was Belsazar Hacquet in 1778, like most other sedimentary rocks, most limestone is composed of grains. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of organisms such as coral or foraminifera. Other carbonate grains comprising limestones are ooids, peloids and these organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite, and leave these shells behind when they die. Limestone often contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert or siliceous skeletal fragment, some limestones do not consist of grains at all, and are formed completely by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite, i. e. travertine.
Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters and this produces speleothems, such as stalagmites and stalactites. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone, which can be recognized by its granular appearance, the primary source of the calcite in limestone is most commonly marine organisms. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock known as reefs, below about 3,000 meters, water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly, so limestone typically does not form in deeper waters. Limestones may form in lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments, calcite can be dissolved or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors, including the water temperature, pH, and dissolved ion concentrations. Calcite exhibits a characteristic called retrograde solubility, in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. Impurities will cause limestones to exhibit different colors, especially with weathered surfaces, Limestone may be crystalline, granular, or massive, depending on the method of formation.
Crystals of calcite, dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock, when conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together, or it can fill fractures. Travertine is a banded, compact variety of limestone formed along streams, particularly there are waterfalls. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite. Tufa, a porous or cellular variety of travertine, is found near waterfalls, coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. During regional metamorphism that occurs during the building process, limestone recrystallizes into marble
The Areni-1 cave complex is located near the Areni village in southern Armenia along the Arpa River. In 2010, it was announced that the earliest known shoe was found at the site, in January 2011, the earliest known winery in the world was announced to have been found. Also in 2011, the discovery of a straw skirt dating to 3900 BC was reported, in 2009, the oldest brain was discovered
Cave paintings are painted drawings on cave walls or ceilings, mainly of prehistoric origin, to some 40,000 years ago in Eurasia. The exact purpose of the Paleolithic cave paintings is not known, evidence suggests that they were not merely decorations of living areas since the caves in which they have been found do not have signs of ongoing habitation. They are located in areas of caves that are not easily accessible. Some theories hold that cave paintings may have been a way of communicating with others, the paintings are remarkably similar around the world, with animals being common subjects that give the most impressive images. Humans mainly appear as images of hands, mostly hand stencils made by blowing pigment on a hand held to the wall. The earliest known cave paintings/drawings of animals are at least 35,000 years old and are found in Pettakere cave on the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia, previously it was believed that the earliest paintings were in Europe. The earliest non-figurative rock art dates back to approximately 40,000 years ago, nearly 340 caves have now been discovered in France and Spain that contain art from prehistoric times.
But subsequent technology has made it possible to date the paintings by sampling the pigment itself, the choice of subject matter can indicate chronology. For instance, the reindeer depicted in the Spanish cave of Cueva de las Monedas places the drawings in the last Ice Age. The oldest date given to a cave painting is now a pig that has a minimum age of 35,400 years old at Pettakere cave in Sulawesi. Indonesian and Australian scientists have dated other non-figurative paintings on the walls to be approximately 40,000 years old, the method they used to confirm this was dating the age of the stalactites that formed over the top of the paintings. The art is similar in style and method to that of the Indonesian caves as there were hand stencils and this date coincides with the earliest known evidence for Homo sapiens in Europe. Because of the cave arts age, some scientists have conjectured that the paintings may have made by Neanderthals. The earliest known European figurative cave paintings are those of Chauvet Cave in France and these paintings date to earlier than 30,000 BCE according to radiocarbon dating.
Some researchers believe the drawings are too advanced for this era, the radiocarbon dates from these samples show that there were two periods of creation in Chauvet,35,000 years ago and 30,000 years ago. In 2009, cavers discovered drawings in Coliboaia Cave in Romania, an initial dating puts the age of an image in the same range as Chauvet, about 32,000 years old. Some caves probably continued to be painted over a period of thousands of years. This was created roughly between 10,000 and 5,500 years ago, and painted in rock shelters under cliffs or shallow caves, though individual figures are less naturalistic, they are grouped in coherent grouped compositions to a much greater degree
Ramat Hanadiv is a nature park and garden in northern Israel, covering 4.5 km at the southern end of Mount Carmel between Zikhron Yaakov to the north and Binyamina to the south. The Jewish National Fund planted pine and cypress groves in most of the area, umm el-Aleq was a small Arab village where in the 19th century a farmstead was constructed by the Christian Arab family of el-Khouri from Haifa. French Baron Edmond James de Rothschild purchased the land from the el-Khouri family, Baron Rothschild died in 1934 at Château Rothschild, Boulogne-Billancourt. His wife Adelaide died a year on 29 December 1935 and they were interred in the Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris until April 1954 when their remains were transported to Israel aboard a naval frigate. At the port of Haifa, the ship was met with sirens, for his Jewish philanthropy Baron Edmond became known as Hanadiv HaYadua and in his memory his son bequeathed the funds to construct the building for the Knesset. Yitzar Hirschfeld has carried out archaeological digs in Ramat Hanadiv over a period of 14 years, the excavations at Horvat ‘Aqav and Horvat Eleq, has unearthed remains from three periods, a small Phoenician shrine, a Herodian estate manor and a Byzantine period villa.
It has been hypothesized that there was a spread of malarial mosquitoes in Ramat Hanadiv during the late Byzantine period. The excavations of the late 1st century BCE Herodian manor complex at Horvat Aqav revealed the base of a three storied tower, two presses and an olive press. The Herodian manor had a house, fed by a hypocaust system, with caldarium. Crosses found on tiles and bowls at the Horvat Aqav excavation from the Byzantine era may indicate that the occupants of the site were Christians. The spring and aqueduct at Ein Tzur has been linked to Mont Sina, where a spring on the mountain is visited by women seeking to become pregnant by bathing in its waters. This is due to a hoard of more than 2,000 coins being discovered in the pool of Ein Tzur, the Kebara cavern, with 10 prehistoric layers of occupation, covering from middle Palaeolithic to late Mesolithic, is within the Ramat Hanadiv region. In 1994, a special Green Waste recycling project was launched in Ramat Hanadiv, to serve as an example for gardening contractors, regional councils and municipalities.
Forestry and gardening waste – branches, grass and others – are collected and processed into compost that is reused for gardening. A wastewater purification facility was installed at Ramat Hanadiv in 1998 and this is a Bio-Disc type facility used for the purification of the wastewater generated by the office and public lavatories at the Gardens. On 12 March 2008, Ramat Hanadivs Visitors Pavilion became the first building in Israel to be granted standard certification for sustainable construction, the new Visitors Pavilion was designed by the architectural firm of Ada Karmi Melamede with the objective of making as little impact as possible on the environment. The Visitors Pavilion has been built as a mound covered with soil
The pelvis is either the lower part of the trunk of the human body between the abdomen and the thighs or the skeleton embedded in it. The pelvic region of the trunk includes the pelvis, the pelvic cavity, the pelvic floor, below the pelvic cavity. The pelvic skeleton is formed in the area of the back, by the sacrum, the two hip bones connect the spine with the lower limbs. They are attached to the sacrum posteriorly, connected to each other anteriorly, in mammals, the bony pelvis has a gap in the middle, significantly larger in females than in males. Their young pass through this gap when they are born, the pelvic region of the trunk is the lower part of the trunk, between the abdomen and the thighs. Each hip bone consists of 3 sections, ischium, during childhood, these sections are separate bones, joined by the triradiate cartilage. During puberty, they fuse together to form a single bone, the pelvic cavity is a body cavity that is bounded by the bones of the pelvis and which primarily contains reproductive organs and the rectum. A distinction is made between the lesser or true pelvis inferior to the line, and the greater or false pelvis above it.
The pelvic outlet or inferior pelvic aperture is the region between the angle or pubic arch, the ischial tuberosities and the coccyx. To achieve both these tasks, the floor is composed of several overlapping sheets of muscles and connective tissues. The pelvic diaphragm is composed of the levator ani and the coccygeus muscle and these arise between the symphysis and the ischial spine and converge on the coccyx and the anococcygeal ligament which spans between the tip of the coccyx and the anal hiatus. This leaves a slit for the anal and urogenital openings, because of the width of the genital aperture, which is wider in females, a second closing mechanism is required. The urogenital diaphragm consists mainly of the deep transverse perineal which arises from the inferior ischial and pubic rami, the urogenital diaphragm is reinforced posteriorly by the superficial transverse perineal. The external anal and urethral sphincters close the anus and the urethra, the former is surrounded by the bulbospongiosus which narrows the vaginal introitus in females and surrounds the corpus spongiosum in males.
Ischiocavernosus squeezes blood into the corpus cavernosum penis and clitoridis, modern humans are to a large extent characterized by bipedal locomotion and large brains. The female pelvis, or gynecoid pelvis, has evolved to its width for childbirth — a wider pelvis would make women unable to walk. In contrast, human male pelvises are not constrained by the need to give birth, the principal differences between male and female true and false pelvis include, The female pelvis is larger and broader than the male pelvis which is taller and more compact. The female inlet is larger and oval in shape, while the male sacral promontory projects further, the sides of the male pelvis converge from the inlet to the outlet, whereas the sides of the female pelvis are wider apart