Archbishop of Canterbury
The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury. The current archbishop is Justin Welby, enthroned at Canterbury Cathedral on 21 March 2013. Welby is the 105th in a line which goes back more than 1400 years to Augustine of Canterbury, the "Apostle to the English", sent from Rome in the year 597. Welby succeeded Rowan Williams. From the time of Augustine until the 16th century, the archbishops of Canterbury were in full communion with the See of Rome and received the pallium from the Pope. During the English Reformation, the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope. Thomas Cranmer became the first holder of the office following the English Reformation in 1533, while Reginald Pole was the last Roman Catholic in the position, serving from 1556 to 1558 during the Counter-Reformation. In the Middle Ages there was considerable variation in the methods of nomination of the Archbishop of Canterbury and other bishops.
At various times the choice was made by the canons of Canterbury Cathedral, the Pope, or the King of England. Since the English Reformation, the Church of England has been more explicitly a state church and the choice is that of the Crown. Today the archbishop fills four main roles: He is the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury, which covers the eastern parts of the County of Kent. Founded in 597, it is the oldest, he is the metropolitan archbishop of the Province of Canterbury, which covers the southern two-thirds of England. He is the senior primate and chief religious figure of the Church of England. Along with his colleague the Archbishop of York he chairs the General Synod and sits on or chairs many of the church's important boards and committees; the Archbishop of Canterbury plays a central part in national ceremonies such as coronations. As spiritual leader of the Anglican Communion, the archbishop, although without legal authority outside England, is recognised by convention as primus inter pares of all Anglican primates worldwide.
Since 1867 he has convened more or less decennial meetings of worldwide Anglican bishops, the Lambeth Conferences. In the last two of these functions, he has an important ecumenical and interfaith role, speaking on behalf of Anglicans in England and worldwide; the archbishop's main residence is Lambeth Palace in the London Borough of Lambeth. He has lodgings in the Old Palace, located beside Canterbury Cathedral, where the Chair of St Augustine sits; as holder of one of the "five great sees", the Archbishop of Canterbury is ex officio one of the Lords Spiritual of the House of Lords. He is one of the highest-ranking men in England and the highest ranking non-royal in the United Kingdom's order of precedence. Since Henry VIII broke with Rome, the archbishops of Canterbury have been selected by the English monarch. Since the 20th century, the appointment of archbishops of Canterbury conventionally alternates between Anglo-Catholics and Evangelicals; the current archbishop, Justin Welby, the 105th Archbishop of Canterbury, was enthroned at Canterbury Cathedral on 4 February 2013.
As archbishop he signs himself as + Justin Cantuar. His predecessor, Rowan Williams, 104th Archbishop of Canterbury, was enthroned at Canterbury Cathedral on 27 February 2003. Prior to his appointment to Canterbury, Williams was the Bishop of Monmouth and Archbishop of Wales. On 18 March 2012, Williams announced he would be stepping down as Archbishop of Canterbury at the end of 2012 to become Master of Magdalene College, Cambridge. In addition to his office, the archbishop holds a number of other positions; some positions he formally holds ex officio and others so. Amongst these are: Chancellor of Canterbury Christ Church UniversityVisitor for the following academic institutions: All Souls College, Oxford Selwyn College, Cambridge Merton College, Oxford Keble College, Oxford Ridley Hall, Cambridge The University of Kent King's College London University of King's College Sutton Valence School Benenden School Cranbrook School Haileybury and Imperial Service College Harrow School King's College School, Wimbledon The King's School, Canterbury St John's School, Leatherhead Marlborough College Dauntsey's School Wycliffe Hall, Oxford Governor of Charterhouse School Governor of Wellington College Visitor, The Dulwich Charities Visitor, Whitgift Foundation Visitor, Hospital of the Blessed Trinity, Guildford Trustee, Bromley College Trustee, Allchurches Trust President, Corporation of Church House, Westminster Director, Canterbury Diocesan Board of Finance Patron, St Edmund's School Canterbury Patron, The Worshipful Company of Parish Clerks Patron, Prisoners Abroad Patron, The Kent Savers Credit Union The Archbishop of Canterbury is a president of Churches Together in England.
Geoffrey Fisher, 99th Archbishop of Canterbury, was the first since 1397 to visit Ro
Sir John Betjeman was an English poet and broadcaster who described himself in Who's Who as a "poet and hack". He was Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom from 1972 until his death, he was a founding member of the Victorian Society and a passionate defender of Victorian architecture. He began his career as a journalist and ended it as one of the most popular British Poets Laureate and a much-loved figure on British television. Betjeman was born John Betjemann, he was the son of a prosperous silverware maker of Dutch descent. His parents and Ernest Betjemann, had a family firm at 34–42 Pentonville Road which manufactured the kind of ornamental household furniture and gadgets distinctive to Victorians. During the First World War the family name was changed to the less German-looking Betjeman, his father's forebears had come from the present day Netherlands more than a century earlier, setting up their home and business in Islington and during the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War had added the extra "-n" to avoid the anti-Dutch sentiment existing at the time.
Betjeman was baptised at St Anne's Church, Highgate Rise, a 19th-century church at the foot of Highgate West Hill. The family lived at Parliament Hill Mansions in the Lissenden Gardens private estate in Gospel Oak in north London. In 1909, the Betjemanns moved half a mile north to more opulent Highgate. From West Hill they lived in the reflected glory of the Burdett-Coutts estate: Betjeman's early schooling was at the local Byron House and Highgate School, where he was taught by poet T. S. Eliot. After this, he boarded at the Dragon School preparatory school in North Oxford and Marlborough College, a public school in Wiltshire. In his penultimate year, he joined the secret Society of Amici in which he was a contemporary of both Louis MacNeice and Graham Shepard, he founded a satirical magazine that lampooned Marlborough's obsession with sport. While at school, his exposure to the works of Arthur Machen won him over to High Church Anglicanism, a conversion of importance to his writing and conception of the arts.
Betjeman left Marlborough in July 1925. Betjeman entered the University of Oxford with difficulty, having failed the mathematics portion of the university's matriculation exam, Responsions, he was, admitted as a commoner at Magdalen College and entered the newly created School of English Language and Literature. At Oxford, Betjeman made little use of the academic opportunities, his tutor, a young C. S. Lewis, regarded him as an "idle prig" and Betjeman in turn considered Lewis unfriendly and uninspiring as a teacher. Betjeman disliked the coursework's emphasis on linguistics, dedicated most of his time to cultivating his social life and his interest in English ecclesiastical architecture, to private literary pursuits. At Oxford he was a friend of Maurice Bowra to be Warden of Wadham. Betjeman had a poem published in Isis, the university magazine, served as editor of the Cherwell student newspaper during 1927, his first book of poems was printed with the help of fellow student Edward James. He famously brought his teddy bear Archibald Ormsby-Gore up to Magdalen with him, the memory of which inspired his Oxford contemporary Evelyn Waugh to include Sebastian Flyte's teddy Aloysius in Brideshead Revisited.
Much of this period of his life is recorded in his blank verse autobiography Summoned by Bells published in 1960 and made into a television film in 1976. It is a common misapprehension, cultivated by Betjeman himself, that he did not complete his degree because he failed to pass the compulsory holy scripture examination, known colloquially as "Divvers", short for "Divinity". In Hilary term 1928, Betjeman failed Divinity for the second time, he had to leave the university for the Trinity term to prepare for a retake of the exam. Betjeman wrote to the Secretary of the Tutorial Board at Magdalen, G. C. Lee, asking to be entered for the Pass School, a set of examinations taken on rare occasions by undergraduates who are deemed unlikely to achieve an honours degree. In Summoned by Bells Betjeman claims that his tutor, C. S. Lewis, said "You'd have only got a third" – but he had informed the tutorial board that he thought Betjeman would not achieve an honours degree of any class. Permission to sit the Pass School was granted.
Betjeman famously decided to offer a paper in Welsh. Osbert Lancaster tells the story that a tutor came by train twice a week from Aberystwyth to teach Betjeman. However, Jesus College had a number of Welsh tutors who more would have taught him. Betjeman had to leave at the end of the Michaelmas term, 1928. Betjeman did pass his Divinity examination on his third try but was'sent down' after failing the Pass School, he had achieved a satisfactory result in only one of the three required papers. Betjeman's academic failure at Oxford rankled with him for the rest of his life and he was never reconciled with C. S. Lewis, towards whom he nursed a bitter detestation; this situation was complicated by his enduring love of Oxford, from which he accepted an honorary doctorate of letters in 1974. Betjeman left Oxford without a degree. Whilst there, however, he had made the acquaintance of people who would influence his work, including Louis MacNeice and W. H. Auden, he worked as a private secretary, school teacher and film critic for the Evening Standard, where he wrote for their high-society gossip column, the Londoner's Diary.
He was employed by the Architectural Review between 1930 and 1935, as a full-time assistant editor, following their publishing of some of his fre
Sir Nikolaus Bernhard Leon Pevsner was a German British scholar of the history of art of architecture. Pevsner is best known for his monumental 46-volume series of county-by-county guides, The Buildings of England simply referred to by his surname. Nikolaus Pevsner was born in Leipzig, the son of Hugo Pevsner, a Russian-Jewish fur merchant, his wife, Anna, he attended St. Thomas School and went on to study at several universities, Munich and Frankfurt am Main, before being awarded a doctorate by Leipzig in 1924 for a thesis on the Baroque architecture of Leipzig. In 1923, he married the daughter of distinguished Leipzig lawyer, Alfred Kurlbaum, he worked as an assistant keeper at the Dresden Gallery. He converted to Lutheranism early in life. During this period he became interested in establishing the supremacy of German modernist architecture after becoming aware of Le Corbusier's Pavillon de l'Esprit Nouveau at the Paris Exhibition of 1925. In 1928 he contributed the volume on Italian baroque painting to the Handbuch der Kunstwissenschaft, a multi-volume series providing an overview of the history of European art.
He taught at the University of Göttingen, offering a specialist course on English art and architecture. According to biographer Stephen Games, Pevsner welcomed many of the economic and cultural policies of the early Hitler regime. However, due to Nazi race laws he was forced to resign his lectureship in 1933; that year Pevsner moved to England, settling in Hampstead, where poet Geoffrey Grigson was his neighbour in Wildwood Terrace. Pevsner's first post was an 18-month research fellowship at the University of Birmingham, found for him by friends in Birmingham and funded by the Academic Assistance Council. A study of the role of the designer in the industrial process, the research produced a critical account of design standards in Britain which he published as An Enquiry into Industrial Art in England, he was subsequently employed as a buyer of modern textiles and ceramics for the Gordon Russell furniture showrooms in London. By this time Pevsner had completed Pioneers of the Modern Movement: from William Morris to Walter Gropius, his influential pre-history of what he saw as Walter Gropius's dominance of contemporary design.
Pioneers ardently championed Gropius's first two buildings on the grounds that they summed up all the essential goals of 20th-century architecture. In spite of that, the book remains an important point of reference in the teaching of the history of modern design, helped lay the foundation of Pevsner's career in England as an architectural historian. Since its first publication by Faber & Faber in 1936, it has gone through several editions and been translated into many languages; the English-language edition has been renamed Pioneers of Modern Design. Pevsner was "more German than the Germans" to the extent that he supported "Goebbels in his drive for'pure' non-decadent German art", he was reported as saying of the Nazis: "I want this movement to succeed. There is no alternative but chaos.... There are things worse than Hitlerism." Nonetheless, he was included in the Nazi Black Book as hostile to the Hitler regime. In 1940, Pevsner was taken to the internment camp at Liverpool, as an enemy alien.
Geoffrey Grigson wrote in his Recollections: "When at last two hard-faced Bow Street runners arrived in the early hours of the morning to take... I managed, clutching my pyjama trousers, to catch them up with the best parting present I could think of, an elegant little edition, a new edition, of Shakespeare's Sonnets." Pevsner was released after three months on the intervention of, among others, Frank Pick Director-General of the Ministry of Information. He spent some time in the months after the Blitz clearing bomb debris, wrote reviews and art criticism for the Ministry of Information's Die Zeitung, an anti-Nazi publication for Germans living in England, he completed for Penguin Books the Pelican paperback An Outline of European Architecture, which he had begun to develop while in internment. Outline would go into seven editions, be translated into 16 languages, sell more than half a million copies. In 1942, Pevsner secured two regular positions. From 1936 onwards he had been a frequent contributor to the Architectural Review and from 1943 to 1945 he stood in as its acting editor while the regular editor J. M. Richards was on active service.
Under the AR's influence, Pevsner's approach to modern architecture became more complex and more moderate. Early signs of a lifelong interest in Victorian architecture influenced by the Architectural Review, appeared in a series written under the pseudonym of "Peter F. R. Donner": Pevsner's "Treasure Hunts" guided readers down selected London streets, pointing out architectural treasures of the 19th century, he was closely involved with the Review's proprietor, H. de C. Hastings, in evolving the magazine's theories on picturesque planning. In 1942, Pevsner was appointed a part-time lecturer at Birkbeck College, London, he lectured at Cambridge University for 30 years, having been Slade professor there for a record six years from 1949 to 1955, would become the Slade professorship at Oxford in 1968. Framing all this was his career as a writer and editor. After moving to England, Pevsn
John Tillotson was the Anglican Archbishop of Canterbury from 1691 to 1694. Tillotson was the son of a Puritan clothier at Haughend, Yorkshire. Little is known of his early youth, his tutor was David Clarkson and he graduated in 1650, being made a fellow of his college in 1651. In 1656 Tillotson became tutor to the son of attorney-general to Oliver Cromwell. About 1661 he was ordained without subscription by a Scottish bishop. Tillotson was present at the Savoy Conference in 1661, remained identified with the Presbyterians until the passing of the Act of Uniformity 1662. Shortly afterwards he became curate of Cheshunt, in June 1663, rector of Kedington, Suffolk, he now devoted himself to an exact study of biblical and patristic catholic writers Basil and Chrysostom. The result of this reading, of the influence of John Wilkins, Master of Trinity College, was seen in the general tone of his preaching, practical rather than theological, concerned with issues of personal morality instead of theoretical doctrine.
This plain style of preaching is reflective of the late 17th century, when the integration of reason into Protestant theology came to be seen as one of its finest attributes against Roman Catholicism. Tillotson himself was tolerant enough towards Roman Catholics, remarking in a famous sermon that while Popery was "gross superstition", yet "Papists, I doubt not, are made like other men." He was a man of the world as well as a divine, in his sermons he exhibited a tact which enabled him at once to win the ear of his audience. In 1664 he became preacher at Lincoln's Inn; the same year he married a niece of Oliver Cromwell. Tillotson employed his controversial weapons with some skill against Roman Catholicism. In 1663 he published a characteristic sermon on "The Wisdom of being Religious," and in 1666 replied to John Sergeant's Sure Footing in Christianity by a pamphlet on the "Rule of Faith." The same year he received the degree of D. D. In 1670 he became prebendary and in 1672 dean of Canterbury.
That latter year he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. In 1675 he edited John Wilkins's Principles of Natural Religion, completing what was left unfinished of it, in 1682 his Sermons. Along with Burnet, Tillotson attended William Russell, Lord Russell on the scaffold in 1683. In 1684, he wrote a Discourse against Transubstantiation, he afterwards enjoyed the friendship of Lady Russell, it was through her that he obtained so much influence with Princess Anne, who followed his advice in regard to the settlement of the crown on William of Orange. He possessed the special confidence of William and Mary, was made clerk of the closet to the king in March 1689, it was chiefly through his advice that the king appointed an ecclesiastical commission for the reconciliation of the Dissenters. In August of this year he was appointed by the chapter of his cathedral to exercise the archiepiscopal jurisdiction of the province of Canterbury during the suspension of Sancroft, he was about the same time named Dean of St Paul's.
Soon afterwards he was elected to succeed Sancroft as Bishop. In 1693 he published four lectures on the Socinian controversy to clear his own name from charges of sympathy with Socinianism in his previous associations with Thomas Firmin, Stephen Nye and others, his attempts to reform certain abuses of the Church of England that of clerical non-residence, awakened much ill-will, of this the Jacobites took advantage, pursuing him to the end of his life with insult and reproach. He died on 22 November 1694. For his manuscript sermons Tillotson's widow received 2500 guineas. Ralph Barker edited some 250 of them together with the "Rule of Faith". In 1752 an edition appeared in 3 vols. with Life by Thomas Birch, compiled from Tillotson's original papers and letters. Various selections from his sermons and works have been published separately. AMS Press, New York, published a modern edition of his works in the 1980s. In his home town of Sowerby, a statue of Tillotson still exists in St. Peter's church and an avenue is named after him in the lower end of the town.
He is buried in the church of St Lawrence Jewry just west of the Bank of England in the City of London. A Discourse Against Transubstantiation A Persuasive to Frequent Communion in the Holy Sacrament of the Lord's Supper Ten Volume Set of the Works of John Tillotson This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Tillotson, John". Encyclopædia Britannica. 26. Cambridge University Press. Gordon, Alexander. "Tillotson, John". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 56. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Rivers, Isabel. "Tillotson, John". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/27449. Bibliographic directory from Project Canterbury
Haverhill is a market town and civil parish in the county of Suffolk, next to the borders of Essex and Cambridgeshire. It lies 47 miles northeast of central London; the town centre lies at the base of a gentle dip in the chalk hills of the Newmarket Ridge. Rapid expansion of the town over the last two decades means that the western edge of Haverhill now includes the hamlet of Hanchet End; the surrounding countryside consists of arable land. Haverhill dates back to at least Saxon times, the town's market is recorded in the Domesday Book. Whilst most of its historical buildings were lost to the great fire on 14 June 1667, one notable Tudor-era house remains as well as many interesting Victorian buildings. Following a planning review in 1956, Haverhill was targeted for expansion; this was to resettle communities from London, devastated during the Second World War. As part of this plan, new housing settlements and new factories were built. A review in 1962 planned for a threefold increase in population from the population of 5,446.
This influx of people changed many aspects of life in Haverhill. One noticeable change is that the local Suffolk accent has been replaced by a London/South-east England accent characterised as Estuary English; the expansion was not without friction. Residents who moved to the newly developed areas complained about the housing density and lack of amenities in a 1968 Man Alive documentary. Nowadays, Haverhill is predominantly a young town; the small town centre is surrounded by many large housing developments, completed at various periods between the 1950s and the present. Haverhill's economy is dominated by industry, a large industrial area on the southern side of the town is home to a large number of manufacturing companies. Scientific firms including Sanofi and Sigma-Aldrich have plants in the town, as do International Flavors & Fragrances, some waste processing and construction firms. A business park has been built on the industrial estate, alongside the bypass. A weekly market is held in the town in the High Street each Saturday.
A smaller market is held each Friday in the town's market square. Haverhill has two Non-League football clubs, Haverhill Rovers F. C. and Haverhill Borough F. C. who both play in the Eastern Counties Football League. The two clubs share the New Croft ground; the town has a tennis club, affiliated with the Lawn Tennis Association. Other sporting clubs in the town include a cricket club, a rugby club, an angling club. Since 2013 Haverhill has been home to Suffolk's only baseball team, Haverhill Blackjacks, who play in the British Baseball Federation Single-A South league, who play their home games at the New Croft. There are various sporting activities available in Haverhill, including a leisure centre, an 18-hole golf course, a dance school, a Skatepark. Haverhill Arts Centre is housed within the grade II listed town hall, features a cinema as well as hosting live music, drama and comedy. A 5-screen multiplex cinema complex was opened in October 2008. From 2007 to 2013 the town was home to The Centre for Computing History, a computer museum established to tell the story of the Information Age.
West Suffolk Swimming Club formed in 1998 from the merger of two local swimming clubs and is now becoming one of the largest competitive swimming clubs in East Anglia. They operate from three pools located at the Bury St Edmunds Leisure Centre, Haverhill Leisure and Culford School. There was once a railway on the property of Tesco; the A1307 road is the only major road that connects Haverhill to Cambridge and the A11 and the M11 motorway. This route evenings; the A1307 is classified as a high risk of casualty route. A proposal exists to develop the route whereby a new dual carriage way would be built from Haverhill to Cambridge, keeping the original road open as a feeder road and local bus stop route. Local bus services on this route are provided by Stagecoach: routes 13, 13A, 13B and X13 run every 30 min during the day, every 60 min evenings and Sundays; the bus station in Haverhill provides local services to some of the surrounding towns and villages. The town is one of the largest towns in England without one.
It once had two interconnected railways. The Stour Valley Railway ran from Cambridge to Sudbury and beyond via Haverhill North whilst the Colne Valley and Halstead Railway ran from Haverhill South to Marks Tey via Castle Hedingham and Halstead. For the most part, Haverhill North was used as the passenger train terminus for both the Stour Valley and Colne Valley railways to allow interchange between the two. Both stations are now demolished, but many bridges and embankments are still visible in Haverhill and beyond.'Rail Haverhill' is leading a campaign to re-open the railway between Haverhill and Cambridge. The campaign is supported by the town's MP, Matthew Hancock, a feasibility study is underway. For national and international flights, Haverhill is close to London Stansted Airport, which lies 21 miles to the south; the much smaller Cambridge City Airport serves some domestic flights. In 2
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
East of England
The East of England is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It was created in 1994 and was adopted for statistics from 1999, it includes the ceremonial counties of Bedfordshire, Essex, Hertfordshire and Suffolk. Essex has the highest population in the region, its population at the 2011 census was 5,847,000. Bedford, Basildon, Southend-on-Sea, Ipswich, Colchester and Cambridge are the region's most populous towns; the southern part of the region lies in the London commuter belt. The region has the lowest elevation range in the UK. North Cambridgeshire and the Essex Coast have most of the around 5% of the region, below 10 metres above sea level; the Fens are in North Cambridgeshire, notable for the lowest point in the country in the land of the village of Holme 2.75 metres below mean sea level, once Whittlesey Mere. The highest point is at Clipper Down at 817 ft, in the far south-western corner of the region in the Ivinghoe Hills. Basildon and Harlow, with Stevenage and Hemel Hempstead, were main New Towns in the 1950s and 1960s, with much industry located there.
In the late 1960s, the Roskill Commission considered Thurleigh in Bedfordshire, Nuthampstead in Hertfordshire and Foulness in Essex as a possible third airport for London. The East of England succeeded the standard statistical region East Anglia; the East of England civil defence region was identical to today's region. England between the Wash and just south of the town of Colchester has since post-Roman times been and continues to be known as East Anglia, including the county traversing the west of this line, Cambridgeshire; the inclusion of Essex as part of East Anglia is open to debate, notably because it was a Saxon kingdom, separate from the kingdom of the East Angles. Essex, despite meaning East-Saxons formed part of the South East England, as did Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire, a mixture of definite and debatable Home Counties; the earliest use of the term is from 1695. Charles Davenant, in An essay upon ways and means of supplying the war, wrote, "The Eleven Home Counties, which are thought in Land Taxes to pay more than their proportion..." cited a list including these four.
The term does not appear to have been used in taxation since the 18th century. East Anglia is one of the driest parts of the United Kingdom with average rainfall ranging from 450 mm to 750 mm; this is because low pressure systems and weather fronts from the Atlantic have lost a lot of their moisture over land by the time they reach Eastern England. However the Fens in Cambridgeshire are prone to flooding. Winter is cool but non-prevailing cold easterly winds can affect the area from the continent, these can bring heavy snowfall if the winds interact with a low pressure system over the Atlantic or France. Northerly winds can be cold but are not as cold as easterly winds. Westerly winds bring milder and wetter weather. Southerly winds bring mild air but chill if coming from further east than Spain. Spring is a transitional season that can be chilly to start with but is warm by late-April/May; the weather at this time is changeable and showery. Summer is warm and continental air from mainland Europe or the Azores High leads to at least a few weeks of hot, balmy weather with prolonged warm to hot weather.
The number of summer storms from the Atlantic, such as the remnants of a tropical storm coincides with the location of the jet stream. The East tends to receive much less of their rain than the other regions. Autumn is mild with some days being unsettled and rainy and others warm. At least part of September and early October in the East have warm and settled weather but only in rare years is there an Indian summer where fine weather marks the entire traditional harvest season; the most deprived districts, according to the Indices of deprivation 2007 in the region are, in descending order, Great Yarmouth, Luton and Ipswich. At county level, after Luton and Peterborough, which have a similar level of deprivation, in descending order there is Southend-on-Sea Thurrock; the least deprived districts, in descending order, are South Cambridgeshire, Mid Bedfordshire, East Hertfordshire, St Albans, Rochford, Huntingdonshire, Mid Suffolk, North Hertfordshire, Three Rivers, South Norfolk, East Cambridgeshire and Suffolk Coastal.
At county level, the least deprived areas in the region, in descending order, are Cambridgeshire and Bedfordshire, with all three having a similar level of deprivation Essex. The region has the lowest proportion of jobless households in the UK – 0.5%. In March 2011 the region's unemployment claimant count was 3.0%. Inside the region, the highest rate is Great Yarmouth with 6.2%, followed by Peterborough and Southend-on-Sea on 4.7%. In the 2015 general election, there was an overall swing of 0.25% from the Conservatives to Labour, the Liberal Democrats lost 16% of its vote. All of Hertfordshire and Suffolk is now Conservative; the region's electorate voted 49% Conservative, 22% Labour, 16% UKIP, 8% Liberal Democrat and 4% Green. Like other regions, the division of seats favours th