Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, organ, or organism. More it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals; the field encompasses drug composition and properties and drug design and cellular mechanisms, organ/systems mechanisms, signal transduction/cellular communication, molecular diagnostics, toxicology, chemical biology and medical applications and antipathogenic capabilities. The two main areas of pharmacology are pharmacokinetics. Pharmacodynamics studies the effects of a drug on biological systems, Pharmacokinetics studies the effects of biological systems on a drug. In broad terms, pharmacodynamics discusses the chemicals with biological receptors, pharmacokinetics discusses the absorption, distribution and excretion of chemicals from the biological systems.
Pharmacology is not synonymous with pharmacy and the two terms are confused. Pharmacology, a biomedical science, deals with the research and characterization of chemicals which show biological effects and the elucidation of cellular and organismal function in relation to these chemicals. In contrast, pharmacy, a health services profession, is concerned with application of the principles learned from pharmacology in its clinical settings. In either field, the primary contrast between the two are their distinctions between direct-patient care, for pharmacy practice, the science-oriented research field, driven by pharmacology; the origins of clinical pharmacology date back to the Middle Ages in Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine, Peter of Spain's Commentary on Isaac, John of St Amand's Commentary on the Antedotary of Nicholas. Clinical pharmacology owes much of its foundation to the work of William Withering. Pharmacology as a scientific discipline did not further advance until the mid-19th century amid the great biomedical resurgence of that period.
Before the second half of the nineteenth century, the remarkable potency and specificity of the actions of drugs such as morphine and digitalis were explained vaguely and with reference to extraordinary chemical powers and affinities to certain organs or tissues. The first pharmacology department was set up by Rudolf Buchheim in 1847, in recognition of the need to understand how therapeutic drugs and poisons produced their effects. Early pharmacologists focused on natural substances plant extracts. Pharmacology developed in the 19th century as a biomedical science that applied the principles of scientific experimentation to therapeutic contexts. Today pharmacologists use genetics, molecular biology and other advanced tools to transform information about molecular mechanisms and targets into therapies directed against disease, defects or pathogens, create methods for preventative care and personalized medicine; the word "pharmacology" is derived from Greek φάρμακον, pharmakon, "drug, spell" and -λογία, -logia "study of", "knowledge of".
The discipline of pharmacology can be divided into many sub disciplines each with a specific focus. Clinical pharmacology is the basic science of pharmacology with an added focus on the application of pharmacological principles and methods in the medical clinic and towards patient care and outcomes. Neuropharmacology is the study of the effects of medication on central and peripheral nervous system functioning. Psychopharmacology known as behavioral pharmacology, is the study of the effects of medication on the psyche, observing changed behaviors of the body and mind, how molecular events are manifest in a measurable behavioral form. Psychopharmacology is an interdisciplinary field which studies behavioral effects of psychoactive drugs, it incorporates approaches and techniques from neuropharmacology, animal behavior and behavioral neuroscience, is interested in the behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms of action of psychoactive drugs. Another goal of behavioral pharmacology is to develop animal behavioral models to screen chemical compounds with therapeutic potentials.
People in this field use small animals to study psychotherapeutic drugs such as antipsychotics and anxiolytics, drugs of abuse such as nicotine and methamphetamine. Ethopharmacology is a term, in use since the 1960s and derives from the Greek word ἦθος ethos meaning character and "pharmacology" the study of drug actions and mechanism. Cardiovascular pharmacology is the study of the effects of drugs on the entire cardiovascular system, including the heart and blood vessels. Pharmacogenetics is clinical testing of genetic variation that gives rise to differing response to drugs. Pharmacogenomics is the application of genomic technologies to drug discovery and further characterization of older drugs. Pharmacoepidemiology is the study of the effects of drugs in large numbers of people. Safety pharmacology specialises in detecting and investigating potential undesirable pharmacodynamic effects of new chemical entities on physiological functions in relation to exposure in the therapeutic range and above.
Systems pharmacology is
Sun Yat-sen University
Sun Yat-sen University, abbreviated SYSU and colloquially known in Chinese as Zhongda known as Zhongshan University, is a major Chinese public research university located in Guangzhou, China. It was founded in 1924 by and named after Dr. Sun Yat-sen, a revolutionary and the founding father of the Republic of China. With an educational tradition spanning nearly 100 years, the University has always been a preeminent research and cultural centre and the premier location for talent development in Southern China, has developed into a modern comprehensive university that enjoys a reputation as a top-tier university nationally and a renowned university internationally, it is a Chinese Ministry of Education Class A Double First Class University. The school's main campus referred to as the South Campus, is located in Haizhu District, inheriting the campus of the former Lingnan University. With its five campuses in the three cities of Guangzhou and Shenzhen, ten affiliated hospitals, the University is striving to become a world-class university and global centre of learning.
In ARWU World University Rankings 2018, Sun Yat-sen University ranks Top 6 among all universities in Greater China, Top 121 among all universities in the world. Ranked among the top-tier universities in mainland China, Sun Yat-sen University provides undergraduate and graduate instruction in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, medical science and managerial science; the university's assets include the world's second fastest supercomputer Tianhe-2, valued at 2.4 billion yuan. The university has the largest affiliated hospital system in mainland China; the university's Zhuhai Campus owns the largest teaching building in Asia measured by acreage. Two of the university's business education institutions, Sun Yat-sen Business School and Lingnan College are accredited by EQUIS, AACSB, AMBA. Only 3 business schools in mainland China hold this triple accreditation. In the beginning all the Sun Yat-sen Universities were adopted a statism educational model and based-on Dr. Sun Yat-sen's political philosophy, present-day Sun Yat-sen University is the result of multiple mergers as well as splits and restructurings that have involved more than a dozen academic institutions over time.
The most recent merger happened in 2001, when Sun Yat-sen University of Medical Science merged with Sun Yat-sen University and became Sun Yat-sen College of Medical Science. In 1924, Dr. Sun Yat-sen founded the National Canton University and inscribed in his own handwriting the school motto of "Study Extensively, Enquire Accurately, Reflect Carefully, Discriminate Clearly, Practise Earnestly." After the death of Dr. Sun Yat-sen, the national government, set up during the first cooperation between the Communists and Nationalists formally decreed to change its name to Sun Yat-sen University on July 17, 1926, in memory of Dr. Sun Yat-sen. In 1926, there were five National Sun Yat-sen Universities: National First Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou, National Second Sun Yat-sen University in Wuhan, National Third Sun Yat-sen University in Zhejiang, National Fourth Sun Yat-sen University in Nanjing (the current Nanjing University, National Fifth Sun Yat-sen University in Zhengzhou. In the 1930s, there were seven schools in the university: the Schools of Arts, Law, Agricultural Studies and Education.
In 1935, Tsinghua University, Peking University and Sun Yat-sen University set up the first graduate schools in China and began to enroll graduate students. In the 1950s, colleges and departments were readjusted nationwide, Sun Yat-sen University became a national top-tier comprehensive university with the liberal arts and sciences as its backbone disciplines. One of the predecessors of the Sun Yat-sen University of Medical Science was the Pok Tsai Medical School, founded in 1866, was the earliest institution of learning of western medicine in China, where Sun Yat-sen once studied and engaged in revolutionary activities; the Pok Tsai Medical School evolved into the College of Medicine of Lingnan University in 1936. The Kung Yee Medical School and Hospital in Guangzhou was founded in 1908. In 1925, the Kung Yee institutions were taken over by the government and became the Medical Department of the National First Sun Yat-sen University. In 1953, the Colleges of Medicine in Sun Yat-sen University and Lingnan University merged to form the College of Medicine of South China, joined by the Guangdong Guanghua College of Medicine in 1954.
The university was renamed Guangzhou College of Medicine and Sun Yat-sen College of Medical Science successively, Sun Yat-sen University of Medical Science in 1985, which has developed steadfastly into a comprehensive medical university with multi-schools and multiple levels, has reached national advanced level and achieved remarkable successes in scientific research in medical genetics, tumor study, parasite study, the kidney disease of internal medicine, organ transplant, infectious liver disease, biological medical project and molecular medical science. In 2001, Sun Yat-sen University of Medical Science merged with Sun Yat-sen University and became Sun Yat-sen College of Medical Science. Lingnan University was a private university established by Andrew Happer, MD and a group of American missionaries in
Columbia University is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City. Established in 1754, Columbia is the oldest institution of higher education in New York and the fifth-oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, it is one of nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence, seven of which belong to the Ivy League. It has been ranked by numerous major education publications as among the top ten universities in the world. Columbia was established as King's College by royal charter of George II of Great Britain in reaction to the founding of Princeton University in New Jersey, it was renamed Columbia College in 1784 following the Revolutionary War and in 1787 was placed under a private board of trustees headed by former students Alexander Hamilton and John Jay. In 1896, the campus was moved from Madison Avenue to its current location in Morningside Heights and renamed Columbia University. Columbia scientists and scholars have played an important role in the development of notable scientific fields and breakthroughs including: brain-computer interface.
The Columbia University Physics Department has been affiliated with 33 Nobel Prize winners as alumni, faculty or research staff, the third most of any American institution behind MIT and Harvard. In addition, 22 Nobel Prize winners in Physiology and Medicine have been affiliated with Columbia, the third most of any American institution; the university's research efforts include the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Goddard Institute for Space Studies and accelerator laboratories with major technology firms such as IBM. Columbia is one of the fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities and was the first school in the United States to grant the M. D. degree. The university administers the Pulitzer Prize annually. Columbia is organized into twenty schools, including three undergraduate schools and numerous graduate schools, it maintains research centers outside of the United States known as Columbia Global Centers. In 2018, Columbia's undergraduate acceptance rate was 5.1%, making it one of the most selective colleges in the United States, the second most selective in the Ivy League after Harvard.
Columbia is ranked as the 3rd best university in the United States by U. S. News & World Report behind Princeton and Harvard. In athletics, the Lions field varsity teams in 29 sports as a member of the NCAA Division I Ivy League conference; the university's endowment stood at $10.9 billion in 2018, among the largest of any academic institution. As of 2018, Columbia's alumni and affiliates include: five Founding Fathers of the United States — among them an author of the United States Constitution and co-author of the Declaration of Independence. S. presidents. Discussions regarding the founding of a college in the Province of New York began as early as 1704, at which time Colonel Lewis Morris wrote to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, the missionary arm of the Church of England, persuading the society that New York City was an ideal community in which to establish a college. However, it was not until the founding of the College of New Jersey across the Hudson River in New Jersey that the City of New York considered founding a college.
In 1746, an act was passed by the general assembly of New York to raise funds for the foundation of a new college. In 1751, the assembly appointed a commission of ten New York residents, seven of whom were members of the Church of England, to direct the funds accrued by the state lottery towards the foundation of a college. Classes were held in July 1754 and were presided over by the college's first president, Dr. Samuel Johnson. Dr. Johnson was the only instructor of the college's first class, which consisted of a mere eight students. Instruction was held in a new schoolhouse adjoining Trinity Church, located on what is now lower Broadway in Manhattan; the college was founded on October 31, 1754, as King's College by royal charter of King George II, making it the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of New York and the fifth oldest in the United States. In 1763, Dr. Johnson was succeeded in the presidency by Myles Cooper, a graduate of The Queen's College, an ardent Tory. In the charged political climate of the American Revolution, his chief opponent in discussions at the college was an undergraduate of the class of 1777, Alexander Hamilton.
The American Revolutionary War broke out in 1776, was catastrophic for the operation of King's College, which suspended instruction for eight years beginning in 1776 with the arrival of the Continental Army. The suspension continued through the military occupation of New York City by British troops until their departure in 1783; the college's library was looted and its sole building requisitioned for use as a military hospital first by American and British forces. Loyalists were forced to abandon their King's College in New York, seized by the rebels and renamed Columbia College; the Loyalists, led by Bishop Charles Inglis fled to Windsor, Nova Scotia, where the
University of Louisville
The University of Louisville is a public university in Louisville, Kentucky, a member of the Kentucky state university system. When founded in 1798, it was the first city-owned public university in the United States and one of the first universities chartered west of the Allegheny Mountains; the university is mandated by the Kentucky General Assembly to be a "Preeminent Metropolitan Research University". The university enrolls students from 118 of 120 Kentucky counties, all 50 U. S. states, 116 countries around the world. The University of Louisville School of Medicine is touted for the first self-contained artificial heart transplant surgery as well as the first successful hand transplantation; the University Hospital is credited with the first civilian ambulance, the nation's first accident services, now known as an emergency department, one of the first blood banks in the US. Between 1999 and 2006 Louisville was one of the fastest growing medical research institutions according to National Institutes of Health rankings.
As of 2006, the melanoma clinic ranked third in among public universities in NIH funding, the neurology research program fourth, the spinal cord research program 10th. Louisville is known for its Louisville Cardinals athletics programs. Since 2005 the Cardinals have made appearances in the NCAA Division I men's basketball Final Four in 2005, 2012, 2013, football Bowl Championship Series Orange Bowl in 2007 and Sugar Bowl in 2013, the College Baseball World Series 2007, 2013, 2014, 2017, the women's basketball Final Four in 2009, 2013, 2018, the men's soccer national championship game in 2010; the Louisville Cardinals Women's Volleyball program has three-peated as champions of the Big East Tournament, were Atlantic Coast Conference Champions in 2015 and 2017. Women's track and field program has won Outdoor Big East titles in 2008, 2009 and 2010 and an Indoor Big East title in 2011; the University of Louisville traces its roots to a charter granted in 1798 by the Kentucky General Assembly to establish a school of higher learning in the newly founded town of Louisville.
It ordered the sale of 6,000 acres of South Central Kentucky land to underwrite construction, joined on April 3, 1798 by eight community leaders who began local fund raising for what was known as the Jefferson Seminary. It opened 15 years and offered college and high school level courses in a variety of subjects, it was headed by Edward Mann Butler from 1813 to 1816, who ran the first public school in Kentucky in 1829 and is considered Kentucky's first historian. Despite the Jefferson Seminary's early success, pressure from newly established public schools and media critiques of it as "elitist" would force its closure in 1829. Eight years in 1837, the Louisville City council established the Louisville Medical Institute at the urging of renowned physician and medical author Charles Caldwell; as he had earlier at Lexington's Transylvania University, Caldwell led LMI into becoming one of the leading medical schools west of the Allegheny Mountains. In 1840, the Louisville Collegiate institute, a rival medical school, was established after an LMI faculty dispute.
It opened in 1844 on land near the present day Health sciences campus. In 1846, the Kentucky legislature combined the Louisville Medical Institute, the Louisville Collegiate Institution, a newly created law school into the University of Louisville, on a campus just east of Downtown Louisville; the LCI folded soon afterwards. The university experienced rapid growth in the 20th century, adding new schools in the liberal arts, graduate studies, engineering and social work. In 1923, the school purchased what is today the Belknap Campus, where it moved its liberal arts programs and law school, with the medical school remaining downtown; the school had attempted to purchase a campus donated by the Belknap family in The Highlands area in 1917, but a citywide tax increase to pay for it was voted down. The Belknap Campus was named after the family for their efforts. In 1926, the building that would be dedicated as Grawemeyer Hall, was built. In 1931, the university established the Louisville Municipal College for Negroes on the former campus of Simmons University, as a compromise plan to desegregation.
As a part of the university, the school had an equal standing with the school's other colleges. It was dissolved in 1951. During World War II, Louisville was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. In the second half of the 20th century, schools were opened for business and justice administration. Talk of Louisville joining the public university system of Kentucky began in the 1960s; as a municipally funded school, the movement of people to the suburbs of Louisville created budget shortfalls for the school and forced tuition prices to levels unaffordable for most students. At the same time, the school's well established medicine and law schools were seen as assets for the state system. Still, there was opposition to the university becoming public, both from faculty and alumni who feared losing the small, close-knit feel of the campus, from universities in the state system who feared funding cuts.
After several years of heated debate, the university joined the state system in 1970, a move orchestrated by Kentucky governor and Louisville alumnus Louie Nunn. The first years in the public system