Geography of Yukon
Yukon is in the northwestern corner of Canada and is bordered by Alaska and the Northwest Territories. The sparsely populated territory abounds with natural scenic beauty, with snowmelt lakes and perennial white-capped mountains, including many of Canada's highest mountains; the territory's climate is Arctic in the north, subarctic in the central region, between north of Whitehorse and Old Crow, has a humid continental climate in the far south, south of Whitehorse and in areas close to the British Columbia border. The long sunshine hours in the short summer allow a profusion of flowers and fruit to blossom. Most of the territory is boreal forest, tundra being the main vegetation zone only in the extreme north and at high elevations; the territory is about the shape of a right triangle, bordering the American state of Alaska to the west, the Northwest Territories to the east and British Columbia to the south. Yukon covers 482,443 km2, of which 474,391 km2 is 8,052 km2 is water, it is bounded on the south by the 60th parallel of latitude.
Its northern coast is on the Beaufort Sea. Its western boundary is 141° west longitude, its ragged eastern boundary follows the divide between the Yukon River Basin and the Mackenzie River watershed to the east in the Mackenzie mountains. Except for the coastal plain on the Beaufort Sea coast, most of Yukon is part of the American cordillera; the terrain includes mountain ranges and river valleys. The southwest is dominated by the Kluane icefields in Kluane National Park and Reserve, the largest non-polar icefields in the world. Kluane National Park contains eight of Canada's ten highest mountains, including the five highest, all in the Saint Elias Mountains. A number of glaciers flow out of the icefields, including the Logan Glacier, the Hubbard Glacier and the Kaskawulsh Glacier. Permafrost is common; the northern part of Yukon has continuous permafrost. The southern Yukon has scattered patches of permafrost. Two major faults, the Denali Fault and the Tintina Fault have created major valleys called trenches: the Shakwak Trench and the Tintina Trench.
The Shakwak Trench separates the Kluane ranges from other mountain ranges north of it. The Haines Highway and the Alaska Highway north of Haines Junction are built in the Shakwak Trench; the Tintina Trench bisects the Yukon from northwest to southeast and its edges have rich mineral deposits including the Klondike gold and the lead-zinc deposits near Faro. The volcanoes in Yukon are part of the circle of volcanoes around the Pacific Ocean known as the Pacific Ring of Fire. Yukon includes more than 100 separate volcanic centres; the Fort Selkirk Volcanic Field in central Yukon is the northernmost Holocene volcanic field in Canada, including the young active cinder cone, Volcano Mountain. A volcanic field in south-central Yukon is called Alligator Lake volcanic complex, it contains two well-preserved cinder cones. Lava from the cones were erupted at the same time. Volcanoes in south-western Yukon are part of the Wrangle Volcanic Field, related to the subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the North American Plate at the easternmost end of the Avalanche Trench.
Yukon volcanoes include: Volcano Mountain Alligator Lake volcanic complex Fort Selkirk Volcanic Field Pelly Formation Bennett Lake Caldera Sifton Range volcanic complex Rabbit Mountain Felsite Peak Ibex Mountain Mount McNeil Miles Canyon Basalts Ne Ch'e Ddhawa Skukum Group Upper Becker Creek Cone The Saint Elias mountains are part of the Coast Mountains which range from southern British Columbia to Alaska and cover the southeastern Yukon. While the Saint Elias Mountains contain the highest mountains, there are numerous other mountain ranges, from the British Mountains in the far north and the Richardson Mountains in the northeast, both of which are part of the Brooks Range, to the Selwyn Mountains and Mackenzie Mountains in the east, the Cassiar Mountains in the south-east, the Pelly Mountains in the central Yukon, the Ogilvie Mountains north of Dawson City and along the Dempster Highway. Yukon mountain ranges include: Brooks Range British Mountains, Yukon Richardson Mountains, Yukon Cassiar Mountains, British Columbia and Yukon Mackenzie Mountains, Northwest Territories and Yukon Logan Mountains, Yukon Selwyn Mountains, Yukon Hess Mountains, Yukon Nadaleen Range, Yukon Bonnet Plume Range, Yukon Wernecke Mountains, Yukon Knorr Range, Yukon Pacific Coast Ranges, Mexico to Alaska Coast Mountains in British Columbia and Alaska Panhandle Saint Elias Mountains, southern Alaska and British Columbia Kluane Ranges, Yukon Alsek Ranges, British Columbia and Alaska Yukon Ranges Anvil Range Dawson Range Miners Range, Yukon Nisling Range Ogilvie Mountains, Yukon Nahoni Range Pelly Mountains, Yukon Big Salmon Range, Yukon Glenlyon Range Saint Cyr Range Ruby Range, Yukon See also: List of Yukon lakes and List of Yukon rivers Most of the territory is in the watershed of its namesake, the Yukon River, which flows into the Bering Sea.
Southern Yukon is dotted with a large number of large and narrow glacier-fed alpine lakes, most of which flow into the Yukon River system. The larger lakes include: Teslin Lake, Atlin Lake, Tagish Lake, Marsh Lake, Lake Laberge, Kusawa Lake, Kluane Lake. Bennett Lake on the Klondike Gold Rush trail is a smaller lake flowing into Tagish Lake. Other rivers flow either directly into the Pacific Ocean or directly or indirectly into the Arctic Ocean; the Alsek-Tatshenshini drainage flows directly into the Pacific from southwestern Yukon. A number of rivers in northern Yukon flow directly into the Arctic Ocean; the two main Yukon rivers flowing into the Mackenzie Riv
Mountain peaks of Canada
This article comprises three sortable tables of major mountain peaks of Canada. The summit of a mountain or hill may be measured in three principal ways: The topographic elevation of a summit measures the height of the summit above a geodetic sea level; the first table below ranks the 100 highest major summits of Canada by elevation. The topographic prominence of a summit is a measure of how high the summit rises above its surroundings; the second table below ranks the 50 most prominent summits of Canada. The topographic isolation of a summit measures how far the summit lies from its nearest point of equal elevation; the third table below ranks the 50 most isolated major summits of Canada. Of the 100 highest major summits of Canada, five peaks exceed 5000 metres elevation, 19 peaks exceed 4000 metres, 67 peaks exceed 3000 metres, all 100 peaks equal or exceed 2706 metres elevation. Of these 100 peaks, 61 are located in British Columbia, 28 in Yukon, 13 in Alberta, one in the Northwest Territories.
Five of these peaks lie on the international border between Yukon and Alaska, four lie on the international border between British Columbia and Alaska, three lie on the border between British Columbia and Alberta, one lies on the border between British Columbia and Yukon. Of the 50 most prominent summits of Canada, only Mount Logan exceeds 4000 metres of topographic prominence, five peaks exceed 3000 metres, 41 peaks exceed 2000 metres, all 50 peaks equal or exceed 1866 metres of topographic prominence. All of these peaks are ultra-prominent summits. Of these 50 peaks, 34 are located in British Columbia, nine in Yukon, six in Nunavut, three in Alberta. Three of these peaks lie on the international border between Yukon and Alaska, one lies on the international border between British Columbia and Alaska, two lie on the border between British Columbia and Alberta, two lie on the border between British Columbia and Yukon. Of the 50 most isolated major summits of Canada, 12 peaks exceed 500 kilometres of topographic isolation, 31 peaks exceed 200 kilometres, all 50 peaks exceed 100 kilometres of topographic isolation.
Of these 50 peaks, 17 are located in British Columbia, 13 in Nunavut, seven in Yukon, four in Newfoundland and Labrador, four in Quebec, three in the Northwest Territories, two in Alberta, one each in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Two of these peaks lie on the international border between British Columbia and Alaska, two lie on the border between British Columbia and Alberta. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of Greenland List of mountain peaks of Canada List of the highest major summits of Canada List of the major 4000-metre summits of Canada List of the major 3000-metre summits of Canada List of the most prominent summits of Canada List of the ultra-prominent summits of Canada List of the most isolated major summits of Canada List of extreme summits of Canada List of mountain peaks of the Rocky Mountains List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of México List of mountain peaks of Central America List of mountain peaks of the Caribbean Canada Geography of Canada Category:Mountains of Canada commons:Category:Mountains of Canada Physical geography Topography Topographic elevation Topographic prominence Topographic isolation Natural Resources Canada Canadian Geographical Names @ NRC Bivouac.com Peakbagger.com Peaklist.org Peakware.com Summitpost.org
In modern mapping, a topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief using contour lines, but using a variety of methods. Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show both man-made features. A topographic survey is published as a map series, made up of two or more map sheets that combine to form the whole map. A contour line is a line connecting places of equal elevation. Natural Resources Canada provides this description of topographic maps:These maps depict in detail ground relief, forest cover, administrative areas, populated areas, transportation routes and facilities, other man-made features. Other authors define topographic maps by contrasting them with another type of map. However, in the vernacular and day to day world, the representation of relief is popularly held to define the genre, such that small-scale maps showing relief are called "topographic"; the study or discipline of topography is a much broader field of study, which takes into account all natural and man-made features of terrain.
Topographic maps are based on topographical surveys. Performed at large scales, these surveys are called topographical in the old sense of topography, showing a variety of elevations and landforms; this is in contrast to older cadastral surveys, which show property and governmental boundaries. The first multi-sheet topographic map series of an entire country, the Carte géométrique de la France, was completed in 1789; the Great Trigonometric Survey of India, started by the East India Company in 1802 taken over by the British Raj after 1857 was notable as a successful effort on a larger scale and for determining heights of Himalayan peaks from viewpoints over one hundred miles distant. Topographic surveys were prepared by the military to assist in planning for battle and for defensive emplacements; as such, elevation information was of vital importance. As they evolved, topographic map series became a national resource in modern nations in planning infrastructure and resource exploitation. In the United States, the national map-making function, shared by both the Army Corps of Engineers and the Department of the Interior migrated to the newly created United States Geological Survey in 1879, where it has remained since.1913 saw the beginning of the International Map of the World initiative, which set out to map all of Earth's significant land areas at a scale of 1:1 million, on about one thousand sheets, each covering four degrees latitude by six or more degrees longitude.
Excluding borders, each sheet was up to 66 cm wide. Although the project foundered, it left an indexing system that remains in use. By the 1980s, centralized printing of standardized topographic maps began to be superseded by databases of coordinates that could be used on computers by moderately skilled end users to view or print maps with arbitrary contents and scale. For example, the Federal government of the United States' TIGER initiative compiled interlinked databases of federal and local political borders and census enumeration areas, of roadways and water features with support for locating street addresses within street segments. TIGER was used in the 1990 and subsequent decennial censuses. Digital elevation models were compiled from topographic maps and stereographic interpretation of aerial photographs and from satellite photography and radar data. Since all these were government projects funded with taxes and not classified for national security reasons, the datasets were in the public domain and usable without fees or licensing.
TIGER and DEM datasets facilitated Geographic information systems and made the Global Positioning System much more useful by providing context around locations given by the technology as coordinates. Initial applications were professionalized forms such as innovative surveying instruments and agency-level GIS systems tended by experts. By the mid-1990s user-friendly resources such as online mapping in two and three dimensions, integration of GPS with mobile phones and automotive navigation systems appeared; as of 2011, the future of standardized, centrally printed topographical maps is left somewhat in doubt. Topographic maps have multiple uses in the present day: any type of geographic planning or large-scale architecture; the various features shown on the map are represented by conventional symbols. For example, colors can be used to indicate a classification of roads; these signs are explained in the margin of the map, or on a separately published characteristic sheet. Topographic maps are commonly called contour maps or topo maps.
In the United States, where the primary national series is organized by a strict 7.5-minute grid, they are called topo quads or quadrangles. Topographic maps conventionally show land contours, by means of contour lines. Contour lines are curves. In other words, every point on the marked line of 100 m elevation is 100 m above mean sea level; these maps show
The Mackenzie Mountains are a mountain range forming part of the Yukon-Northwest Territories boundary between the Liard and Peel rivers. The range is named in honour of Canada's second prime minister, Alexander Mackenzie, as well as the explorer. Nahanni National Park Reserve and Nááts'ihch'oh National Park Reserve are in the Mackenzie Mountains; the mining town of Tungsten, site of the Cantung Mine is in the Mackenzie Mountains. Only two roads lead into the Mackenzie Mountains, both in Yukon: the Nahanni Range Road leading to the townsite of Tungsten and the Canol Road leading to the Macmillan Pass; the highest mountain in this range is Keele Peak at 2,972 m. The second highest mountain is Mount Nirvana, it is, at 2,773 m, the highest mountain in the Northwest Territories. The Silurian fish family Archipelepididae has been described from specimens found in the Mackenzie Mountains. Canadian GeoNames Database entry Climate change in the Mackenzie Mountains, Liang, L, Kershaw, G. P. Climate Research Mountain goat survey, Flat River area, Western Mackenzie Mountains.
Artier, N. C. L. Dept of Resources and Economic Development, Gov't of the NWT
The Canol Road was part of a project to build the Canol pipeline and a road from Norman Wells, Northwest Territories, to Whitehorse, during World War II. The pipeline no longer exists, but the 449 kilometres long Yukon portion of the road is maintained by the Yukon Government during summer months; the portion of the road that still exists in the NWT is called the Canol Heritage Trail. Both road and trail are incorporated into the Trans-Canada Trail; the Canol Road starts at Johnson's Crossing on the Alaska Highway near the Teslin River bridge, 126 kilometres east of Whitehorse and runs to the Northwest Territories border. The highway joins the Robert Campbell Highway near Ross River, where there is a cable ferry across the Pelly River, an old footbridge, still in use, that once supported the pipeline. Construction and development of the Alaska Highway and airfields along the Northwest Staging Route and provision of military bases in Alaska led to a determination that a source of fuel was required.
High-grade oil was available at Norman Wells, the scheme was to construct a pipeline to Whitehorse. Assorted components, including pieces from Texas, were moved to Whitehorse to construct a refinery. A road was built to provide access to service the pipeline. At first, the effort was to move all construction activity for the pipeline and road to Norman Wells from northeastern Alberta; this required the use of winter roads and river movement, including several portages around rapids, was soon found to be cumbersome, a bottleneck. Construction proceeded both from "Canol Camp" and Whitehorse, the roadway was joined in the vicinity of the Macmillan Pass in the Mackenzie Mountains, on the Yukon–Northwest Territories border, December 31, 1943; the 4 inch pipeline was laid directly on the ground, the high grade of the oil allowed it to flow at −80 °F. Workers on the road and pipeline had to endure mosquitoes, black flies, extreme cold and other difficult conditions. One poster for the company that hired workers warned.
The oil flow commenced in 1944, but was shut down April 1, 1945, having not performed satisfactorily. Some supplementary pipelines were installed to distribute product from the Whitehorse refinery, which closed in 1945. Twelve tankers-full of oil were delivered to Alaska annually in spite of the perceived threat from Japanese occupation of the Aleutians, while Canol only provided the equivalent of one tanker-full; some of the supplementary pipelines remained active into the 1990s, although the line to Skagway, had its flow reversed, it was used by the White Pass and Yukon Route railway to move petroleum products into the Yukon. Portions of the primary pipeline between Whitehorse and Canol was removed and sold for use elsewhere; the refinery was purchased in early 1948 by Imperial Oil and trucked to Alberta for the Leduc oil strike. The roadway is the surviving legacy of the Canol project. Although abandoned in 1946–1947, the southernmost 150 miles was reopened in 1958 to connect Ross River, with the Alaska Highway.
A molybdenum mine operated along this part of the route in the late 1950s. The next 130 miles from Ross River to the Northwest Territories border was reopened in 1972, soon after, mining exploration companies used the route to reach into the N. W. T. Including the use of washed-out, bridgeless roadway to scout for minerals, although none beyond the border have been developed. A barite mine has operated near the north end of the Yukon section; the highway was designated as Yukon Highway 8 until 1978, when it became Yukon Highway 6. The Yukon section of the road is little changed from 1945, although culverts have replaced some of the original one-lane bridges, several one-lane Bailey bridges remain. There are few two-lane bridges on the road. Many are marked with a sign indicating differing vehicle weight limits above and below −35 °C redundant since the road is closed in winter, when such temperatures would happen, it is a hilly road, resembling the original Alaska Highway. The road's alignment is emphasized with signs that show the symbol for winding road.
There are few guardrails, other than a government campground, no facilities except at Ross River. Former Yukon Member of Parliament Erik Nielsen owned a cabin for a retreat at Quiet Lake, at party meetings, some people showed up with signs identifying themselves as delegates for Quiet Lake. Quiet Lake was the location of a small boat used by military officers for recreation during the war; the famous Canadian folk singer Stan Rogers wrote and performed a song called "Canol Road" which names several settlements in the area. Until the late 1980s, it was still possible for automobiles to reach some 15 miles into the N. W. T. Up to the second crossing of the Tsichu River. At the first crossing of that river, vehicles had to ford the river, since the wooden bridge from 1943 had long since collapsed. Since a washout occurred around the Macmillan Pass in 1987 or 1988, only the Yukon side is passable, as it was repaired by the Yukon government; the prospect of the N. W. T. Portion being repaired for automobile use is unlikely, as it is an difficult route in sections and the road condition has badly deteriorated.
If the demand existed for a road between Ross River and the Sahtu region, it would ma
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form and alignment that have arisen from the same cause an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain ranges are segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not have the same geologic structure or petrology, they may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types. Most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earth's land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt.
The Pacific Ring of Fire includes the Andes of South America, extends through the North American Cordillera along the Pacific Coast, the Aleutian Range, on through Kamchatka, Taiwan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, to New Zealand. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the world's longest mountain system; the Alpide belt includes Indonesia and Southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, Caucasus Mountains, Balkan Mountains fold mountain range, the Alps, ends in the Spanish mountains and the Atlas Mountains. The belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges; the Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, 8,848 metres high and traverses the border between China and Nepal. Mountain ranges outside these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Great Dividing Range, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65,000 kilometres.
The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, where mountain ranges can contain sub-ranges. The sub-range relationship is expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains. Equivalently, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians; the parent-child expression extends to the sub-ranges themselves: the Sandwich Range and the Presidential Range are children of the White Mountains, while the Presidential Range is parent to the Northern Presidential Range and Southern Presidential Range. The position of mountains influences climate, such as snow; when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the leeward side, it warms again and is drier, having been stripped of much of its moisture.
A rain shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are subjected to erosional forces which work to tear them down; the basins adjacent to an eroding mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted until the mountains are reduced to low hills and plains; the early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example. As the uplift was occurring some 10,000 feet of Mesozoic sedimentary strata were removed by erosion over the core of the mountain range and spread as sand and clays across the Great Plains to the east; this mass of rock was removed as the range was undergoing uplift. The removal of such a mass from the core of the range most caused further uplift as the region adjusted isostatically in response to the removed weight. Rivers are traditionally believed to be the principal cause of mountain range erosion, by cutting into bedrock and transporting sediment.
Computer simulation has shown that as mountain belts change from tectonically active to inactive, the rate of erosion drops because there are fewer abrasive particles in the water and fewer landslides. Mountains on other planets and natural satellites of the Solar System are isolated and formed by processes such as impacts, though there are examples of mountain ranges somewhat similar to those on Earth. Saturn's moon Titan and Pluto, in particular exhibit large mountain ranges in chains composed of ices rather than rock. Examples include the Mithrim Montes and Doom Mons on Titan, Tenzing Montes and Hillary Montes on Pluto; some terrestrial planets other than Earth exhibit rocky mountain ranges, such as Maxwell Montes on Venus taller than any on Earth and Tartarus Montes on Mars, Jupiter's moon Io has mountain ranges formed from tectonic processes including Boösaule Montes, Dorian Montes, Hi'iaka Montes and Euboea Montes. Peakbagger Ranges Home Page Bivouac.com
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List