Attawapiskat First Nation
The Attawapiskat First Nation is an isolated First Nation located in Kenora District in northern Ontario, Canada, at the mouth of the Attawapiskat River on James Bay. The traditional territory of the Attawapiskat First Nation extends beyond their reserve up the coast to Hudson Bay and hundreds of kilometres inland along river tributaries; the community is connected to other towns along the shore of James Bay by the seasonal ice road/winter road constructed each December, linking it to the towns of Kashechewan First Nation, Fort Albany, Moosonee Attawapiskat, Fort Albany, Kashechewan operate and manage the James Bay Winter Road through a jointly owned corporation named after the Cree word for "our road" kimesskanemenow, the Kimesskanemenow Corporation. Attawapiskat is the most remote northerly link on the 310-kilometre-long road to Moosonee, they control the reserves at Attawapiskat 91 and Attawapiskat 91A. Attawapiskat means "people of the parting of the rocks" from the Swampy Cree language chat-a-wa-pis-shkag.
The Attawapiskat River carved out several clusters of spectacular high limestone islands less than 100 kilometres from its mouth that are unique to the region. These formations are called chat-a-wa-pis-shkag in Swampy Cree. "ncestors of today's Attawapiskat band occupied all the territory from the Kapiskau River in the south, to Hudson Bay in the north, from Akimiski Island in the east to Lake Mississa to the west. This has been contended by the present day chief and council, is supported by documentation in the archives of the HBC, was documented by Honigmann."A land use study was carried out "jointly by the Research Program for Technology Assessment in Subarctic Ontario, the Mushkegowuk Council, its constituent First Nations, the Omushkegowuk Harvesters Association. The overall purpose of the project was to help the regional Council and its associations develop a strategy for natural resource co-management, self-government, sustainable regional development." In 1990 Dr. Fikret Berkes, Distinguished Professor and Canada Research Chair at the University of Manitoba, a team of academics interviewed 925 aboriginal hunters from eight communities of the Mushkegowuk region and James Bay Lowland.
Their results published in 1995, showed "that geographically extensive land use for hunting and fishing persists in the Mushkegowuk region, some 250,000 km2. However, the activity pattern of Omushkego Cree harvesters has changed much over the decades. Although the First Nations control only 900 km2 as Indian reserve land, they continue to use large parts of their traditional territory."In her Masters thesis Jacqueline Hookimaw-Witt, a Muskego-Cree, interviewed elders from Attawapiskat who described in great detail ways in which they continued to harvest and hunt for food, clothing and subsistence to complement store-bought items. Hookimaw-Witt was the first Muskego-Cree to earn a doctorate. Attawapiskat is a coastal community in the western Hudson Bay Lowland, a vast wetland located between the Canadian Shield and James Bay and Hudson Bay; the town or hamlet of Attawapiskat now covers 1.32 km2 of land and is located along the Attawapiskat River, 5 km inland from the James Bay coastline. It is in the James Bay drainage basin.
It is in the Kenora District, in the extreme north of Ontario. Timmins, the nearest urban center, is located 500 km south. Moosonee is 160 km south of Attawapiskat, it is located 52°55′ north and 82°26′ west. The vegetation is subarctic with a coniferous forest in the muskeg. Wildlife includes geese, caribou, beaver, wolves, marten, muskrat and other species. Winter roads constructed each December link Attawapiskat First Nation with Fort Albany First Nation, Kashechewan and Moose Factory to the south; the fertile soil is underlain by silt. It is normal for the river to rise 2 metres; the community has experienced complete flooding. The Attawapiskat kimberlite field is a field of kimberlite pipes in the Canadian Shield located astride the Attawapiskat River on Attawapiskat First Nation land, it is thought to have formed about 180 million years ago in the Jurassic period when the North American Plate moved westward over a centre of upwelling magma called the New England hotspot referred to as the Great Meteor hotspot.
The area is composed of 18 kimberlite pipes of the Attawapiskat kimberlite field, 16 of which are diamondiferous. The Victor Kimberlite is a composition of pyroclastic crater facies and hypabyssal facies, is considered to have a variable diamond grade. Since June 26, 2008, the De Beers open pit Victor Diamond Mine has been in operation mining two pipes in the field at 52°49′14″N 83°53′00″W, about 90 kilometres west of the community of Attawapiskat; the mine expected to produce 600,000 carats of diamonds a year. There are over 2,800 members of Attawapiskat First Natio
Fort Severn First Nation
Fort Severn First Nation is a Cree First Nation band government located on Hudson Bay and is the most northern community in Ontario, Canada. In 2001, the population was 401; the legal name of the reserve is Fort Severn 89, with the main settlement of Fort Severn. The town is linked by winter/ice road called the Wapusk Trail the winter to Peawanuck, Ontario in the east, Shamattawa and Gillam, Manitoba to the west. Fort Severn is policed by an Aboriginal-based service; this area was inhabited for thousands of years by varying cultures of indigenous peoples. At the time of European contact, the historic Swampy Cree, an Algonquian-speaking people, lived in the area. In 1689 the Hudson's Bay Company built Fort Severn at this site naming it Fort James. After years of international competition between the English and French, with their wars playing out in North America, the French attacked the outpost and pillaged it in 1782 when they were allies of the Thirteen Colonies during the American Revolutionary War.
In the early 20th century, when the federal government negotiated a treaty with the First Nations, it set aside land for a native reserve in the Rocksand area at the confluence of the Severn and Sachigo Rivers, with the consent of the leaders at the time. In 1973, the reserve was relocated to the mouth of the Severn River on Hudson Bay, for more direct access to shipping; the reserve achieved full status on January 11, 1980. The local band council consists of an elected chief, a deputy chief, four band councilors. There is no hospital in Fort Severn, with medical needs provided either at the local nursing station or via Keewaytinook Okimakanak Telemedicine link. There are only local roads in town and residents travel by snowmobile or walking; the Fort Severn Airport is located a short distance from the settlement and is accessible by an access road. Wasayo Cree Nation School is the only full functioning school providing primary education needs, it was built in 2016. Keewaytinook Internet High School is housed in a small building and provides distance learning for residents needing secondary education.
Fort James, a British settlement controlled by a governor who reports to the king and who represents Hudson Bay Company, is the principal setting of the 2016 TV series, Frontier. As Ann Foster describes for ScreenerTV, "'Frontier' is set in the coastal settlement of Fort James: A snowy, treacherous pocket of land that would, in a century’s time, become part of Canada." Fort Severn First Nation Stats Canada Question and Answer
Moose Cree First Nation
The Moose Cree First Nation is a Cree First Nation band government in northern Ontario, Canada. Their traditional territory is on the west side of James Bay; the nation has two reserves: Factory Island 1. The name "Moose Factory" comes from its location on the Moose River, as well as from the fur trade era; the officer in charge of the trading post was referred to as the "factor." Another account is that the name originates from the name of the river and a furniture factory, once located within the community. The Cree are an indigenous people of the Subarctic, who hunted and gathered in seasonal migrations. In summer, they traveled on waterways by canoe: fishing and harvesting berries and other food staples. In fall, they hunted waterfowl along the shores of James Bay. Prior to winter, Cree families traveled to their winter settlements, where they hunted and trapped big game and small, fur-bearing animals. Prior to spring thaw, the families hunted waterfowl; this was an annual cycle for the Swampy Cree.
Early exposure to European society influenced Cree lifestyles. The Hudson's Bay Company establishing a trading post for fur in 1673 in the Moose Factory region; as a result, Cree congregated in and around the fur trade post and became exposed to European customs. Moose Factory became Ontario's first English-speaking settlement. In 1905, on behalf of the King of England, treaty commissioners negotiated a treaty with Moose Cree First Nation. Treaty No. 9 was signed on 9 August 1905. The treaty defined two tracts of land to beset aside for use and "benefit" of Moose Cree First Nation; the first tract, Moose Factory Indian Reserve No. 1 occupies two-thirds of Moose Factory Island. The second tract, Moose Factory Indian reserve No. 68 is located 10 miles south of Moose Factory at the mouth of the French River. The population of Moose Cree First Nation was 4,440 in September 2014. Prominent Canadian artist Duane Linklater is Omaskeko Cree, of Moose Cree First Nations, he is represented by Catriona Jeffries Gallery, British Columbia, his work has been shown locally and internationally.
The Moose Cree First Nation Website Indian and Northern Affairs Canada: First Nation Detail Moose Cree Education Authority Mushkegowuk Council
Kingfisher First Nation
Kingfisher First Nation is an Oji-Cree First Nation reserve located 350 kilometres north of Sioux Lookout, Ontario. It is accessible by air all year round, waterways during ice roads in winter; as of December, 2009, the First Nation had a total registered population of 500 people, of which their on-Reserve population was 462. The community speaks the Oji-Cree language, with majority of the population being fluent in English as well. Kingfisher Lake is policed by an Aboriginal-based service. In 1808 the Hudson's Bay Company established an outpost at Big Beaver House, located 12 kilometres southwest of the present Kingfisher Lake reserve. Big Beaver House was frequented by Kingfisher Lake people for trading fur, community activity and freight hauling employment. During 1929-1930 the leaders of Kingfisher Lake First Nation were required to gather at Big Trout Lake to participate in the signing of the adhesion to Treaty 9; as the result of this document, Kingfisher Lake was considered a part of Big Trout Lake Band.
In 1947, Ontario enacted the Trapline Registration and Fee Program which forced the Kingfisher Lake people to outline their ancestral hunting areas into trapping boundaries and to pay for the land use requirements. In 1964 the leaders of Kingfisher Lake decide to establish permanent community and moved to the current location of the reserve lands; as Kingfisher Lake was included in the Big Trout Lake Band and thus had reserve status, formality of gaining band status was achieved in 1975. In 2011, many of the residents were temporarily housed in Ottawa due to forest fires in the surrounding area; the officials of Kingfisher First Nation are elected for a two-year term through the Custom Electoral System. Their council consists of Chief Eddie Mamakwa, Deputy Chief Verna Aganash and three Councillors: Amos Mamakwa, Esther Sakakeep, Samuel Sturgeon; the First Nation is part of the Shibogama First Nations Council, a Regional Chiefs Council, the Nishnawbe Aski Nation, a Tribal Political Organization representing majority of the First Nations in northern Ontario.
The First Nation have reserved three tracts for their Indian Reserve: 596 hectares Kingfisher Lake 1 Indian Reserve, which serves as their main Reserve, containing the community of Kingfisher Lake, Ontario. 5,444.7 hectares Kingfisher 2A Indian Reserve 921.9 hectares Kingfisher 3A Indian Reserve AANDC profile Profile from Chiefs of Ontario 2006 Canadian Census: Kingfisher Lake Indian Reserve 1
Deer Lake First Nation
Deer Lake First Nation is an Oji-Cree First Nation band government in Northern Ontario, located north of Red Lake, Canada. It is one of the few First Nations in Ontario to have signed Treaty 5, it is part of the Nishnawbe Aski Nation. As of December, 2007, the First Nation had 1,072 registered members, of which their on-reserve population was 868. Deer Lake is policed by an Aboriginal-based service; the people of Deer Lake are related to the people of Sandy Lake First Nation and North Spirit Lake First Nation. The three reserves speak a unique dialect of the Anishinaabe language that combines elements of Beren's River Ojibway and Severn Ojibway as spoken at Island Lake in Manitoba. In the local language, the people of Deer Lake call themselves Anishinawbe. In English "Oji-Cree" is becoming the most popular self-designation, while "Cree" remains popular as well. "Ojibway" is used except to refer to the Native people to the south. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada data from 2001 reported that 68% of Deer Lakers learned their native language as their first language with the rest speaking English first.
Public conversation is heard in both languages with the oldest members using native language exclusively, the youngest members using only English. Most adults comfortably navigate between the two, while younger adults and teenagers comprehend the language but speak it. To reverse the trend of language loss, local education efforts have implemented native-language immersion programs in the preschool and early-elementary grades. Literacy in the native language using Cree syllabics is emphasized by the local school and churches. Since the coming of Christianity and syllabic bibles in the early 20th century, Deer Lake has used its own version of the western variant of syllabics in which the "s", "sh", "z", "zh" sounds are combined into one set of characters and some of the finals are different from the more found versions in Ontario and Manitoba; the 1653.6 ha Deer Lake Reserve is within the boundaries of the territory described by Treaty 5. The community of Deer Lake, Ontario is located on this reserve.
It is connected to Pikangikum, Sandy Lake First Nation, North Spirit Lake First Nation by winter/ice roads. Scheduled flights to and from the community are provided by Wasaya Airways. Traditionally, the people of the Deer Lake area were semi-nomadic and like all Anishinaabe peoples organized themselves by doodem. Small groups maintained seasonal camps based on family and clan and moved around according to where the hunting and fishing was best; when the Hudson's Bay Company established fur-trading posts at Big Trout Lake and Island Lake in the 18th century, traditional patterns of living changed little with an increased emphasis on trapping for trade. The Deer Lake area remained inaccessible to white traders and only the men who brought fur to the distant posts had any contact with whites. By the 19th century and changes in the economics of the fur trade had devastating effects on the people of the area. With the boreal forests depleted of fur-bearing animals, the Hudson's Bay Company closed their posts and game remained scarce.
Starvation and disease were all too common during this time. When the HBC returned toward the end of the 19th century, they assigned family names to each of the clans; the Pelican clan became the Meekis family after their patriarch Meekis. The Sucker clan became the Fiddlers and the Quills). Many members of the Caribou and Sturgeon clans were given the surname Rae, while other Sturgeons were designated Mamakeesic after their patriarch; the Cranes were either Kakegamic or Kakepetum after their leaders, two brothers known by those names. At this time, these names were only used in trading, but they would become official with census records and are now the most common surnames found in Deer Lake. By 1900, the people of the area were among the last Indigenous peoples in North America living with no colonial influences. Christianity, which by that time had come to most Oji-Cree communities, Canadian law had no influence in the communities. Under Jack Fiddler a powerful ogema of the Sucker doodem, the people survived in the traditional way.
This, began to change. The arrival of North-West Mounted Police officers in 1906 to arrest Fiddler and his brother Joseph marked the first time most Deer Lakers had seen a white person; the elderly Fiddler brothers were taken away. In 1910, Robert Fiddler, the son of Jack, signed Treaty 5 at the east end of Deer Lake, the Deer Lake First Nation began its formal relationship with the government of Canada and the British Crown; the Fiddlers and many others soon left for better farming lands at Sandy Lake and others still went to settle at North Spirit Lake, the only members of the "Deer Lake Band" still living at Deer Lake were the Meekis and Quill families. The population of the entire band at all three locations at this time was 78 individuals, but this number grew with an influx of newcomers from Island Lake in Manitoba and numbered over 300 in 1929, it was that year that commissioners representing the Province of Ontario, determined that the Sandy Lake settlement was in the territories covered in the adhesions to the James Bay Treaty, created a reserve for the "Deer Lake Band" at Sandy Lake Narrows ignoring the fact that a significant
Whitesand First Nation
The Whitesand First Nation is an Ojibway First Nation reserve in Northern Ontario, Canada. They have reserved for themselves the 249-hectare Whitesand reserve; the community of Armstrong Settlement is their main community, located coterminously with Armstrong, Thunder Bay District, Ontario. In June 2008, their total registered population was 1086 people, of which their on-reserve population was 311. Located along the northwest shore of Lake Nipigon near Mount St. John, near the Whitesand River which gives name to the group, Whitesand First Nation was without a home from 1942 when high water levels began eroding the shoreline and flooding out their buildings and burial grounds. Due to the economic influence of the Canadian National Railway, many Whitesand First Nation members settled along the CNR rail line. Largest of these settlements took place in Armstrong; when a new Reserve was negotiated, it was located north of that community. Whitesand is policed by the OPP an agreement made between chief and council and OPP The current electoral leadership of the council consists of Chief Allan Gustufson and six councillors: Barbara Doblej, Jim Doblej, Raymond Kwandibens, Yvette Kwandibens-Toset, Wayne Matchiendagos and James Nayanookeesic.
Their term began on October 27, 2007. There will be an election held this year on the 28th and 29th of October, 2011; the First Nation is part of the Independent First Nations Alliance of the Nishnawbe Aski Nation, though Whitesand First Nation is located within the Robinson Superior Treaty area. The First Nation is a member of Waaskiinaysay Ziibi Inc. an economic development corporation made up of five Lake Nipigon First Nations. The Whitesand First Nations Community Website - whitesandfirstnation.com AANDC profile Chiefs of Ontario profile
Constance Lake First Nation
Constance Lake First Nation is an Oji-Cree First Nations band government located on the shores of Constance Lake near Hearst Cochrane District in northeastern Ontario, Canada, It is directly north of the community of Calstock along a continuation of Ontario Highway 663. Constance Lake First Nation is home to close to 1605 members of Cree and Ojibway ancestry with 820 living on reserve; the reserves, Constance Lake 92 and English River 66, total 7686 acres in size. The Constance Lake First Nation members are of "Oji-Cree and Ojibway descent. Our ancestors inhabited the Kenogami, Nagagamisis, Pagwachuan, Pledger Lake, Little Current, Ridge, Kabinakagami and Shekak River systems since in time of memorial in the eighteen hundreds and early nineteen hundreds." Mammamattawa, where the Kenogami River joins with the Kabinakagami and Nagagami Rivers, was the site of Hudson’s Bay Company and rival Revillon Frères fur trading posts. This area became the Mammamattawa Reserve, renamed the Constance Lake First Nation.
Constance Lake First Nation were known as the English River Band of Oji-Cree. Prior to Treaty 9, according to a 1901 Canadian census, there were 85 people inhabiting the English River area, 60 miles inland from the mouth of the Kenogami or English River. On 27 July 1905 English River Band of Oji-Cree were attached to Treaty 9 as a subdivision of the Fort Albany First Nation on James Bay, therefore Treaty beneficiaries; the English River band were given their own 12 square miles reserve, "n the Kenogami or English River in the Province of Ontario, beginning at a point three miles below Hudson Bay Post on the North side of the River known as English River north a portage of 3 miles and of sufficient depth to provide 1 square mile for each family of five upon the ascertained population of the band" by Treaty 9 in 1905.:By 1912, Hearst was established with the construction of the National Transcontinental Railway in 1913. Between 1908 and 1912 Hearst became a meeting place for First Nations Peoples engaged in the fur trade.
Calstock National Transcontinental Railway's east-west secondary mainline connected Calstock with Cochrane. Between 1925-1940, many families from English River, Fort Albany and Moose Factory re-located to Pagwa, near the present-day Constance Lake First Nation, to follow employment opportunities. Pagwa, named for the Pagwachuan River, one of the largest rivers in Northern Ontario, was valued by First Nations and the North-West fur traders, as an access, along with the Albany River, to James Bay and Hudson Bay. Pagwachuan is a Cree word meaning shallow river. Pagwa, a railway divisional point, had a fur trading post, as it was at a major junction of the railway and the Pagwachuan River. Packet steamers ran between Pagwa and James Bay to serve the Revillon Freres trading post and community early in the 1900s. In the 1930s an airfield was built in Pagwa by the Department of National Defence By May 1940 the majority of the English River First Nation resided at Pagwa as the English River reserve was "uninhabitable", according to Reverend Clarke who had requesting funding for a new school at Pagwa.
In 1943 the Department of Indian Affairs began to consider the creation of a new Band for those living at Pagwa. Inspector Arneil chose Calstock, as the most suitable location. On 21 September 1944 the government purchased land for an Indian reserve for the use and benefits of the Constance Bay First Nation known as the Calstock Reserve. Arneil recommended that the Constance Lake First Nation include members of Albany and Moose Factory Bands who resided at Pagwa. In the 1940s, Constance Lake First Nation "absorbed the whole of the English River Band and members of the Albany and Moose Factory Bands who lived nearby."Joan A. Lovisek grouped the Constance Bay First Nations linguistically, with the historical Moose River Cree; the First Nation elects its leadership for a two-year term through the Act Electoral System. As of 2010, the leadership is held by chief Roger Wesley, together with six councillors: Charlie Baxter Sr. Allen Ferris, Darius Ferris, Beatrice Ineese, Ken Neegan and Fred Sackaney.
As a signatory to Treaty 9, the First Nation is a member of Matawa First Nations, a Regional Chiefs' Council. Constance Lake First Nation have two reserves: the 3,110.5-hectare Constance Lake 92 Indian Reserve and the 3,108-hectare English River 66 Indian Reserve, of which Constance Lake 92 serves as the main reserve. The community has existed in this area since the early 1940s, when the reserve was first established. Constance Lake First Nation is one of the nine First Nations in the mineral-rich Northern Ontario Ring of Fire area, a massive planned chromite-mining and smelting development project in the mineral-rich area of the James Bay Lowlands. Tony Clement, Canada's Treasury Board President and the FedNor minister responsible for the Ring of Fire, claimed it will be the economic equivalent of the Athabasca oil sands with a potential of generating $120 billion. Tony Clement described how the Ring of Fire will bring "about a 100 years of mining activity that will spin-off jobs and economic activity for generations."
Challenges facing the development of the Ring of Fire mineral include lack of access to the remote region, infrastructure deficits such as roads, railway and broadband, First Nations' land rights and environmental issuesOn 4 February 2013, Tony Clement, acknowledged that the nine first First Nations, on and off-reserve in th