Interstate 280 (California)
Interstate 280 is a 57-mile long north–south Interstate Highway in the San Francisco Bay Area of Northern California. It connects San Jose and San Francisco, running just to the west of the larger cities of San Francisco Peninsula for most of its route. From I-880 to State Route 1 in Daly City, I-280 was built and dedicated as the Junipero Serra Freeway, after the Spanish Franciscan friar who founded the first nine of 21 Spanish missions in California from San Diego to San Francisco. One of the dedication signs still indicates that the Junipero Serra Freeway is known as the "World's Most Beautiful Freeway" due to its scenic route through the San Francisco Peninsula. From State Route 1 to the James Lick Freeway in San Francisco it is called the John F Foran Freeway, but is more referred to as 280, and from the James Lick Freeway to its northern end at King Street and Fifth Street, I-280 is called the Southern-Embarcadero Freeway. I-280 is one of two 3-digit Interstate designations to appear on opposite coasts of the United States.
I-110 in California and Florida is the only other designation. In more recent years, Interstate 280 has become well-known due to it being shown prominently on the app icon for Apple's iOS built-in Google Maps app; the icon showed I-280's path north of the Apple Campus in earlier versions, southwest of the new Apple Park as of iOS 11. The southern end of Interstate 280 is U. S. 101 in San Jose, where it acts as a continuation of Interstate 680 westward. In between San Jose and San Francisco, Interstate 280 passes through Santa Clara, Los Altos and Los Altos Hills before it settles along its scenic route just to the west of the cities of the San Francisco Peninsula in San Mateo County and just to the east of the Santa Cruz Mountains. I-280 re-emerges in a decidedly urbanized area in the city of San Bruno, passing through South San Francisco and Daly City before it runs across a southeastern swath of the city of San Francisco on the way to its northern terminus; the segment of the Junipero Serra Freeway between Cupertino and Daly City has been called the "World's Most Beautiful Freeway" since its dedication in the 1960s.
Drivers along this portion of Interstate 280 are treated to scenic views of the Santa Cruz Mountains to the west and, at a few points, San Francisco Bay to the east, are isolated by hills from the cities to the east. Through much of this segment, the freeway is running just inside the eastern rim of the rift valley of the San Andreas Fault. A attractive 6-mile stretch of the freeway from Hillsborough to Belmont provides a beautiful look at Crystal Springs Reservoir, formed by water piped over 160 miles from Hetch Hetchy Valley in Yosemite National Park filling the rift valley. For nearly all of its length, Interstate 280 runs parallel and several miles to the west of US 101. Both freeways are north–south routes connecting San Jose with San Francisco. S. 101 takes between the two cities goes through urbanized areas. The majority of the population of the San Francisco Peninsula lives somewhere between Interstate 280 and U. S. 101. I-280 never intersects with its parent interstate; the northern terminus of I-280 is within about a mile of I-80's western terminus, but the two interstates do not directly connect.
Although San Francisco has had several opportunities to connect I-280 to I-80, it has chosen to use the money for other purposes. Instead, 280's northernmost extension functions as a spur into Downtown San Francisco, as suggested by signage on northbound U. S. Route 101 at its San Francisco interchange with I-280. Major intersections include U. S. 101 and State Route 1 in San Francisco, Interstate 380 in San Bruno, State Route 92 in San Mateo, I-880 and I-680 and U. S. 101 in San Jose. I-280 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration. I-280 is eligible for the State Scenic Highway System, from the San Mateo–Santa Clara county line to the San Bruno city limits is designated as a scenic highway by the California Department of Transportation, meaning that it is a substantial section of highway passing through a "memorable landscape" with no "visual intrusions", where the potential designation has gained popular favor with the community.
The Junipero Serra Freeway is the name of Interstate 280 from SR 1 in San Francisco to SR 17, as named by Assembly Concurrent Resolution 140, Chapter 208 in 1967, in honor of Spanish missionary Junípero Serra, who founded many of California's missions in the 18th century. I-280 from its southern terminus at U. S. 101 and Interstate 680 north to Interstate 880 in San Jose is part of the Sinclair Freeway. A 26-foot high faux-sandstone statue of Father Serra kneeling and pointing over the freeway is located at a highway rest area just north of the Highway 92 intersection between the Bunker Hill Drive and Black Mountain Road exits on northbound I-280 in Hillsborough, can be seen by drivers in both directions. Interstate 280 was added to the Interstate Highway System on September 15, 1955 as a route from San Jose north to San Francisco; this ran along the present alignment of I-280 south of San Francisco, but in San Francisco it ran north parallel to State Route 1, past th
Gunn High School
Henry M. Gunn High School is one of two public high schools in Palo Alto, California. Established in 1964, Gunn High School was named after Henry Martin Gunn, who served as the Palo Alto superintendent from 1950 to 1961. In 1964, the Palo Alto Unified School District announced it would name the district's third high school after him; the Class of 1966 was the first class to graduate from Gunn High School. Gunn High School received national attention in 2009 after five of its students committed suicide over a span of nine months by walking in front of trains at a nearby crossing. Attempts have since been made to try to improve the emotional health of students attending the school; as of 2015, cluster suicide has remained a problem in the district's high schools. Gunn offers 22 Advanced Placement classes and 8 Honors classes that count for the weighted Grade Point Average. In May 2010, 657 students took 1820 AP tests. 93% scored 3 or higher and 54% scored a grade of 5. Gunn no longer ranks students, but ranking was recorded by decile.
Hanna Rosin wrote in a 2015 The Atlantic article that due to the emphasis on academics and competition between students, Gunn became "an extreme distillation of what parents in the meritocratic elite expect from a school." Around that period families clamored to buy houses in Gunn's attendance boundary so their children could attend the school. According to Rosin, after a spate of suicides of Gunn students in the 2010s, parents began to worry about whether the competitive atmosphere was harming students' mental well-being. Gunn is host to Project Lead the Way, an organization that promotes science, technology and math. Courses from this program include Digital Electronics and Introduction to Engineering Design, as well as Principles of Engineering. However, in the 2012–2013 school year, only Introduction to Engineering Design will be offered. Digital Electronics was cancelled due to low enrollment and Principles of Engineering was cancelled due to funding issues. 2015–2016 1,939 students: 1,006 Male, 933 Female As of 2015, according to Hanna Rosin, 74% of Gunn's student body has one or more parents with a master's degree, or higher, or other graduate-level degree.
Gunn offers over 90 student clubs and organizations that focus on art, community action, environment, music, dance and more. Gunn students stage occasional staged readings; the music program consists of several music groups including a Symphonic Band, Wind Ensemble, Jazz Ensemble, Concert Band, Concert Choir, Chamber Singers. The debate team at Gunn High School consists of Public Forum, they have a speech team. Under the current leadership, the club has done exceptionally well at the national and state level; the policy team has done well, sending a team to Nationals, in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida; the Gunn Cheer Team consists of a Varsity, Junior Varsity, Competition team. The Gunn Robotics Team, established in 1997, competes at the FIRST Robotics Competition, it is the only FIRST Robotics team to have won the national animation award more than once, winning in 1997, 2006, 2012. They won best models worldwide in their 2010 animation. In 2012 The Robotics Team won the National FRC Championship Excellence in Design Award sponsored by Autodesk.
GRT is the only team that has won a total of three Animation awards in the history of FIRST. Official website The Oracle, student-run newspaper Palo Alto Unified School District website
Frenchman's Tower is a two-story red brick structure located in Santa Clara County, that resembles a medieval fortification. Built in 1875, the structure was listed as a California Point of Historical Interest in 1969; the structure was built under the direction of land owner Paulin Caperon, a native of France who had assumed the name Peter Coutts when he moved to Mayfield, California, in 1875. Coutts returned to France in 1882 without letting his California neighbors know what happened to him and ordered a bank to liquidate his Mayfield property. Since trespassers have carved names or initials into every brick of the tower within their reach; some dates go back over 100 years. In 1970, the landowner bricked in the windows to protect the structure from vandals. Frenchman's Tower stands on Old Page Mill Road, midway between Foothill Expressway and Interstate 280, in Santa Clara County, within a strip of land within the borders of Palo Alto on land now owned by Stanford University. Frenchman's Tower was built in 1875 and has miniature crenels along the top and Gothic windows, giving it a style similar to Medieval fortifications built hundreds of years earlier, not unlike Chindia Tower built between the 15th and 19th century.
In the Middle Ages, crenels were used to shield archers defending the structure. The second floor held a water tank; the original owner, Paulin Caperon, spent many hours in his library studying. The building never had any doors; the tower, situated near Matadero Creek, was connected to one of six underground tunnels used to provide subterranean water to his farm and to his lake. Workers had to remove tons of earth before reaching a sufficient underground water source. Bricks for the tower were made by Albert Bowman and Company from a clay deposit discovered in Mountain View in the same year that the tower was constructed. Over the years, many different ideas and stories regarding Paulin Caperon's tower and underground tunnels have been told. Caperon, who went by the alias Peter Coutts, is said to have "enjoyed mystifying his neighbors" and helped perpetuate these stories by neither denying nor confirming the fanciful tales; these include the construction of underground tunnels and fortified tower to "withstand a siege by his enemies" and harboring the French Empress, neither of which were true.
Registered as California Point of Historical Interest November 3, 1969. Listed on the Santa Clara County Heritage Resource Inventory; the Library of Congress archives contain photos of Frenchman's Tower taken during August and September 1975. A 1910-1930 photo shown on the right is in the San Jose Public Library. Popular news media of today sometimes casts the tower as an unsolved mystery. In a March 2011, CBS news reporter Ken Bastida interviewed local historian Steve Staiger. Staiger said he did not believe the structure was constructed as a water tower as the builder alleged because the tower was too far away from water or the rest of his property. Staiger offers a reward to anyone; the TV report shows. Peninsula Life Magazine published a 1948 article describing how Frenchman's Tower "standing stark and alone" on the banks of Matadero Creek is one of the Peninsula's most famous landmarks; the article goes on to tell the story of Paulin Caperon through interviews with family members. The California Historical Society began a 1954 article with the sentence, "No tale in California history has had stranger diversities than the one about the man who sold to Leland Stanford the land on which he built his university."
The article continues with information based upon interviews with surviving members of Coutts's family and household, explaining the reason for Peter Coutts's strange behavior. Although not referencing sources, the Stanford Historical Society published a 1981 article, "Coutts was no eccentric, history study shows", detailing the life of Paulin Caperon; the article provides explanations for many of his strange actions. Some articles show the writer's curiosity about the tower. In a 2010 article, Examiner reporter William Baeck described how he climbed over a wire fence and crawled past poison oak, he held his camera inside the tower and began photographing. In 2006 photographer Eric Chan took photos of the tower, including photos documenting his presence both outside and inside the tower, he described how he climbed through a small hole in the back and found it "pretty scary inside". The photo on the right, showing the inside of the structure, is one of. A 2004 environmental impact report on trail alignment expressed concerns that proposed trail segment AD05 would attract more visitors leading to the tower being further vandalized.
The report stated that more bike and foot traffic might make the tower more visible protecting the tower. To mitigate the risk, the landowner agreed to inspect the tower every six months and to take action upon discovery of further damage. Jean-Baptiste Paulin Caperon was born of wealthy parents near Bordeaux France in 1822 and died in Bordeaux, France, in September 1889 at the age of sixty-seven. Paulin Caperon was the son of one of Napoleon's officers, he lost both parents. He "openly criticized Napoleon III policies and opposed the Franco-Prussian War." He founded a private bank, which he sold in 1873. Because of problems in France, he left France for Brussels and went to New Orleans using identity papers of his deceased cousin Peter Coutts, he traveled to San Francisco and to the township of Mayfield. Paulin Caperon continued using the name Peter Coutts when he arrived in Mayfie
Sofia University (California)
Sofia University is a private for-profit university located in Palo Alto, United States. It was founded as the California Institute of Transpersonal Psychology by Robert Frager and James Fadiman in 1975; the institution was known as the California Institute of Transpersonal Psychology, one of several transpersonally-oriented institutions formed in the 1970's. The founders, Robert Frager and James Fadiman, wanted to offer the perspectives of east/west psychology alongside personal and spiritual disciplines, all within a community context. In 1980 Jungian Analyst June Singer joined the core faculty at the Institute, where she took the position as director of the clinical training program. By the mid-eighties the school was located in Menlo Park and offered graduate degrees in Transpersonal psychology and similar subjects. In 1986 the there was a minor change of name and the institution emerged as the Institute of Transpersonal Psychology. By 1989 the Institute offered residential master's and doctoral programs and external master's and certificate programs, oversaw the activities of a Transpersonal Counseling Center.
It hosted the Spiritual Emergence Network. In 1992 the Institute was granted candidacy by WASC; that same year, William G. Braud and Rosemary Anderson joined the core faculty at the institution. Braud served as research director at the institute, as well as co-director of the institute's William James Center for Consciousness Studies. In 1997 the institute was given initial accreditation by WASC. In 1998 Braud and Anderson released the book Transpersonal Research Methods for the Social Sciences. In 2002 it was reported; this included. At this time the institute offered programs in psychology and counseling with an emphasis on both traditional and non-traditional psychological and spiritual models of instruction. WASC accreditation was reaffirmed in 2007 and in 2011 Neal King was appointed as President of the institute. Other academic profiles that were connected to the Institute of Transpersonal Psychology includes Kari Hennigan, who conducted studies in ecopsychology, Fred Luskin, professor of clinical psychology.
In 2012 there was a new change of name, a change of academic profile. The Board of Trustees decided that the new official name of the institution was to be Sofia University; the re-branding came with a transition from institute to university, the institution now offered both undergraduate and graduate programs. Academic programs became structured according to three main orientations: the Graduate School of Transpersonal Studies, the Graduate School of Clinical & Spiritual Psychology and the School of Undergraduate Studies. In the mainstream press the institution was, by this time, associated with the concept of spiritual psychology. Note aIn 2013 the school had 526 full-time-equivalent students. Neal King resigned as President the same year, after a period of disagreement surrounding the budget. King was replaced by an interim president, Frank Ellsworth, who held the post until July the following year, his successor, Liz Li, was appointed president in 2014, became the first female president of the institution.
Her successor was Barry Ryan. As of 2015 the university was reaccredited for an additional seven years by the WASC Senior College and University Commission. Dr. Peter Bemski became president in January, 2018; the university comprises four schools – the Institute of Transpersonal Psychology, the School of Technology and Engineering, the School of Business, the School of Transformative Education. The school has broadened to include studies in computer science, including artificial intelligence, human computer interaction, big data and software design. A.^ New York Times' correction as of August 17, 2012, states that the original article, in some editions, misidentified Sofia University/Institute of Transpersonal Psychology in Palo Alto with the Institute for Transpersonal Studies in Santa Cruz. Transpersonal Transpersonal psychology Official website WASC Statement of Accreditation status, Sofia University
The HP Garage is a private museum where the company Hewlett-Packard was founded. It is located at 367 Addison Avenue in California, it is considered to be the "Birthplace of Silicon Valley." In the 1930s, Stanford University and its Dean of Engineering Frederick Terman began encouraging faculty and graduates to stay in the area instead of leaving California, develop a high-tech region. HP founders William Hewlett and David Packard are considered the first Stanford students who took Terman's advice; the garage has since been designated a California Historical Landmark and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Though not open for public tours, the property can be viewed from the driveway; the home designated as 367 Addison Avenue, was first occupied in 1905 by Dr. John Spencer, his wife Ione, their two adult daughters. Dr. Spencer became Palo Alto's first mayor in 1909. In 1918, the house was divided into two separate apartments, numbered 367 and 369. In 1937, David "Dave" Packard 25 years old, visited William "Bill" Hewlett in Palo Alto and the pair had their first business meeting.
Both men attended Stanford University, where its Dean of Engineering Frederick Terman encouraged his students to establish their own electronics companies in the area instead of leaving California. In 1938, newly married Dave and Lucile Packard moved into 367 Addison Ave, the first-floor three-room apartment, with Bill Hewlett sleeping in the shed. Mrs. Spencer, now widowed, moved into 369 Addison. Hewlett and Packard began to use the one-car garage, with $538 in capital. In 1939, Hewlett and Packard formed their partnership with a coin toss, creating the name Hewlett-Packard. Hewlett-Packard's first product, built in the garage, was an audio oscillator, the HP200A. One of Hewlett-Packard's first customers was Walt Disney Studios, which purchased eight oscillators to test and certify the sound systems in theaters that were going to run the first major film released in stereophonic sound, Fantasia. California registered landmark, 1987 National Register of Historic Places, 2007 Rebuilding HP's Garage
California State Route 82
State Route 82 is a state highway in the U. S. state of California that runs from Interstate 880 in San Jose to I-280 in San Francisco following the San Francisco Peninsula. It is the spinal arterial road of the peninsula and runs parallel to the nearby Caltrain line along much of the route. For much of its length, the highway is named El Camino Real and formed part of the historic El Camino Real mission trail, it passes through and near many the historic downtowns of many Peninsula cities, including Burlingame, San Mateo, Redwood City, Menlo Park, Palo Alto, Mountain View, Sunnyvale, through some of the most walkable and transit-oriented neighborhoods in the region. At its south end SR 82 starts as The Alameda at I-880 in San Jose. Once it enters Santa Clara, it bends north-east around Santa Clara University and onto El Camino Real, where it continues for the remainder of its trip up the San Francisco Peninsula, paralleling the Caltrain corridor. SR 82 called "El Camino" by local residents, runs through a number of cities on the Peninsula, including Palo Alto, San Carlos, San Mateo and Millbrae, it is a central artery of the Peninsula communities through which it passes.
In Daly City, SR 82 becomes Mission Street, connecting with San Francisco's Mission Street, but quickly flows onto San Jose Avenue, crossing Alemany Boulevard, terminating at I-280. SR 82 takes an inland course paralleling US 101; the entire route is at street level with at least four lanes of traffic. The Bayshore Freeway and I-280 tend to provide faster alternatives than Route 82 during traffic jams on those freeways. From 1964 to 1968, SR 82 continued past its current end north on Alemany Boulevard to Bayshore Boulevard in San Francisco. Prior to 2013, SR 82 continued past its current south end on The Alameda, becoming Santa Clara St. in Downtown San Jose turning south on Montgomery St. / Autumn St.. It turned south on Market St. which becomes 1st St. and Monterey Highway. It followed Monterey Highway until it turned east on Blossom Hill Road, where it ended at US 101; this relinquished segment south of I-880 within San Jose is no longer a state highway, but the state's Streets and Highways Code mandates that the City of San Jose is still required to maintain "signs directing motorists to the continuation of Route 82" and "ensure the continuity of traffic flow" on this segment.
Signs along US 101, I-280, SR 87 where these relinquished segments intersect still have SR 82 shields. Though as of 2017, certain signs with SR 82 shields have been removed along US 101 near Blossom Hill Road and Capitol Expressway. SR 82 is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration. A segment of US 101, the highway became inadequate for the needs of traffic with the rapid growth of the San Francisco Bay Area after World War II, including urbanization of the towns along its path; the Bayshore Highway to the east was built as "Bypass US 101" and was upgraded to a freeway in 1937. With this upgrade, the original US 101 route was transferred to the Bayshore Freeway, El Camino Real became US 101 BYP, but in response to protests, the switch in designations was reversed two years in 1939, the Bayshore Freeway remained US 101 BYP until 1964. In 1964, US 101 was moved again onto the Bayshore Freeway, its former alignment on El Camino Real became SR 82.
It was defined as two portions: From Route 101 near Ford Road south of San Jose to Route 101 in San Francisco, from Route 101 near Alemany Boulevard to Route 87 in San Francisco. In 1968, the portions from I-280 to US 101 and from SR 101 to SR 87 were transferred to I-280. SR 87 was deleted north of SR 237 in 1980, is only constructed south of US 101, SR 82 today is designated as part of El Camino Real. In 2013, SR 82 was relinquished south of I-880 through San Jose. However, the state's Streets and Highways Code states that the City of San Jose is still required to "ensure the continuity of traffic flow on the relinquished former portion of Route 82" along The Alameda into downtown San Jose, from there along Monterey Highway to its former terminus at Blossom Hill Road and US 101; the city has the further option to apply to make this segment a business route. The Grand Boulevard Initiative is a partnership of nineteen Bay Area transit agencies and municipalities that operate or manage various portions of the route.
Although El Camino Real is under the stewardship of Caltrans, the organization sponsors aesthetic and infrastructural improvements along the corridor and its neighboring parcels in order to revitalize the streetscape and promote density and more walkable and transit-oriented development. Except where prefixed with a letter, postmiles were measured on the road as it was in 1964, based on its original southern terminus at US 101, do not reflect current mileage. R reflects a realignment in the route since M indicates a second realignment, L refers an overlap due to a correction or change, T indicates postmiles classified as temporary. Segments that remain unconstructed or have been relinquished to local control may be omitted; the numbers reset at county lines.