Book of Joshua
The Book of Joshua is the sixth book in the Hebrew Bible and the first book of the Deuteronomistic history, the story of Israel from the conquest of Canaan to the Babylonian exile. It tells of the campaigns of the Israelites in central and northern Canaan, the destruction of their enemies, the division of the land among the Twelve Tribes, framed by two set-piece speeches, the first by God commanding the conquest of the land, and, at the end, the last by Joshua warning of the need for faithful observance of the Law revealed to Moses. All scholars agree that the Book of Joshua holds little historical value for early Israel and most reflects a much period; the earliest parts of the book are chapters 2–11, the story of the conquest. Transfer of leadership to Joshua A. God's commission to Joshua B. Joshua's instructions to the people II. Entrance into and conquest of Canaan A. Entry into Canaan 1. Reconnaissance of Jericho 2. Crossing the River Jordan 3. Establishing a foothold at Gilgal 4. Circumcision and Passover B.
Victory over Canaan 1. Destruction of Jericho 2. Failure and success at Ai 3. Renewal of the covenant at Mount Ebal 4. Other campaigns in central Canaan; the Gibeonite Deception 5. Campaigns in southern Canaan 6. Campaigns in northern Canaan 7. Summary of lands conquered 8. Summary list of defeated kings III. Division of the land among the tribes A. God's instructions to Joshua B. Tribal allotments 1. Eastern tribes 2. Western tribes C. Cities of refuge and levitical cities D. Summary of conquest E. De-commissioning of the eastern tribes IV. Conclusion A. Joshua's farewell address B. Covenant at Shechem C. Deaths of Joshua and Eleazar. God warns him to keep faith with the Covenant. God's speech foreshadows the major themes of the book: the crossing of the Jordan River and conquest of the land, its distribution, the imperative need for obedience to the Law; the Israelites cross the Jordan River through the miraculous intervention of God and the Ark of the Covenant. They are circumcised at Gibeath-Haaraloth, renamed Gilgal in memory.
Gilgal sounds like Gallothi, "I have removed", but is more to translate as "circle of standing stones". The conquest begins in Canaan with Jericho, followed by Ai. After which Joshua renews the Covenant; the covenant ceremony has elements of a divine land-grant ceremony, similar to ceremonies known from Mesopotamia. The narrative switches to the south; the Gibeonites trick the Israelites into entering an alliance with them by saying that they are not Canaanites. This prevents the Israelites from exterminating them. An alliance of Amorite kingdoms headed by the Canaanite king of Jerusalem is defeated with Yahweh's miraculous help of stopping the Sun and the Moon, hurling down large hailstones; the enemy kings were hanged on trees. The Deuteronomist author may have used the then-recent 701 BCE campaign of the Assyrian king Sennacherib in the Kingdom of Judah as his model. With the south conquered the narrative moves to the northern campaign. A powerful multi-national coalition headed by the king of Hazor, the most important northern city, is defeated with Yahweh's help.
Hazor itself is captured and destroyed. Chapter 11:16–23 summarises the extent of the conquest: Joshua has taken the entire land entirely through military victories, with only the Gibeonites agreeing to peaceful terms with Israel; the land "had rest from war". Chapter 12 lists the vanquished kings on both sides of the Jordan River: the two kings who ruled east of the Jordan who were defeated under Moses' leadership, the 31 kings on the west of the Jordan who were defeated under Joshua's leadership; the list of the 31 kings is quasi-tabular: the king of one. Having described how the Israelites and Joshua have carried out the first of their God's commands, the narrative now turns to the second: to "put the people in possession of the land." Joshua is "old, advanced in years" by this time (Joshua
Claude Reignier Conder
Claude Reignier Conder was an English soldier and antiquarian. He was a great-great-grandson of Louis-François Roubiliac. Conder was educated at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, he became a lieutenant in the Corps of Royal Engineers in 1870. He carried out survey work in Palestine in 1872–1874, latterly in conjunction with Lt Kitchener Lord Kitchener, whom he had met at school, was seconded to the Palestine Exploration Fund from 1875 to 1878 and again in 1881 and 1882, when he was promoted captain, he retired with the rank of colonel in 1904. Conder joined the expedition to Egypt in 1882, under Sir Garnet Wolseley, to suppress the rebellion of Arabi Pasha, he was appointed a deputy assistant adjutant and quartermaster-general on the staff of the intelligence department. In Egypt his perfect knowledge of Arabic and of Eastern people proved most useful, he was present at the action of Kassassin, the Battle of Tel el-Kebir, the advance to Cairo, but seized with typhoid fever, he was invalided home.
For his services he received the war medal with clasp for Tel el-Kebir, the Khedive's bronze star and the fourth class of the Order of the Medjidie. While surveying the area of Safed in July 1875, Conder and his party were attacked by local residents, during which altercation Conder sustained a serious head injury which left him bed-ridden for a while and unable to return to Palestine; the work of surveying the country of Palestine commenced again only in late February 1877, without Conder. Conder was first proposed as a candidate for the Jack the Ripper murders by the author Tom Slemen. 1878: Tent Work in Palestine ISBN 1-4179-2238-9 1879: Judas Maccabæus, the Jewish War of Independence 1880: Memoires: The Survey of Western and Eastern Palestine ISBN 1-85207-835-9 1883: Heth and Moab, Explorations in Syria in 1881 and 1882 1886: Syrian Stone-lore, Or, The Monumental History of Palestine 1887: Altaic Hieroglyphs and Hittite Inscriptions ISBN 1-4326-0939-4 1889: Palestine 1889: The Survey of Eastern Palestine, Memoirs of the Topography, Hydrography, Etc. 1893: The Tell Amarna Tablets 1896: The Bible and the East 1897: The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem 1898: The Hittites and their Language 1900: The Hebrew Tragedy 1902: The First Bible 1909: The City of Jerusalem Conder, Claude Reignier Tent Work in Palestine, vol 1 Conder, Claude Reignier Tent Work in Palestine, vol 2 Conder, Claude Reignier and H.
H. Kitchener: The Survey of Western Palestine: memoirs of the topography, orography and archaeology. London:Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund. Vol 1 The full text, archive.org, Can download PDF. Conder, Claude Reignier and H. H. Kitchener: The Survey of Western Palestine: memoirs of the topography, orography and archaeology. London:Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund. Vol 2 The full text, archive.org, Can download PDF. Conder, Claude Reignier and H. H. Kitchener: The Survey of Western Palestine: memoirs of the topography, orography and archaeology. London:Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund. Vol 3 The full text, archive.org, Can download PDF. Conder, Claude Reignier and Moab: explorations in Syria in 1882, archive.org Conder, Claude Reignier, Syrian Stone-Lore. Measuring Jerusalem: the Palestine Exploration Fund and British interests in the Holy Land. Continuum International Publishing Group. Pp. 98–99. ISBN 0-7185-0220-5. Yadin, Yigael. Masada. La fortaleza de Herodes y el último bastión de los Zelotes.
Barcelona: Ediciones Destino. ISBN 84-233-0537-6. Works written by or about Claude Reignier Conder at Wikisource Works by Claude Reignier Conder at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Claude Reignier Conder at Internet Archive Profile at PEF website
Ziph (Judean Mountains)
Ziph was a city in the Judean Mountains south-east of Hebron. Here David hid himself from Saul; the name of Zif is found about four miles south of Hebron, attached to a rounded hill of some 100 feet in height, called Tell Zif. Scholars debate the interpretation of the word ZF on LMLK seals, it may be a reference to an economic center established at the site south-east of Hebron during the reign of King Hezekiah, or it may be a literal votive inscription meaning "battlement", "flowing", "mouthful", "pinnacle", or "supply". Zif, Hebron Grena, G. M.. LMLK--A Mystery Belonging to the King vol. 1. Redondo Beach, California: 4000 Years of Writing History. ISBN 0-9748786-0-X. ZYF LMLK seals
Benjamin of Tudela
Benjamin of Tudela was a medieval Jewish traveler who visited Europe and Africa in the 12th century. His vivid descriptions of western Asia preceded those of Marco Polo by a hundred years. With his broad education and vast knowledge of languages, Benjamin of Tudela is a major figure in medieval geography and Jewish history; the Travels of Benjamin is an important work not only as a description of the Jewish communities, but as a reliable source about the geography and ethnography of the Middle Ages. Some modern historians credit Benjamin with giving accurate descriptions of everyday life in the Middle Ages. Written in Hebrew, his itinerary was translated into Latin and translated into most major European languages, it received much attention from Renaissance scholars in the 16th century. His journeys reveal the concurrent interconnectedness and diversity of Jewish communities during this time period. Little is known of his early life, apart from the fact that he was from the Navarrese town of Tudela in what is now Spain.
Today, a street in the aljama is named after him. There is no consensus among scholars as to Benjamin of Tudela's exact route, although most scholars believe from his itinerary that he travelled on a popular route frequented by travelers at the time. Benjamin set out on his journey from the northeast Iberian Peninsula around 1165, in what may have begun as a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, it has been suggested. Several times the subject shows an interest in the coral trade as a professional gem-merchant. On the other hand, he may have intended to catalog the Jewish communities en route to the Land of Israel to provide a guide where hospitality could be found for Jews traveling to the Holy Land, or for those fleeing oppression elsewhere, he stopped meeting people, visiting places, describing occupations, giving a demographic count of Jews in each town and country that he visited. Benjamin provided his own evaluations of various cultures he encountered and, drew parallels between customs he encountered.
His journey began in Zaragoza, further down the valley of the Ebro to Tarragona and Girona, whence he proceeded north to France set sail from Marseilles. After visiting Genoa, Lucca and Rome, he went to Greece and Constantinople set off across Asia, he visited Syria, the Land of Israel, northern Mesopotamia before reaching Baghdad. From there he went to Persia cut back across the Arabian Peninsula to Egypt and North Africa, returning to the Iberian Peninsula in 1173. In his travels, he described a significant Jewish community somewhere around modern-day Ethiopia. While it appears clear that such a community exists, scholars still struggle to decide where in Africa he visited—a lack of uniform spelling makes it hard to distinguish what places Benjamin and other contemporary writer travel writers are referencing, his visit to the ruins outside Mosul is one of the earliest accurate descriptions of the site of ancient Nineveh. He visited 300 cities in all, including many of importance in Jewish history, such as Susa and Pumbedita.
In addition, he gathered information on many more areas that he heard about in his travels, including China and Tibet. He recorded details on cultures such as that of Al-Hashishin, the hemp smokers, introducing Western Europeans to people and places far beyond their experience, he described his years abroad in a book, The Travels of Benjamin, which describes the countries he visited, with an emphasis on the Jewish communities, including their total populations and the names of notable community leaders. He described the customs of the local population, both Jewish and non-Jewish, with an emphasis on urban life. In his accounts, Benjamin of Tudela describes Baghdad with great enthusiasm, making particular note of the virtuosity of the Caliph, he writes of the respect and intermingle that he encounters between Judaism and Islam. He gave detailed descriptions of sites and landmarks passed along the way, as well as important buildings and marketplaces. Although Benjamin is noted for citing sources and is regarded by historians as trustworthy, some of his claims are faulted as relying on earlier writers.
For instance, Benjamin's identification of Laish with Baniyas along with Philostorgius and Samuel ben Samson is incorrect. Eusebius of Caesarea, locates Dan/Laish more in the vicinity of Paneas at the fourth mile on the route to Tyre. Benjamin of Tudela; the Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela: Travels in the Middle Ages. Trans. Marcus Nathan Adler. Introductions by Michael A. Signer, Marcus Nathan Adler, A. Asher. Published by Joseph Simon/Pangloss Press, 1993. ISBN 0-934710-07-4 The Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela. Trans. Marcus Nathan Adler. 1907: includes map of route and commentary. Works by Benjamin of Tudela at Project Gutenberg Sefer Masaot Benjamin MiTudela Tri-lingual edition in Basque and Hebrew published in Pamplona, 1994 by the Government of Navarra. Xabier Kintana translated Sefer Masaot into Basque language and Jose Ramon Magdalena Nom de Deu translated into Spanish; this trilingual special edition of Benjamin MiTudela book has an introduction by the president of Navarra, Juan de la Cruz Alli Aranguren ISBN 9788423512867 Tudelalı Benjamin ve Ratisbonlu Petachia, Ortaçağ’da İki Yahudi Seyyahın Avrupa, Asya ve Afrika Gözlemleri [trans. by Nuh Arslantas, from Marmara U
The Philistines were an ancient people known for their conflict with the Israelites described in the Bible. The primary source about the Philistines is the Hebrew Bible, but they are first attested in reliefs at the Temple of Ramses III at Medinet Habu, where they are called Peleset, accepted as cognate with Hebrew Peleshet; the first reference to Philistines in the Hebrew Bible is in the Table of Nations, where they are said to descend from Casluhim, son of Mizraim. However, the Philistines of Genesis who are friendly to Abraham are identified by rabbinic sources as distinct from the warlike people described in Deuteronomistic history. Deuteronomist sources describe the "Five Lords of the Philistines" as based in five city-states of the southwestern Levant: Gaza, Ashdod and Gath, from Wadi Gaza in the south to the Yarqon River in the north; this description portrays them at one period of time as among the Kingdom of Israel's most dangerous enemies. In contrast, the Septuagint uses the term allophuloi instead of "Philistines", which means "other nations".
Several theories are given about the origins of the Philistines. Some biblical passages connect the Philistines to other biblical groups such as Caphtorim and the Cherethites and Pelethites, which have both been identified with Crete which has led to the tradition of an Aegean origin, although this theory has been disputed. In 2016, a large Philistine cemetery was discovered, containing more than 150 dead buried in oval-shaped graves, indicating an Aegean origin, yet to be confirmed by genetic testing; the English word Philistine comes from Old French Philistin, from Classical Latin Philistinus, from Late Greek Philistinoi, from Hebrew Philištim, "people of Plešt", there are cognates in Akkadian Palastu and Egyptian Palusata. The Hebrew term Plištim occurs 286 times in the Masoretic Text of the Hebrew Bible, it appears in the Samaritan Pentateuch. In secondary literature, the Aramaic Visions of Amram further mentions "Philistia"; this is datable "prior to Antiochus IV and the Hasmonean revolt" to the term of High Priest of Israel Onias II.
In the Greek version of the Bible called Septuagint, the equivalent term Phylistiim occurs 12 times, again in the Pentateuch. Outside of pre-Maccabean Israelite religious literature, evidence for the name and the origins of the Philistines is less abundant and less consistent. In the remainder of the Hebrew Bible, ha-Plištim is attested at Qumran for 2 Samuel 5:17. In the Septuagint however 269 references instead use the term allophylos; the Philistines are the subject of speculation in biblical archaeology. Since 1846, scholars have connected the biblical Philistines with the Egyptian "Peleset" inscriptions, all five of which appear from c.1150 BCE to c.900 BCE just as archaeological references to "Kinaḫḫu" or "Ka-na-na" come to an end, since 1873 comparisons were drawn between them and to the Aegean "Pelasgians". Archaeological research to date has been unable to corroborate a mass settlement of Philistines during the Ramesses III era. A "Walistina" is mentioned in Luwian texts variantly spelled Palistina.
This implies both. *Falistina was a kingdom somewhere on the'Amuq plain, where the Amurru kingdom had held sway before it. Another theory, proposed by Jacobsohn, is that the name derives from the attested Illyrian locality Palaeste, whose inhabitants would have been called Palaestīnī according to normal grammatical practice. Allen Jones suggests; the Table of Nations in Genesis 10 states in Hebrew with regard to the descendants of Mizraim, the biblical progenitor of the Egyptians: "ve-et Patrusim ve-et Kasluhim asher yats'u mi-sham Plištim ve-et Kaftorim." It says that those whom Mizraim begat included "the Pathrusim and the Caphtorim." There is some debate among interpreters as to whether this verse was intended to signify that the Philistines themselves were the offspring of the Casluhim or the Caphtorim. While the Casluhim or the Caphtorim origin is followed by biblical scholars, other scholars such as Friedrich Schwally, Bernhard Stade, Cornelis Tiele argued for a Semitic origin; the Torah does not record the Philistines as one of the nations to be displaced from Canaan.
In Genesis 15:18-21 the Philistines are absent from the ten nations Abraham's descendants will displace as well as being absent from the list of nations Moses tells the people they will conquer. God directed the Israelites away from the Philistines upon their Exodus from Egypt according to Exodus 13:17. In Genesis 21:22-27, Abraham agrees to a covenant of kindness with Abimelech, the Philistine king, his descendants. Abraham's son Isaac deals with the Philistine king by concluding a treaty with them in chapter 26. Unlike most other ethnic groups in the Bible, the Philistines are always referred to without the definite article in the Torah. Rabbinic sources state that the Philistines of Genesis were different people from the Philistines of the Deuteronomistic history; this differentiation was held by the authors of the Septuagint, who translated its base text as allophuloi instead of "philistines" throughout the Books of Judges
The Amarna letters are an archive, written on clay tablets consisting of diplomatic correspondence between the Egyptian administration and its representatives in Canaan and Amurru during the New Kingdom, between c. 1360-1332 BC. The letters were found in Upper Egypt at el-Amarna, the modern name for the ancient Egyptian capital of Akhetaten, founded by pharaoh Akhenaten during the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt; the Amarna letters are unusual in Egyptological research, because they are written in a script known as Akkadian cuneiform, the writing system of ancient Mesopotamia, rather than that of ancient Egypt, the language used has sometimes been characterised as a mixed language, Canaanite-Akkadian. The written correspondence spans a period of at most thirty years; the known tablets total 382, of which 358 have been published by the Norwegian Assyriologist Jørgen Alexander Knudtzon's in his work, Die El-Amarna-Tafeln, which came out in two volumes and remains the standard edition to this day.
The texts of the remaining 24 complete or fragmentary tablets excavated since Knudtzon have been made available. The Amarna letters are of great significance for biblical studies as well as Semitic linguistics, since they shed light on the culture and language of the Canaanite peoples in pre-biblical times; the letters, though written in Akkadian, are colored by the mother tongue of their writers, who spoke an early form of Canaanite, the language family which would evolve into its daughter languages and Phoenician. These "Canaanisms" provide valuable insights into the proto-stage of those languages several centuries prior to their first actual manifestation; these letters, comprising cuneiform tablets written in Akkadian – the regional language of diplomacy for this period – were first discovered around 1887 by local Egyptians who secretly dug most of them from the ruined city of Amarna, sold them in the antiquities market. They had been stored in an ancient building that archaeologists have since called the Bureau of Correspondence of Pharaoh.
Once the location where they were found was determined, the ruins were explored for more. The first archaeologist who recovered more tablets was Flinders Petrie, who in 1891 and 1892 uncovered 21 fragments. Émile Chassinat director of the French Institute for Oriental Archaeology in Cairo, acquired two more tablets in 1903. Since Knudtzon's edition, some 24 more tablets, or fragments, have been found, either in Egypt, or identified in the collections of various museums; the initial group of letters recovered by local Egyptians have been scattered among museums in Germany, Egypt, France and the United States. Either 202 or 203 tablets are at the Vorderasiatisches Museum in Berlin; the archive contains a wealth of information about cultures, kingdoms and individuals in a period from which few written sources survive. It includes correspondence from Akhenaten's reign, as well as his predecessor Amenhotep III's reign; the tablets consist of over 300 diplomatic letters. These tablets shed much light on Egyptian relations with Babylonia, Syria and Alashiya as well as relations with the Mitanni, the Hittites.
The letters have been important in establishing the chronology of the period. Letters from the Babylonian king, Kadashman-Enlil I, anchor the timeframe of Akhenaten's reign to the mid-14th century BC, they contain the first mention of a Near Eastern group known as the Habiru, whose possible connection with the Hebrews — due to the similarity of the words and their geographic location — remains debated. Other rulers involved in the letters include Tushratta of Mitanni, Lib'ayu of Shechem, Abdi-Heba of Jerusalem, the quarrelsome king, Rib-Hadda, of Byblos, who, in over 58 letters, continuously pleads for Egyptian military help; the letters include requests for military help in the north against Hittite invaders, in the south to fight against the Habiru. Amarna Letters are politically arranged in rough counterclockwise fashion: 001–014 Babylonia 015–016 Assyria 017–030 Mitanni 031–032 Arzawa 033–040 Alashiya 041–044 Hatti 045–380+ Syria/Lebanon/CanaanAmarna Letters from Syria/Lebanon/Canaan are distributed roughly: 045–067 Syria 068–227 Lebanon 227–380 Canaan.
Note: Many assignments are tentative. This is just a guide. William L. Moran summarizes the state of the chronology of these tablets as follows: Despite a long history of inquiry, the chronology of the Amarna letters, both relative and absolute, presents many problems, some of bewildering complexity, that still elude definitive solution. Consensus obtains only about what is obvious, certain established facts, these provide only a broad framework within which many and quite different reconstructions of the course of events reflected in the Amarna letters are possible and have been defended.... The Amarna archive, it is now agreed, spans at most about thirty years only fifteen or so. From the internal evidence, the earliest possible date for this correspondence is the final decade of the reign of Amenhotep III, who ruled from 1388 to 1351 BC as early as this king's
Kingdom of Judah
The Kingdom of Judah was an Iron Age kingdom of the Southern Levant. The Hebrew Bible depicts it as the successor to the United Monarchy, a term denoting the Kingdom of Israel under biblical kings Saul and Solomon and covering the territory of two historical kingdoms and Israel. For the parallel history of the southern Kingdom of Judah and its northern neighbour, the Kingdom of Israel, see History of ancient Israel and Judah. In the 10th and early 9th centuries BCE, the territory of Judah appears to have been sparsely populated, limited to small rural settlements, most of them unfortified. Jerusalem, the kingdom's capital did not emerge as a significant administrative center until the end of the 8th century. In the 7th century its population increased prospering under Assyrian vassalage, but in 605 the Assyrian Empire was defeated, the ensuing competition between the Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt and the Neo-Babylonian Empire for control of the Eastern Mediterranean led to the destruction of the kingdom in a series of campaigns between 597 and 582, the deportation of the elite of the community, the incorporation of Judah into a province of the Neo-Babylonian Empire.
The legendary history of David and Solomon in the 10th century BCE tells little about the origins of Judah. There is no archaeological evidence of an extensive, powerful Kingdom of Judah before the late 8th century BCE. Prior to this the kingdom was no more than a small tribal entity, limited to Jerusalem and its immediate surroundings; the status of Jerusalem in the 10th century BCE is a major subject of debate. The oldest part of Jerusalem and its original urban core is the City of David, which does not show evidence of significant Israelite residential activity until the 9th century. However, unique administrative structures such as the Stepped Stone Structure and the Large Stone Structure, which formed one structure, contain material culture dated to Iron I. On account of the apparent lack of settlement activity in the 10th century BCE, Israel Finkelstein argues that Jerusalem in that century was a small country village in the Judean hills, not a national capital, Ussishkin argues that the city was uninhabited.
Amihai Mazar contends that if the Iron I/Iron IIa dating of administrative structures in the City of David are correct, "Jerusalem was a rather small town with a mighty citadel, which could have been a center of a substantial regional polity."A collection of military orders found in the ruins of a military fortress in the Negev dating to the period of the Kingdom of Judah indicates widespread literacy, given that based on the inscriptions, the ability to read and write extended throughout the chain of command, from commanders to petty officers. According to Professor Eliezer Piasetsky, who participated in analyzing the texts, "Literacy existed at all levels of the administrative and priestly systems of Judah. Reading and writing were not limited to a tiny elite." This indicates the presence of a substantial educational infrastructure in Judah at the time. According to the Hebrew Bible, the kingdom of Judah resulted from the break-up of the United Kingdom of Israel after the northern tribes refused to accept Rehoboam, the son of Solomon, as their king.
At first, only the tribe of Judah remained loyal to the house of David, but soon after the tribe of Benjamin joined Judah. The two kingdoms, Judah in the south and Israel in the north, coexisted uneasily after the split until the destruction of the Kingdom of Israel by Assyria in c. 722/721. The major theme of the Hebrew Bible's narrative is the loyalty of Judah, its kings, to Yahweh, which it states is the God of Israel. Accordingly, all the kings of Israel and all the kings of Judah were "bad", which in terms of Biblical narrative means that they failed to enforce monotheism. Of the "good" kings, Hezekiah is noted for his efforts at stamping out idolatry, but his successors, Manasseh of Judah and Amon, revived idolatry, drawing down on the kingdom the anger of Yahweh. King Josiah returned to the worship of Yahweh alone, but his efforts were too late and Israel's unfaithfulness caused God to permit the kingdom's destruction by the Neo-Babylonian Empire in the Siege of Jerusalem; however it is now well established among academic scholars that the Biblical narrative is not an accurate reflection of religious views in either Judah or Israel during this period.
For the first sixty years, the kings of Judah tried to re-establish their authority over the northern kingdom, there was perpetual war between them. Israel and Judah were in a state of war throughout Rehoboam's seventeen-year reign. Rehoboam built elaborate strongholds, along with fortified cities. In the fifth year of Rehoboam's reign, pharaoh of Egypt, brought a huge army and took many cities. In the sack of Jerusalem, Rehoboam gave them all of the treasures out of the temple as a tribute and Judah became a vassal state of Egypt. Rehoboam's son and successor, Abijah of Judah, continued his father's efforts to bring Israel under his control, he fought the Battle o