Thomas Frederic Cheeseman
Thomas Frederic Cheeseman was a New Zealand botanist. He was a naturalist who had wide-ranging interests, such that he described a few species of sea slugs. Cheeseman was born at Hull, in Yorkshire on 8 June 1846, he came to New Zealand at the age of eight with his parents on the Artemesia, arriving in Auckland on 4 April 1854. He was educated at Parnell Grammar School and at St John's College, Auckland, his father, the Rev. Thomas Cheeseman, had been a member of the old Auckland Provincial Council. Cheeseman started studying the flora of New Zealand, in 1872 he published an accurate and comprehensive account of the plant life of the Waitakere Ranges. In 1874, he was appointed Secretary of the Auckland Institute and Curator of the Auckland Museum, which had only been founded. Under his curatorship, the museum's collections were formed, his botanical studies were valuable not just academically, but were of importance to agriculture and forestry. He published papers every year until his death; when Cheeseman's research began, the botany of New Zealand was quite poorly known.
Cheeseman made many collecting trips including areas such as the Nelson Provincial District, the Kermadec and Three Kings Islands, the area from Mangonui to the far north. He sometimes traveled with his friend Mr. J. Adams, of the Thames High School, after whom he named the species Senecio adamsii and Elytranthe adamsii. Cheeseman visited Polynesia, he published in the Transactions of the Linnean Society a full account of the flora of Rarotonga, the chief island of the Cook Group. Hundreds of bird specimens added to Auckland Museum's collections by Cheeseman were shot by his younger brother, William Joseph, their labels bear the tag "W. J. C." The museum could not afford a taxidermist, but Cheeseman's sister Emma learnt the skill and prepared many of the specimens. Her initials "E. C." appear.on the backs of many labels. Cheeseman married Rosetta Keesing, of a notable Jewish family of Auckland city, in November 1889. Out of his 101 papers and books, twenty-two are on zoological or ethnological subjects, as opposed to botany.
Many of Cheeseman's botanical publications paved the way for the publication of a complete Flora of New Zealand. In 1906 he produced the Manual of the New Zealand FloraIllustrated by is sister Clara Cheeseman. In 1914 he, Matilda Smith created Illustrations of the New Zealand Flora. In some of his publications, Cheeseman speculated as to the possible origins of the New Zealand sub-Antarctic flora, he had written an early paper on the naturalized plants of the Auckland Provincial District. Some of his early papers were about the pollination of certain species; as well as his botanical research, Cheeseman developed the Auckland Museum, including what is the most extensive collection extant illustrating Māori ethnology. He donated his own herbarium of the flowering plants and vascular cryptogams to the Auckland Institute, he published 79 articles in the Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand. Cheeseman named ten sea snails, half of which have become synonyms. Eight marine species were named cheesemanii after him.
Cheeseman was a Fellow of the Linnean Society of London, the Zoological Society. He was made a Corresponding Membership of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, awarded the Gold Linnean Medal of the Linnean Society, the botanical equivalent to a Nobel Medal; the New Zealand Institute elected him President in 1911. In 1918, he was awarded the Hector Memorial Medal and Prize, in 1919 he was made an original Fellow of the New Zealand Institute. 1966 Encyclopedia of New Zealand Biography in Botanical Discovery in New Zealand: The Resident Botanists by W. R. B. Oliver
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Geophysics is a subject of natural science concerned with the physical processes and physical properties of the Earth and its surrounding space environment, the use of quantitative methods for their analysis. The term geophysics sometimes refers only to the geological applications: Earth's shape. However, modern geophysics organizations use a broader definition that includes the water cycle including snow and ice. Although geophysics was only recognized as a separate discipline in the 19th century, its origins date back to ancient times; the first magnetic compasses were made from lodestones, while more modern magnetic compasses played an important role in the history of navigation. The first seismic instrument was built in 132 AD. Isaac Newton applied his theory of mechanics to the precession of the equinox. In the 20th century, geophysical methods were developed for remote exploration of the solid Earth and the ocean, geophysics played an essential role in the development of the theory of plate tectonics.
Geophysics is applied to societal needs, such as mineral resources, mitigation of natural hazards and environmental protection. In Exploration Geophysics, Geophysical survey data are used to analyze potential petroleum reservoirs and mineral deposits, locate groundwater, find archaeological relics, determine the thickness of glaciers and soils, assess sites for environmental remediation. Geophysics is a interdisciplinary subject, geophysicists contribute to every area of the Earth sciences. To provide a clearer idea of what constitutes geophysics, this section describes phenomena that are studied in physics and how they relate to the Earth and its surroundings; the gravitational pull of the Moon and Sun give rise to two high tides and two low tides every lunar day, or every 24 hours and 50 minutes. Therefore, there is a gap of 12 hours and 25 minutes between every high tide and between every low tide. Gravitational forces make rocks press down on deeper rocks, increasing their density as the depth increases.
Measurements of gravitational acceleration and gravitational potential at the Earth's surface and above it can be used to look for mineral deposits. The surface gravitational field provides information on the dynamics of tectonic plates; the geopotential surface called. The geoid would be the global mean sea level if the oceans were in equilibrium and could be extended through the continents; the Earth is cooling, the resulting heat flow generates the Earth's magnetic field through the geodynamo and plate tectonics through mantle convection. The main sources of heat are the primordial heat and radioactivity, although there are contributions from phase transitions. Heat is carried to the surface by thermal convection, although there are two thermal boundary layers – the core-mantle boundary and the lithosphere – in which heat is transported by conduction; some heat is carried up from the bottom of the mantle by mantle plumes. The heat flow at the Earth's surface is about 4.2 × 1013 W, it is a potential source of geothermal energy.
Seismic waves are vibrations that travel along its surface. The entire Earth can oscillate in forms that are called normal modes or free oscillations of the Earth. Ground motions from waves or normal modes are measured using seismographs. If the waves come from a localized source such as an earthquake or explosion, measurements at more than one location can be used to locate the source; the locations of earthquakes provide information on mantle convection. Recording of seismic waves from controlled sources provide information on the region that the waves travel through. If the density or composition of the rock changes, waves are reflected. Reflections recorded using Reflection Seismology can provide a wealth of information on the structure of the earth up to several kilometers deep and are used to increase our understanding of the geology as well as to explore for oil and gas. Changes in the travel direction, called refraction, can be used to infer the deep structure of the Earth. Earthquakes pose a risk to humans.
Understanding their mechanisms, which depend on the type of earthquake, can lead to better estimates of earthquake risk and improvements in earthquake engineering. Although we notice electricity during thunderstorms, there is always a downward electric field near the surface that averages 120 volts per meter. Relative to the solid Earth, the atmosphere has a net positive charge due to bombardment by cosmic rays. A current of about 1800 amperes flows in the global circuit, it flows downward from the ionosphere over most of the Earth and back upwards through thunderstorms. The flow is manifested by lightning below the sprites above. A variety of electric methods are used in geophysical survey; some measure spontaneous potential, a potential that arises in the ground because of man-made or natural disturbances. Telluric currents flow in the oceans, they have two causes: electromagnetic induction by the time-varying, external-origin geomagnetic field and motion of conducting bodies across the Earth's per
The President and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge known as the Royal Society, is a learned society. Founded on 28 November 1660, it was granted a royal charter by King Charles II as "The Royal Society", it is the oldest national scientific institution in the world. The society is the United Kingdom's and Commonwealth of Nations' Academy of Sciences and fulfils a number of roles: promoting science and its benefits, recognising excellence in science, supporting outstanding science, providing scientific advice for policy, fostering international and global co-operation and public engagement; the society is governed by its Council, chaired by the Society's President, according to a set of statutes and standing orders. The members of Council and the President are elected from and by its Fellows, the basic members of the society, who are themselves elected by existing Fellows; as of 2016, there are about 1,600 fellows, allowed to use the postnominal title FRS, with up to 52 new fellows appointed each year.
There are royal fellows, honorary fellows and foreign members, the last of which are allowed to use the postnominal title ForMemRS. The Royal Society President is Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, who took up the post on 30 November 2015. Since 1967, the society has been based at 6–9 Carlton House Terrace, a Grade I listed building in central London, used by the Embassy of Germany, London; the Invisible College has been described as a precursor group to the Royal Society of London, consisting of a number of natural philosophers around Robert Boyle. The concept of "invisible college" is mentioned in German Rosicrucian pamphlets in the early 17th century. Ben Jonson in England referenced the idea, related in meaning to Francis Bacon's House of Solomon, in a masque The Fortunate Isles and Their Union from 1624/5; the term accrued currency for the exchanges of correspondence within the Republic of Letters. In letters in 1646 and 1647, Boyle refers to "our invisible college" or "our philosophical college".
The society's common theme was to acquire knowledge through experimental investigation. Three dated letters are the basic documentary evidence: Boyle sent them to Isaac Marcombes, Francis Tallents who at that point was a fellow of Magdalene College and London-based Samuel Hartlib; the Royal Society started from groups of physicians and natural philosophers, meeting at a variety of locations, including Gresham College in London. They were influenced by the "new science", as promoted by Francis Bacon in his New Atlantis, from 1645 onwards. A group known as "The Philosophical Society of Oxford" was run under a set of rules still retained by the Bodleian Library. After the English Restoration, there were regular meetings at Gresham College, it is held that these groups were the inspiration for the foundation of the Royal Society. Another view of the founding, held at the time, was that it was due to the influence of French scientists and the Montmor Academy in 1657, reports of which were sent back to England by English scientists attending.
This view was held by Jean-Baptiste du Hamel, Giovanni Domenico Cassini, Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle and Melchisédech Thévenot at the time and has some grounding in that Henry Oldenburg, the society's first secretary, had attended the Montmor Academy meeting. Robert Hooke, disputed this, writing that: makes Mr Oldenburg to have been the instrument, who inspired the English with a desire to imitate the French, in having Philosophical Clubs, or Meetings. I will not say, that Mr Oldenburg did rather inspire the French to follow the English, or, at least, did help them, hinder us. But'tis well known who were the principal men that began and promoted that design, both in this city and in Oxford, and not only these Philosophic Meetings were. On 28 November 1660, the 1660 committee of 12 announced the formation of a "College for the Promoting of Physico-Mathematical Experimental Learning", which would meet weekly to discuss science and run experiments. At the second meeting, Sir Robert Moray announced that the King approved of the gatherings, a royal charter was signed on 15 July 1662 which created the "Royal Society of London", with Lord Brouncker serving as the first president.
A second royal charter was signed on 23 April 1663, with the king noted as the founder and with the name of "the Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge". This initial royal favour has continued and, since every monarch has been the patron of the society; the society's early meetings included experiments performed first by Hooke and by Denis Papin, appointed in 1684. These experiments varied in their subject area, were both important in some cases and trivial in others; the society published an English translation of Essays of Natural Experiments Made in the Accademia del Cimento, under the Protection of the Most Serene Prince Leopold of Tuscany in 1684, an Italian book documenting experiments at the Accademia del Cimento. Although meeting at Gresham College, the Society temporarily moved to Arundel House in 1666 after the Great Fire of London, which did not harm Gresham but did lead to its appropriation by the Lord Mayor; the Society r
Clinton Coleridge Farr was a New Zealand geophysicist, electrical engineer and university professor. He was born the youngest son of Rev. George Henry Farr and Julia Warren Farr on 22 May 1866. George was first headmaster of the Collegiate School of St Peter in South Australia. Coleridge was educated at the University of Adelaide, University College and the University of Sydney. Farr tutored at Sydney and Adelaide from 1893 to 1896, when he was appointed lecturer in mathematics and physics at Lincoln Agricultural College, New Zealand; as Director of the Christchurch Magnetic Observatory he organised a magnetic survey of New Zealand and was awarded the first science D. Sc. by the University of Adelaide. As lecturer in physics and surveying at Canterbury College, Christchurch Farr was a member of the 1907 Sub-Antarctic Islands Scientific Expedition, he was created Professor of Physics at Canterbury College in 1911. In 1919 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand, winning their Hector Medal in 1922 and serving as their president from 1929 to 1930.
In 1928 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London. He retired in 1936 and died in Christchurch, New Zealand, in 1943, he had married Maud Ellen Haydon in 1903 and had a son
American Geophysical Union
The American Geophysical Union is a 501 nonprofit organization of geophysicists, consisting of over 62,000 members from 144 countries. AGU's activities are focused on the organization and dissemination of scientific information in the interdisciplinary and international field of geophysics; the geophysical sciences involve four fundamental areas: atmospheric and ocean sciences. The organization's headquarters is located on Florida Avenue in Washington, D. C; the AGU was established in December 1919 by the National Research Council to represent the United States in the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, its first chairman was William Bowie of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey. For more than 50 years, it operated as an unincorporated affiliate of the National Academy of Sciences. On June 29, 1972, AGU was incorporated in the District of Columbia and membership was opened to scientists and students worldwide; the AGU was intended to promote "pure" geophysics. In a March 1919 report by a committee chaired by Robert S. Woodward of the Carnegie Institution, geophysics was defined as a collection of "borderlands": astronomy, geology, mareology, terrestrial magnetism, terrestrial electricity and volcanology.
The AGU was organized under seven sections: Geodesy, Meteorology, Terrestrial magnetism and electricity, Oceanography and Geophysical chemistry. Hydrology was added in 1930 and Tectonophysics in 1940. In suggesting the latter name, Norman Bowen evoked a familiar theme: to "designate this new borderline field between geophysics and geology... for the solution of problems of tectonics."The first meeting of the AGU took place on April 23, 1920. In attendance were 25 members. Up to 1930, the number of members was restricted and members were elected. In 1932 the first annual dues of US$2 were imposed; the membership grew to 4600 in 1950. As of 2013, it had 62,000 members from 144 countries. AGU publishes the weekly Eos newspaper and nineteen peer-reviewed scientific journals: The journal Radio Science is co-sponsored by the International Union of Radio Science; the journal Earth Interactions is published in partnership with the American Meteorological Society and the Association of American Geographers.
In addition, International Journal of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy is no longer published and AGU distributes Chinese Journal of Geophysics and Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics. Many of the journals have high impact factors, with Paleoceanography having the highest within paleontology and Reviews of Geophysics the second highest within geochemistry and geophysics as of 2010. AGU has been publishing books for more than 85 years. AGU co-published its first electronic journal, Earth Interactions, in 1997, it started its own electronic journal, Geophysics, Geosystems, in December 1999. It made a full transition to electronic publishing in 2001. For all its journals, the electronic version became the publication of record; this was accompanied by a new identification scheme for articles that did away with sequential page numbers. Instead, each article had a digital object identifier; as an example, 10.1029/2001GL014304 consists of the publisher identifier, the year, the journal code, an article number.
This new system was met with complaints from scientists. The article numbers provided no clue for libraries to find an article in printed versions, scientific databases were not set up to handle DOIs. AGU officials claimed that the problems were a temporary cost of being a frontrunner, but did retroactively assign each article a four-digit article number. In 2012 the journals and books, including over one and a half million pages of legacy content, were transferred to the Wiley Online Library. John Wiley & Sons were recognized for this work with the IT Project Team of the Year Award at the UK IT Industry Awards for 2013. While some AGU journals are open access by default, the remainder are open only after a two-year rolling embargo; the AGU hosts a number of blogs, collectively known as the AGU Blogosphere, informally publishing frequent updates on the Earth and space sciences. AGU publications are copyrighted, but in the United States many exceptions to the exclusive rights of copyright are allowed under the fair use provision, part of the Copyright Act of 1976.
Making copies of publications are allowed for such uses as teaching and research as long as a set of four criteria are met. However, when Texaco's corporate library made systematic copies of journal articles for its collection, AGU and five other publishers took Texaco to court; the judges found for AGU. Texaco was agreed to retroactively purchase a license from the Copyright Clearance Center; the presidents of the AGU have been: While more than 40 presidents have provided scientific leadership for the AGU since 1919, operational leadership has been provided by just four individuals. The first was John Adam Fleming, elected Secretary in 1925 and changed the name of his position to General Secretary, he served as a volunteer while working at the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism at the Carnegie Institution. By 1943, with the membership nearing 2,000, AGU recognized the need for a full-time professional administrator; the post was renamed Waldo E. Smith was hired, he served until 1970 and Athelstan Spilhaus, Jr. was hired as Executive Director.
Christine McEntee replaced him in 2010. Med
Pontifical Academy of Sciences
The Pontifical Academy of Sciences is a scientific academy of the Vatican City, established in 1936 by Pope Pius XI, thriving with the blessing of the Papacy since. Its aim is to promote the progress of the mathematical and natural sciences and the study of related epistemological problems; the Academy has its origins in the Accademia Pontificia dei Nuovi Lincei, founded in 1847 as a more supervised successor to the Accademia dei Lincei established in Rome in 1603 by the learned Roman Prince, Federico Cesi, a young botanist and naturalist, which claimed Galileo Galilei as its president. The Accademia dei Lincei survives as a wholly separate institution; the Academy of Sciences, one of the Pontifical academies at the Vatican in Rome, is headquartered in the Casina Pio IV in the heart of the Vatican Gardens. The academy holds a membership roster of the most respected names in 20th century science, including such Nobel laureates as Ernest Rutherford, Max Planck, Otto Hahn, Niels Bohr, Erwin Schrödinger, Charles Hard Townes.
Cesi wanted his academicians to adhere to a research methodology based upon observation and the inductive method. He thus called his academy "dei lincei" because its members had "eyes as sharp as lynxes," scrutinizing nature at both microscopic and macroscopic levels; the leader of the first academy was the famous scientist Galileo Galilei. Academy of Lynxes was dissolved after the death of its founder, but was re-created by Pope Pius IX in 1847 and given the name Accademia Pontificia dei Nuovi Lincei, it was re-founded in 1936 by Pope Pius XI and given its current name. Pope Paul VI in 1976 and Pope John Paul II in 1986 subsequently updated its statutes. Since 1936, the Pontifical Academy of Sciences has been concerned both with investigating specific scientific subjects belonging to individual disciplines and with the promotion of interdisciplinary co-operation, it has progressively increased the number of its academicians and the international character of its membership. The Academy enjoys freedom of research.
The statutes of 1976 express its goal: "The Pontifical Academy of Sciences has as its goal the promotion of the progress of the mathematical and natural sciences, the study of related epistemological questions and issues." Since the Academy and its membership is not influenced by factors of a national, political, or religious character it represents a valuable source of objective scientific information, made available to the Holy See and to the international scientific community. Today the work of the Academy covers six main areas: fundamental science the science and technology of global questions and issues science in favor of the problems of the Third World the ethics and politics of science bioethics epistemologyThe disciplines involved are sub-divided into eight fields: the disciplines of physics and related disciplines. Principal among the many publications produced by the Academy are: Acta – proceedings of the Plenary Sessions Scripta Varia – major works such as full reports on Study Weeks & Working Groups held at the Academy.
With the goal of promoting scientific research, the Pius XI Medal is awarded by the Academy every two years to a young scientist, under the age of 45 and shows exceptional promise. A few of the winners have become members of the Academy; the goals and hopes of the Academy were expressed by Pope Pius XI in the motu proprio "In multis solaciis" which brought about its re-foundation in 1936: "Amongst the many consolations with which divine Goodness has wished to make happy the years of our Pontificate, I am happy to place that of our having being able to see not a few of those who dedicate themselves to the studies of the sciences mature their attitude and their intellectual approach towards religion. Science, when it is real cognition, is never in contrast with the truth of the Christian faith. Indeed, as is well known to those who study the history of science, it must be recognized on the one hand that the Roman Pontiffs and the Catholic Church have always fostered the research of the learned in the experimental field as well, on the other hand that such research has opened up the way to the defense of the deposit of supernatural truths entrusted to the Church....
We promise again that it is our strongly-held intention, that the'Pontifical Academicians', through their work and our Institution, work more and more for the progress of the sciences. Of them we do not ask anything else, since this praiseworthy intent and this noble work in the service of the truth is what we expect of them."Forty years John Paul II once again emphasized the role and goals of the Academy, on the 100th anniversary of the birth of Albert Einstein: "The existence of this Pontifical Academy of Sciences, of which in its ancient ancestry Galileo was a member and of which today eminent sci