Balliol College, Oxford
Balliol College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. One of Oxford's oldest colleges, it was founded around 1263 by John I de Balliol, a rich landowner from Barnard Castle in County Durham, who provided the foundation and endowment for the college; when de Balliol died in 1269 his widow, Dervorguilla, a woman whose wealth far exceeded that of her husband, continued his work in setting up the college, providing a further endowment, writing the statutes. She is considered a co‑founder of the college. Among the college's alumni are three former prime ministers, Harald V of Norway, five Nobel laureates, numerous literary and philosophical figures, including Adam Smith, Gerard Manley Hopkins, Aldous Huxley. John Wycliffe, who translated the Bible into English, was Master of the college in the 1360s. In 2018 Balliol had an endowment of £139.3m. Balliol College was founded in about 1263 by John I de Balliol under the guidance of Walter of Kirkham, the Bishop of Durham.
According to legend, the founder had abducted the bishop as part of a land dispute and as a penance he was publicly beaten by the bishop and had to support a group of scholars at Oxford. After de Balliol's death in 1268, his widow, Dervorguilla of Galloway, made arrangements to ensure the permanence of the college in that she provided capital and in 1282 formulated the college statutes, documents that survive to this day. Along with University and Merton, Balliol can claim to be the oldest Oxford college. Balliol’s claim is that a house of scholars was established by the founder in Oxford in around 1263, before Merton in 1274 and University in around 1280. Under a statute of 1881, New Inn Hall, one of the remaining medieval halls, was merged into Balliol College in 1887. Balliol acquired New Inn Hall's admissions and other records for 1831–1887 as well as the library of New Inn Hall, which contained 18th-century law books; the New Inn Hall site was sold and is now part of St Peter's College, Oxford.
In 1880, seven mischievous Balliol undergraduates published The Masque of B-ll--l, a broadsheet of forty quatrains making light of their superiors – the Master and selected Fellows and Commoners – and themselves. The outraged authorities suppressed the collection, only a few copies survived, three of which found their way into the College Library over the years, one into the Bodleian Library. Verses of this form are now known as Balliol rhymes; the best known of these rhymes is the one on Benjamin Jowett. This has been quoted and reprinted in every book about Jowett and about Balliol since. First come I. My name is J-W-TT. There's no knowledge but I know it. I am Master of this College; this and 18 others are attributed to Henry Charles Beeching. The other quatrains are much less well known. William Tuckwell included 18 of these quatrains in his Reminiscences in 1900, but they all came out only in 1939, thanks to Walter George Hiscock, an Oxford librarian, who issued them then and in a second edition in 1955.
For many years, there has been a traditional and fierce rivalry shown between the students of Balliol and those of its immediate neighbour to the east, Trinity College. It has manifested itself on the river; the rivalry reflects that which exists between Trinity College and Balliol's sister college, St John's College, Cambridge. In college folklore, the rivalry goes back to the late 17th century, when Ralph Bathurst, President of Trinity, was observed throwing stones at Balliol's windows. In fact, in its modern form, the rivalry appears to date from the late 1890s, when the chant or song known as a "Gordouli" began to be sung from the Balliol side; the traditional words run: Gordouli Face like a ham,Bobby Johnson says so And he should know. The shouting of chants over the wall is still known as "a Gordouli", the tradition continues as the students gather to sing following boat club dinners and other events; the traditional Gordouli is said to have been sung by Balliol and Trinity men in the trenches of Mesopotamia in the First World War.
Balliol became known for its radicalism and political activism in the 20th century, saw an abortive coup in the 1960s in which students took over the college and declared it "the People's Republic of Balliol". The contrast between the radical tendencies of many Balliol students and the traditional conservatism and social exclusivity of Trinity gave the rivalry an extra edge; the fact that Balliol had admitted a number of Indian and Asiatic students gave many of the taunts from the Trinity side a distinctly racist tone: Balliol students, for example, were sometime referred to as "Basutos". In Five Red Herrings, a Lord Peter Wimsey novel by Somerville alumna Dorothy L. Sayers, Lord Peter is asked whether he remembers a certain contemporary from Trinity. "'I never knew any Trinity men,' said Wimsey.'The Jews have no dealings with the Samaritans.'" Sayers alludes to the rivalry in Murder Must Advertise: Mr Ingleby, a Trinity man, comments, "If there is one thing more repulsive than another it is Balliolity."One of the wittier raids from Balliol, in 1962 or 1963, involved the turfing of the whole of Trinity JCR.
The last incident suspected to relate to the feud was the vandalisation of Trinity's SCR pond, which led to the death of all but one of the fish. For
Magdalen College, Oxford
Magdalen College is one of the wealthiest constituent colleges of the University of Oxford, with an estimated financial endowment of £273 million as of 2018. Magdalen stands next to the River Cherwell and has within its grounds a deer park and Addison's Walk; the large, square Magdalen Tower is an Oxford landmark, it is a tradition, dating to the days of Henry VII, that the college choir sings from the top of it at 6 a.m. on May Morning. Magdalen College was founded in 1458 by William of Waynflete, Bishop of Winchester and Lord Chancellor. Wayneflete had founded a university hall named Magdalen Hall in 1448; the founder's statutes included provision for a choral foundation of men and boys and made reference to the pronunciation of the name of the college in English. The college received another substantial endowment from the estate of Sir John Fastolf of Caister Castle in Norfolk. A second university hall named Magdalen Hall emerged on a site adjacent to Magdalen College, moved to Catte Street in 1822 and became Hertford College in 1874.
Magdalen's prominence since the mid-20th century owes much to such famous fellows as C. S. Lewis and A. J. P. Taylor, its academic success to the work of such dons as Thomas Dewar Weldon. Like many of Oxford's colleges, Magdalen admitted its first mixed-sex cohort in 1979, after more than half a millennium as a men-only institution. In 2015, Magdalen topped Oxford's Norrington Table of college undergraduate examination results, its average score over the 2006–2016 period is the best among the colleges; the college grounds stretch north and east from the college, include most of the area bounded by Longwall Street, the High Street, St Clement's. The Great Tower was built between 1492 and 1509 by William Orchard, is an imposing landmark on the eastern approaches to the city centre; the hall and chapel were built at similar times, though both have undergone some changes in the intervening years. The Cloister or Great Quad has been altered several times since then. In 1822, the north side was in bad shape, was knocked down while most of the fellows were away from college.
It was rebuilt shortly afterwards. In the early 1900s, renovations were performed, it was returned to a more mediaeval character. Student rooms were installed in the roof space in the 1980s; the New Building was built across a large lawn to the north of the Great Quad beginning in 1733. Its spacious setting is due to the builders' intentions to create an new quad, but only one side was completed. Edward Gibbon and C. S. Lewis had their rooms in this building and as many rooms are occupied by tutors, the few student rooms are sought after; the college has four other quads. The irregularly shaped St John's Quad is the first on entering the college, includes the Outdoor Pulpit and old Grammar Hall, it connects to the Great Quad via the Perpendicular Gothic Founders Tower, richly decorated with carvings and pinnacles and has carved bosses in its vault. The Chaplain's Quad runs to the foot of the Great Tower. St Swithun's Quad and Longwall Quad date from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, make up the southwest corner of the college.
The Grove Buildings are the newest, built in the 1990s in a traditional style. The Waynflete Building, located across Magdalen Bridge from the main college site, was designed by Booth and Pinckheard and completed in 1964; this large meadow occupies most of the north west of the college's grounds, from the New Buildings and the Grove Quad up to Holywell Ford. During the winter and spring, it is the home of a herd of fallow deer, it is possible to view the meadow from the path between New Buildings and Grove Quad, from the archway in New Buildings. In the 16th century, long before the introduction of the deer, the grove consisted of gardens and bowling greens. During the Civil War, it was used to house a regiment of soldiers. At one point in the 19th century it was home to three traction engines belonging to the works department of the college. By the 20th century it had become well-wooded with many large trees, but most of them were lost to Dutch elm disease in the 1970s; this triangular meadow lies to the east of the college, bounded on all sides by the River Cherwell.
In the spring, it is filled with the flower Fritillaria meleagris, which gives it an attractive green-purple colour. These flowers grow in few places, have been recorded growing in the meadow since around 1785. Once the flowering has finished, the deer are moved in for autumn. In wet winters, some or all of the meadow may flood, as the meadow is lower lying than the surrounding path. All around the edge of the meadow is a tree-lined path, Addison's Walk, it is a beautiful and tranquil walk, favoured by students and visitors alike. It links the college with Holywell Ford, the Fellows' Garden. Located to the north east of the Meadow, directly behind the new building of the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies; this long and narrow garden follows the Cherwell to the edge of the University Parks. In spring, the ground is covered with flowers. In summer, there are some flowers, many different shrubs, the varied trees provide dappled cover from the sun, it is linked to Addison's Walk by a bridge. Magdalen Ground is located North of the fellows' garden.
The Chapel of Magdalen College is a place of worship for members of the college and others in the University of Oxford community an
University of California
The University of California is a public university system in the U. S. state of California. Under the California Master Plan for Higher Education, the University of California is a part of the state's three-system public higher education plan, which includes the California State University system and the California Community Colleges System; the University of California was founded on March 23, 1868, operated temporarily in Oakland before moving to its new campus in Berkeley in 1873. In March 1951, the University of California began to reorganize itself into something distinct from its first campus at Berkeley, with Robert Gordon Sproul remaining in place as the first systemwide President and Clark Kerr becoming the first Chancellor of UC Berkeley. However, the 1951 reorganization was stalled by resistance from Sproul and his allies, it was not until Kerr succeeded Sproul as President that UC was able to evolve into a true university system from 1957 to 1960. In the 21st century, the University of California has 10 campuses, a combined student body of 251,700 students, 21,200 faculty members, 144,000 staff members and over 1.86 million living alumni, as governed by a semi-autonomous Board of Regents.
Its tenth and newest campus in Merced opened in fall 2005. Nine campuses enroll graduate students. In addition, the UC Hastings College of Law, located in San Francisco, is affiliated with UC, but other than sharing its name is autonomous from the rest of the system; the University of California manages or co-manages three national laboratories for the U. S. Department of Energy: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory. Collectively, the colleges and alumni of the University of California make it the most comprehensive and advanced postsecondary educational system in the world, responsible for nearly $50 billion per year of economic impact. UC campuses have large numbers of distinguished faculty in every academic discipline, with UC faculty and researchers having won at least 62 Nobel Prizes as of 2017. In 1849, the state of California ratified its first constitution, which contained the express objective of creating a complete educational system including a state university.
Taking advantage of the Morrill Land-Grant Acts, the California Legislature established an Agricultural and Mechanical Arts College in 1866. However, it existed only as a placeholder to secure federal land-grant funds. Meanwhile, Congregational minister Henry Durant, an alumnus of Yale, had established the private Contra Costa Academy, on June 20, 1853, in Oakland, California; the initial site was bounded by Twelfth and Fourteenth Streets and Harrison and Franklin Streets in downtown Oakland. In turn, the Academy's trustees were granted a charter in 1855 for a College of California, though the College continued to operate as a college preparatory school until it added college-level courses in 1860; the College's trustees and supporters believed in the importance of a liberal arts education, but ran into a lack of interest in liberal arts colleges on the American frontier. In November 1857, the College's trustees began to acquire various parcels of land facing the Golden Gate in what is now Berkeley for a future planned campus outside of Oakland.
But first, they needed to secure the College's water rights by buying a large farm to the east. In 1864, they organized the College Homestead Association, which borrowed $35,000 to purchase the land, plus another $33,000 to purchase 160 acres of land to the south of the future campus; the Association subdivided the latter parcel and started selling lots with the hope it could raise enough money to repay its lenders and create a new college town. But sales of new homesteads fell short. Governor Frederick Low favored the establishment of a state university based upon the University of Michigan plan, thus in one sense may be regarded as the founder of the University of California. At the College of California's 1867 commencement exercises, where Low was present, Benjamin Silliman, Jr. criticized Californians for creating a state polytechnic school instead of a real university. That same day, Low first suggested a merger of the already-functional College of California with the nonfunctional state college, went on to participate in the ensuing negotiations.
On October 9, 1867, the College's trustees reluctantly agreed to join forces with the state college to their mutual advantage, but under one condition—that there not be an "Agricultural and Mechanical Arts College", but a complete university, within which the assets of the College of California would be used to create a College of Letters. Accordingly, the Organic Act, establishing the University of California, was introduced as a bill by Assemblyman John W. Dwinelle on March 5, 1868, after it was duly passed by both houses of the state legislature, it was signed into state law by Governor Henry H. Haight on March 23, 1868. However, as constituted, the new University was not an actual merger of the two colleges, but was an new institution which inherited certain objectives and assets from each of them; the University
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
National Library of Latvia
The National Library of Latvia known as Castle of Light is a national cultural institution under the supervision of the Ministry of Culture of Latvia. The National Library of Latvia was formed in 1919 after the independent Republic of Latvia was proclaimed in 1918; the first supervisor of the Library was Jānis Misiņš, a librarian and the founder of the Latvian scientific bibliography. Today the Library plays an important role in the development of Latvia's information society, providing Internet access to residents and supporting research and lifelong education; the National Library was founded on 29 August 1919, one year after independence, as the State Library. Its first chief librarian and bibliographer was Jānis Misiņš who made his immense private collection the basis of the new library. Within a year, until 1920, the stocks had grown to 250,000 volumes. Starting in the same year, all publishers were obliged to hand in a deposit copy of their works. Since 1927, the Library has published the National Bibliography of Latvia.
There were significant additions in 1939 and 1940, when the State Library took over many of the libraries and collections of the Baltic Germans, most of whom resettled to the Reich. Among these was a large part of the collection of the Society for History and Archaeology of Russia's Baltic Provinces, est. 1834, the primary historical society of the Baltic Germans. In 1940, holdings encompassed 1.7 million volumes, so that they had to be stored in two different locations in the Old Town. During the German occupation of Riga, the State Library was renamed Country Library, eliminating reference to a sovereign Latvian state). Under Soviet rule, it was known as State Library of the Latvian SSR. According to Soviet customs, in 1966 it received an honorary name, commemorating Vilis Lācis, a writer and the late prime minister of Soviet Latvia. From 1946, literature deemed'dangerous' from the Soviet perspective was withdrawn from the shelves and could be accessed only with a special permit until 1988.
In 1956, the State Library moved into its new building at Krišjāņa Barona iela. Since the reestablishment of national independence 1991, the institution has been called National Library of Latvia. In 1995, it received as a permanent loan the Baltic Central Library of Otto Bong, a collection pertaining to the history, regional studies and languages of the Baltic countries. In 2006, the National Library joined the European Library online service; the Library's holdings today encompass more than 5 million titles, incl. about 18,000 manuscripts from the 14th century up to modern times. One of the characteristic cornerstones of the NLL, which characterizes every national library, is the formation of the collection of national literature, its eternal storage and long-term access; the NLL is a centre of theoretical research and practical analyses of the activities of Latvian libraries. The Library carries out the functions of the centre of Latvia Interlibrary Loan, ensures the library and information service to the Parliament of the Republic of Latvia – the Saeima, implements the standardisation of the branch.
Since the outset, its main concern has been the national bibliography. The massive union catalogue Seniespiedumi latviešu valodā received the Spīdola Prize in 2000 and was awarded The Beautiful Book of the Year 99. In 2005, the Letonikas grāmatu autoru rādītājs was published, providing information about versatile branches of science and representatives of various nations, Latvia being the main focus of their publications; the NLL includes several collections of posters. Digitising collections at the NLL started in 1999. At present the Latvian National Digital Library Letonica, formed in 2006, holds digitized collections of newspapers, maps, sheet-music and audio recordings. In 2008 NLL launched two major digital projects. Periodika.lv is the NLL's collection of digitized historical periodicals in Latvian with the possibility to read full texts and search page by page. Latvia has Dance Festivals organized every four years; the historical materials from the first Song Festival in 1864 till the Latgale Song Festival in 1940 can be explored in another digital collection of the National Library of Latvia.
The first discussions about the need for a new National Library had started in 1928, the significance of the project of this century was further confirmed by the high-level international recognition. In 1999 all 170 UNESCO member states during its General Conference adopted a resolution, calling the member states and the international community to ensure all possible support for the implementation of the NLL project; the continuous growth of the Library had made it necessary to transfer parts of the stocks into other buildings. Thus, in 2013, NLL was distributed between five locations in Riga. Furthermore, some stocks were being stored since 1998 in a depot in Silakrogs outside the capital; these inconveniences convinced the Parliament to approve a new building on the left bank of the Daugava. On 15 May 2008, after discussions lasting for many years, the state agency Three New Brothers and the Union of National Construction Companies signed the contract on the construction of the new National Library of Latvia.
On 18 May 2014, the main facility of the Library at Krišjāņa Barona iela was close
Williams College is a private liberal arts college in Williamstown, United States. It was established in 1793 with funds from the estate of Ephraim Williams, a colonist from the Province of Massachusetts Bay, killed in the French and Indian War in 1755; the college was ranked first in 2017 in the U. S. News & World Report's liberal arts ranking for the 15th consecutive year, first among liberal arts colleges in the 2018 Forbes magazine ranking of America's Top Colleges. Williams is on a 450-acre campus in Williamstown, in the Berkshires in rural northwestern Massachusetts; the campus contains more than 100 academic and residential buildings. There are 349 voting faculty members, with a student-to-faculty ratio of 7:1; as of 2017, the school has an enrollment of 57 graduate students. The college competes in the NCAA Division III New England Small College Athletic Conference, competes in the conference as the Ephs. Following a liberal arts curriculum, Williams College provides undergraduate instruction in 25 academic departments and interdisciplinary programs including 36 majors in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences.
Williams offers an entirely undergraduate instruction, as there are two graduate programs in development economics and art history. The College maintains affiliations with the nearby Clark Art Institute and Massachusetts Museum of Contemporary Art, has a close relationship with Exeter College, Oxford University. Undergraduate admission is selective, with an acceptance rate of 12.1% for the Class of 2022. The college has produced many prominent alumni, including 8 Pulitzer Prize winners, a Nobel Prize Laureate, a Fields medalist, 3 chairmen of the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission, 10 billionaire alumni, 71 members of the United States Congress, 22 U. S. Governors, 4 U. S. Cabinet secretaries, an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, a President of the United States, 3 prime ministers, CEOs and founders of Fortune 500 companies, high-ranking U. S. diplomats, foreign central bankers, scholars in academia and media figures, numerous Emmy and Grammy award winners, professional athletes. Other notable alumni include 39 Rhodes Scholars, 17 Marshall Scholarship winners, numerous Watson Fellows and Fulbright scholarship recipients.
Colonel Ephraim Williams was an officer in the Massachusetts militia and a member of a prominent landowning family. His will included a bequest to support and maintain a free school to be established in the town of West Hoosac, provided the town change its name to Williamstown. Williams was killed at the Battle of Lake George on September 8, 1755. After Shays' Rebellion, the Williamstown Free School opened with 15 students on October 26, 1791; the first president was Ebenezer Fitch. Not long after its founding, the school's trustees petitioned the Massachusetts legislature to convert the free school to a tuition-based college; the legislature agreed and on June 22, 1793, Williams College was chartered. It was the second college to be founded in Massachusetts. At its founding, the college maintained a policy of racial segregation, refusing admission to black applicants; this policy was challenged by Lucy Terry Prince, credited as the first black American poet, when her son Festus was refused admission on account of his race.
Prince, who had established a reputation as a raconteur and rhetorician, delivered a three-hour speech before the college's board of trustees, quoting abundantly from scripture, but was unable to secure her son's admission. More recent scholarship, has highlighted there are no records within the college to confirm this event occurred, Festus Prince may have been refused entry for an insufficient mastery of Latin and French, all of which were necessary for successful completion of the entrance exam at the time, which would most not have been available in the local schools of Guilford, where Festus was raised. In 1806, a student prayer meeting gave rise to the American Foreign Mission Movement. In August of that year, five students met in the maple grove of Sloan's Meadow to pray. A thunderstorm drove them to the shelter of a haystack, the fervor of the ensuing meeting inspired them to take the Gospel abroad; the students went on to build the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, the first American organization to send missionaries overseas.
The Haystack Monument near Mission Park on the Williams Campus commemorates the historic "Haystack Prayer Meeting". By 1815, Williams had only two buildings and 58 students and was in financial trouble, so the board voted to move the college to Amherst, Massachusetts. In 1821, the president of the college, Zephaniah Swift Moore, who had accepted his position believing the college would move east, decided to proceed with the move, he took 15 students with him, re-founded the college under the name of Amherst College. Some students and professors decided to stay at Williams and were allowed to keep the land, at the time worthless. According to legend, Moore took portions of the Williams College library. Although plausible, the transfer of books is unsubstantiated. Moore died just two years after founding Amherst, was succeeded by Heman Humphrey, a trustee of Williams College. Edward Dorr Griffin was appointed President of Williams and is credited with saving Williams during his 15-year tenure. A Williams student, Gardner Cotrell Leonard, designed the gowns he and his classmates wore to graduation in 1887.
Seven years he advised the Inter-Collegiate Commission on Academic Costume, which met at Columbia University, established the current system of U. S. academic dress. One reason gowns were adopted in the late nineteent
The Marshall Scholarship is a postgraduate scholarship for "intellectually distinguished young Americans their country's future leaders" to study at any university in the United Kingdom. Created by the Parliament of the United Kingdom in 1953 as a living gift to the United States in recognition of the generosity of Secretary of State George C. Marshall and the Marshall Plan in the wake of World War II, the goal of the scholarship was to strengthen the Special Relationship between the two countries for "the good of mankind in this turbulent world." The scholarships are awarded by the Marshall Aid Commemoration Commission and are funded by the British Government. With nearly 1,000 applicants in recent years, it is among the most selective graduate scholarship for Americans, with an acceptance rate around 4%, as low as 3.2% in 2015. It is considered one of the most prestigious scholarships for U. S. citizens, along with the Fulbright Scholarship it is the only broadly available scholarship available to Americans to study at any University in the United Kingdom.
The program was the first major co-educational British graduate scholarship. There are over 1,900 Marshall Scholar alumni. To date, two of the nine current Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States are alumni of the program, while others have been prominent CEOs, members of the United States Congress, they have been leaders in many academic and professional disciplines, including one Nobel Laureate, four Pulitzer Prize–winning authors, two winners of the John Bates Clark Medal for the best American economist under the age of 40, twelve MacArthur Genius Grant awardees, the President of the National Bureau of Economic Research, the Managing Editors of TIME and CNN and the International News Editor of The New York Times, NASA's youngest Astronaut, two Oscar nominees, one winner of the National Medal of Technology and Innovation, one awardee of the Distinguished Flying Cross for service during the Iraq War. In a letter to the first class of Marshall Scholars, George Marshall echoed his own words in presenting his ideas for European recovery by saying,A close accord between our two countries is essential to the good of mankind in this turbulent world of today, and, not possible without an intimate understanding of each other.
These scholarships point the way to the continuation and growth of the understanding which found its necessity in the terrible struggle of the war years. The published objectives of the Marshall Scholarships are outlined as follows: To enable intellectually distinguished young Americans, their country's future leaders, to study in the UK. To help scholars gain an understanding and appreciation of contemporary Britain. To contribute to the advancement of knowledge in science, the humanities and social sciences and the creative arts at Britain's centres of academic excellence. To motivate scholars to act as ambassadors from the US to the UK and vice versa throughout their lives thus strengthening British American understanding. To promote the personal and academic fulfilment of each scholar. Plans to establish "Marshall Scholarships" as a living memorial to Secretary of State George Marshall were announced by British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden on July 31, 1952, were enacted by the Parliament of the United Kingdom when the Marshall Aid Commemoration Act was passed in 1953.
The act's passage was backed by "leaders of all political hues," with British Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin describing the scholarship's establishment as "a great opportunity for Europe." While the authors of the proposal considered partnering with the Rhodes Scholarship, considered using the same selection committees, this idea was disregarded because its proponents believed the scholarships should be available to women, to married men under the age of 28. The creation of a separate scholarship was a cause of great concern to Lord Godfrey Elton, the head of the Rhodes Trust at the time, who worried that the ability to study at other universities would draw potential applicants, he urged the Foreign Office to create a ‘reverse exchange’ for British students in the United States instead. The Rhodes Scholarship became open to women beginning in 1977 following the passage of the British Sex Discrimination Act in 1975. In 1959, when Parliament doubled the number of scholars from 12 to 24, British politician Philip Noel-Baker argued that "Marshall, more than any other man, destroyed isolation in the United States and built up the conception that only collective security through international institutions can save the world...
I think the world has never seen an act of greater national generosity than Marshall aid and the other aid which the United States has given to other continents throughout the last 15 years." By 1960, six years after their establishment, the scholarship was "on its way to becoming as well-known and respected as the fellow phrase, "Rhodes," and both scholarships attracted 500 to 600 applicants. As part of the celebrations for the 50th Anniversary of the Marshall Scholarships in 2003, Marshall Medals were awarded to a group of distinguished Americans in recognition of their contributions to US-UK relations, including Justice Stephen Breyer, Dr. Ray