Led Zeppelin were an English rock band formed in London in 1968. The group consisted of guitarist Jimmy Page, singer Robert Plant, bassist/keyboardist John Paul Jones, drummer John Bonham. Along with Black Sabbath and Deep Purple, the band's heavy, guitar-driven sound has led them to be cited as one of the progenitors of heavy metal, their style drew from a wide variety of influences, including blues and folk music. After changing their name from the New Yardbirds, Led Zeppelin signed a deal with Atlantic Records that afforded them considerable artistic freedom. Although the group were unpopular with critics, they achieved significant commercial success with eight studio albums released over eleven years, from Led Zeppelin to In Through the Out Door, their untitled fourth studio album known as Led Zeppelin IV and featuring the song "Stairway to Heaven", is among the most popular and influential works in rock music, it helped to secure the group's popularity. Page wrote most of Led Zeppelin's music early in their career, while Plant supplied the lyrics.
Jones' keyboard-based compositions became central to the group's catalogue, which featured increasing experimentation. The latter half of their career saw a series of record-breaking tours that earned the group a reputation for excess and debauchery. Although they remained commercially and critically successful, their output and touring schedule were limited during the late 1970s, the group disbanded following Bonham's death from alcohol-related asphyxia in 1980. In the decades that followed, the surviving members sporadically collaborated and participated in one-off Led Zeppelin reunions; the most successful of these was the 2007 Ahmet Ertegun Tribute Concert in London, with Jason Bonham taking his late father's place behind the drums. Many critics consider Led Zeppelin to be one of the most successful and influential rock groups in history, they are one of the best-selling music artists in the history of audio recording. With RIAA-certified sales of 111.5 million units, they are the third-best-selling band in the US.
Each of their nine studio albums placed in the top 10 of the Billboard album chart and six reached the number-one spot. They achieved eight consecutive UK number-one albums. Rolling Stone magazine described them as "the heaviest band of all time", "the biggest band of the Seventies", "unquestionably one of the most enduring bands in rock history", they were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1995. In 1966, London-based session guitarist Jimmy Page joined the blues-influenced rock band the Yardbirds to replace bassist Paul Samwell-Smith. Page soon switched from bass to lead guitar. Following Beck's departure in October 1966, the Yardbirds, tired from constant touring and recording, began to wind down. Page wanted to form a supergroup with him and Beck on guitars, the Who's Keith Moon and John Entwistle on drums and bass, respectively. Vocalists Steve Winwood and Steve Marriott were considered for the project; the group never formed, although Page and Moon did record a song together in 1966, "Beck's Bolero", in a session that included bassist-keyboardist John Paul Jones.
The Yardbirds played their final gig in July 1968 at Luton College of Technology in Bedfordshire. They were still committed to several concerts in Scandinavia, so drummer Jim McCarty and vocalist Keith Relf authorised Page and bassist Chris Dreja to use "the Yardbirds" name to fulfill the band's obligations. Page and Dreja began putting a new line-up together. Page's first choice for the lead singer was Terry Reid, but Reid declined the offer and suggested Robert Plant, a singer for the Band of Joy and Hobbstweedle. Plant accepted the position, recommending former Band of Joy drummer John Bonham. John Paul Jones inquired about the vacant position of bass guitarist at the suggestion of his wife after Dreja dropped out of the project to become a photographer. Page had known Jones since they were both session musicians and agreed to let him join as the final member; the four played together for the first time in a room below a record store on Gerrard Street in London. Page suggested that they attempt "Train Kept A-Rollin'" a jump blues song popularised in a rockabilly version by Johnny Burnette, covered by the Yardbirds.
"As soon as I heard John Bonham play", Jones recalled, "I knew this was going to be great... We locked together as a team immediately". Before leaving for Scandinavia, the group took part in a recording session for the P. J. Proby album, Three Week Hero; the album's track "Jim's Blues", with Plant on harmonica, was the first studio track to feature all four future members of Led Zeppelin. The band completed the Scandinavian tour as the New Yardbirds, playing together for the first time in front of a live audience at Gladsaxe Teen Clubs in Gladsaxe, Denmark, on 7 September 1968; that month, they began recording their first album, based on their live set. The album was recorded and mixed in nine days, Page covered the costs. After the album's completion, the band were forced to change their name after Dreja issued a cease and desist letter, stating that Page was allowed to use the New Yardbirds moniker for the Scandinavian dates only. One account of how the new band's name was chosen held that Moon and Entwistle had suggested that a supergroup with Page and Beck would go down like a "lead balloon", an idiom for disastrous results.
The group dropped the'a' in lead at the suggestion
An illustrator is an artist who specializes in enhancing writing or elucidating concepts by providing a visual representation that corresponds to the content of the associated text or idea. The illustration may be intended to clarify complicated concepts or objects that are difficult to describe textually, the reason illustrations are found in children's books. Illustration is the art of making images that work with something and add to it without needing direct attention and without distracting from what they illustrate; the other thing is the focus of the attention, the illustration's role is to add personality and character without competing with that other thing. Illustrations have been used in advertisements, architectural rendering, greeting cards, books, graphic novels, manuals, magazines, video games and newspapers. A cartoon illustration can add humor to essays. Use reference images to create scenes and characters; this can be as simple as looking at an image to inspire your artwork, or creating character sketches and detailed scenes from different angles to create the basis of a picture book world.
Some traditional illustration techniques include watercolor and ink, airbrush art, oil painting, wood engraving, linoleum cuts. John Held, Jr. was an illustrator who worked in a variety of styles and media, including linoleum cuts and ink drawings, magazine cover paintings, comic strips, set design, while creating fine art with his animal sculptures and watercolor, many established illustrators attended an art school or college of some sort and were trained in different painting and drawing techniques. Traditional illustration seems to have made a resurgence in the age of social media thanks to social networks like Instagram, Facebook and YouTube. Traditional and digital illustration are both flourishing. Universities and art schools offer specific courses in illustration so this has become a new avenue into the profession. Many illustrators are freelance. Most scientific illustrations and technical illustrations are known as information graphics. Among the information graphics specialists are medical illustrators who illustrate human anatomy requiring many years of artistic and medical training.
A popular medium with illustrators of the 1950s and 1960s was casein, as was egg tempera. The immediacy and durability of these media suited illustration's demands well; the artwork in both types of paint withstood the rigors of travel to clients and printers without damage. Computer illustration, or digital illustration, is the use of digital tools to produce images under the direct manipulation of the artist through a pointing device, such as a tablet or a mouse. Computers changed the industry and today, many cartoonists and illustrators create digital illustrations using computers, graphics tablets, scanners. Software such as Adobe Illustrator, Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, Affinity Designer are now used by those professionals. Airbrush artist Archaeological illustration Architectural illustrator Cartoonist Fashion illustration Graphic designer Marker rendering Painters Pictorial maps Storyboard artist Stuttgart Database of Scientific Illustrators Visualizer Societies and organizationsDirectory of Illustration Illustratörcentrum Society of Illustrators American Illustration Communication Arts Society of Children’s Book Writers and Illustrators San Francisco Society of Illustrators Society of Illustrators of Los Angeles The Association of Illustrators The Illustrators Partnership of America AIIQ – l’Association des Illustrateurs et Illustratrices du Québec Colorado Alliance of Illustrators The Association Archaeological Illustrators and Surveyors Guild of Natural Science Illustrators The Association of Medical Illustrators Guild of Natural Science Illustrators-Northwest Illustrators Australia French illustrators Urban Sketchers Official website
Science fiction is a genre of speculative fiction dealing with imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and technology, space exploration, time travel, extraterrestrials in fiction. Science fiction explores the potential consequences of scientific other various innovations, has been called a "literature of ideas." "Science fiction" is difficult to define as it includes a wide range of concepts and themes. James Blish wrote: "Wells used the term to cover what we would today call'hard' science fiction, in which a conscientious attempt to be faithful to known facts was the substrate on which the story was to be built, if the story was to contain a miracle, it ought at least not to contain a whole arsenal of them."Isaac Asimov said: "Science fiction can be defined as that branch of literature which deals with the reaction of human beings to changes in science and technology." According to Robert A. Heinlein, "A handy short definition of all science fiction might read: realistic speculation about possible future events, based solidly on adequate knowledge of the real world and present, on a thorough understanding of the nature and significance of the scientific method."Lester del Rey wrote, "Even the devoted aficionado or fan—has a hard time trying to explain what science fiction is," and that the reason for there not being a "full satisfactory definition" is that "there are no delineated limits to science fiction."
Author and editor Damon Knight summed up the difficulty, saying "science fiction is what we point to when we say it." Mark C. Glassy described the definition of science fiction as U. S. Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart did with the definition of pornography: "I know it when I see it." Science fiction had its beginnings in a time when the line between myth and fact was arguably more blurred than the present day. Written in the 2nd century CE by the satirist Lucian, A True Story contains many themes and tropes that are characteristic of contemporary science fiction, including travel to other worlds, extraterrestrial lifeforms, interplanetary warfare, artificial life; some consider it the first science-fiction novel. Some of the stories from The Arabian Nights, along with the 10th-century The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter and Ibn al-Nafis's 13th-century Theologus Autodidactus contain elements of science fiction. Products of the Age of Reason and the development of modern science itself, Johannes Kepler's Somnium, Francis Bacon's New Atlantis, Cyrano de Bergerac's Comical History of the States and Empires of the Moon and The States and Empires of the Sun, Margaret Cavendish's "The Blazing World", Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels, Ludvig Holberg's Nicolai Klimii Iter Subterraneum and Voltaire's Micromégas are regarded as some of the first true science-fantasy works.
Indeed, Isaac Asimov and Carl Sagan considered Somnium the first science-fiction story. Following the 18th-century development of the novel as a literary form, Mary Shelley's books Frankenstein and The Last Man helped define the form of the science-fiction novel. Brian Aldiss has argued. Edgar Allan Poe wrote several stories considered science fiction, including "The Unparalleled Adventure of One Hans Pfaall" which featured a trip to the Moon. Jules Verne was noted for his attention to detail and scientific accuracy Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea which predicted the contemporary nuclear submarine. In 1887, the novel El anacronópete by Spanish author Enrique Gaspar y Rimbau introduced the first time machine. Many critics consider H. G. Wells one of science fiction's most important authors, or "the Shakespeare of science fiction." His notable science-fiction works include The Time Machine, The Island of Doctor Moreau, The Invisible Man, The War of the Worlds. His science fiction imagined alien invasion, biological engineering and time travel.
In his non-fiction futurologist works he predicted the advent of airplanes, military tanks, nuclear weapons, satellite television, space travel, something resembling the World Wide Web. In 1912, Edgar Rice Burroughs published A Princess of Mars, the first of his three-decade-long planetary romance series of Barsoom novels, set on Mars and featuring John Carter as the hero. In 1926, Hugo Gernsback published the first American science-fiction magazine, Amazing Stories, in which he wrote: By'scientifiction' I mean the Jules Verne, H. G. Wells and Edgar Allan Poe type of story—a charming romance intermingled with scientific fact and prophetic vision... Not only do these amazing tales make tremendously interesting reading—they are always instructive, they supply knowledge... in a palatable form... New adventures pictured for us in the scientifiction of today are not at all impossible of realization tomorrow... Many great science stories destined to be of historical interest are still to be written...
Posterity will point to them as having blazed a new trail, not only in literature and fiction, but progress as well. In 1928, E. E. "Doc" Smith's first published work, The Skylark of Space, written in collaboration with Lee Hawkins Garby, appeared in Amazing Stories. It is called the first great space opera; the same year, Philip Francis Nowlan's original Buck Rogers story, Armageddon 2419 appeared in Amazing Stories. This was followed by the first serious science-fiction comic. In 1937, John W. Campbell became editor of Astounding Science Fiction, an event, sometimes conside
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
West Covina, California
West Covina is a city in Los Angeles County, located 19 miles east of Downtown Los Angeles in the eastern San Gabriel Valley and is part of Greater Los Angeles. The population for the city was 106,098 at the 2010 census. West Covina was incorporated as an independent city in 1923 to prevent the city of Covina from building a sewage farm in the area. Benjamin Franklin Maxson, Jr. was the first mayor. Walnut groves and orange groves continued to flourish; the population in 1930 was 769 and blossomed to 1,549 in 1940. As a result of remarkable expansion during the post World War II building boom, West Covina became one of the fastest-growing U. S. cities between 1950 and 1960, with the population increasing 1,000 per cent from less than 5,000 to more than 50,000 citizens. The decades between 1960 and 2000 demonstrated steady growth, which slowed by the time of the 2010 census; the City of West Covina began the second half of the 20th century with new developments and projects brought on by big business.
The City Hall and police facility were built in 1969 as the first phase of an example of a Joint Powers Authority in the County of Los Angeles. The Civic Center Joint Powers Authority, consisting of the County of Los Angeles and the City of West Covina completed a three-level parking structure in the Civic Center complex; the Civic Center complex includes the Los Angeles County Regional Library and the Citrus Municipal Court building and the city offices. The first Redevelopment Agency project included a regional shopping center, the West Covina Fashion Plaza, with three major department stores and 150 shops in an air-conditioned, enclosed mall, it included the revitalization of the older sections of the shopping center. The Fashion Plaza has provided the citizens of the San Gabriel Valley with convenient access to all shopping needs. In 1991 the mall was renovated adding a food court and additional shops, as well as the redecorating of the entire mall; the mall was renamed "The Plaza at West Covina".
The Plaza opened a new 100,000 sq ft. wing in October 1993 featuring 50 new stores including a new Robinson's-May and interior renovation throughout The Plaza. The Redevelopment Agency's efforts have resulted in several major office buildings in the city, such as "The Lakes", in addition to two new community shopping centers, freestanding retail developments, residential projects, the Auto Plaza; the 2010 United States Census reported that West Covina had a population of 106,098. The population density was 6,594.3 people per square mile. The racial makeup of West Covina was 42.8% White, 4.5% Black, 1.0% Native American, 25.8% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 21.3% from other races, 4.4% from two or more races. Persons of Hispanic or Latino origin were 53.2%. The Census reported that 105,424 people lived in households, 351 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 323 were institutionalized. There were 31,596 households, out of which 13,670 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 17,650 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 5,402 had a female householder with no husband present, 2,308 had a male householder with no wife present.
There were 1,664 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 202 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 4,795 households were made up of individuals and 2,164 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.34. There were 25,360 families; the population was spread out with 26,075 people under the age of 18, 11,326 people aged 18 to 24, 28,860 people aged 25 to 44, 26,974 people aged 45 to 64, 12,863 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36.0 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.7 males. There were 32,705 housing units at an average density of 2,032.7 per square mile, of which 20,703 were owner-occupied, 10,893 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.1%. 70,474 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 34,950 people lived in rental housing units. During 2009–2013, West Covina had a median household income of $67,088, with 10% of the population living below the federal poverty line.
In 2017, there were more than 10,000 Filipino Americans living in West Covina. West Covina is broken up into five districts; the San Gabriel Valley region has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate, with summer temperatures averaging above 73 °F. A project, completed is the West Covina Sportsplex Project, it is made up of four components, which include the commercial development, Big League Dreams Sports Park, an 18-hole championship Public Golf Course, a commercial office development. The 43-acre site commercial development has over 300,000 square feet of new high quality commercial retail space; the commercial area includes a Target, Home Depot, Verizon Wireless, Fresh & Easy, Petsmart as well as various other specialty shops and restaurants. Big League Dreams Sports Park features batting cages, a multi-use pavilion that can be used as a soccer field, ice hockey rink, can be rented out as a hall, it has 6 high quality ball fields that replicate sporting landmarks like Yankee Stadium, Tiger Stadium, Fenway Park, Wrigley Field, Dodger Stadium and Angel Stadium of Anaheim.
The Keep on the Borderlands
The Keep on the Borderlands is a Dungeons & Dragons adventure module by Gary Gygax, first printed in December 1979. In it, player characters are based at a keep and investigate a nearby series of caves that are filled with a variety of monsters, it was designed to be used with the Dungeons & Dragons Basic Set, was included in the 1979–1982 editions of the Basic Set. It was designed for people new to Dragons; the Keep on the Borderlands has been reprinted twice. A novelized version of the adventure was published in 2001; the module received positive reviews, was ranked the 7th greatest Dungeons & Dragons adventure of all time by Dungeon magazine in 2004. Player characters begin by arriving at the eponymous keep, can base themselves there before investigating the series of caverns in the nearby hills teeming with monsters; these Caves of Chaos house multiple species of vicious humanoids. Plot twists include a treacherous priest within the keep, hungry lizardmen in a nearby swamp, a mad hermit in the wilderness.
It typifies the dungeon crawls associated with beginning D&D players, while permitting some limited outdoor adventures. When The Grand Duchy of Karameikos edition of the Gazetteer series was published, the Keep was given a specific location in the Known World of Mystara, in the Atlan Tepe Mountain region in northern Karameikos; the Keep on the Borderlands was published in 1980. It consists of a thirty-two page booklet with an outer folder, it is designed for use with the Dragons Basic Set. It was included in printings 6–11 of the Basic Set, although it was available for sale separately; the cover of the first printing included the notation, "With minor modifications, it is suitable for use with ADVANCED DUNGEONS & DRAGONS". The module's cover notes that it is designed to help beginning players and Dungeon Masters. Tips for running encounters appear throughout the text to assist beginning DMs; the module provides rudimentary rules for wilderness adventures, as these were not included in the D&D Basic Set.
The structure of the adventure as a series of separate caves allows segmented playing sessions for beginners. The module has been described as a low-level introductory scenario, which leads the player characters from an outpost on the frontier of law into the forces of chaos. Kirby T. Griffis. 37, found the module "interesting and full of excitement", though he considered the map sloppily done. He concluded by stating "on the whole, I enjoyed this module and recommend it."The Keep on the Borderlands was ranked the 7th greatest Dungeons & Dragons adventure of all time by Dungeon magazine in 2004, on the 30th anniversary of the Dungeons & Dragons game. Ken Denmead of Wired listed the module as one of the "Top 10 D&D Modules I Found in Storage This Weekend". According to Denmead, the module "should give a party of low-levels a rather challenging time." The module was reviewed in Shadis #29. Lawrence Schick, in his 1991 book Heroic Worlds, describes the adventure as "A good start for new players" and speculates that at the time, there had been more copies of B2 printed than of any other role-playing scenario.
The 10th Anniversary Dungeons & Dragons Collector's Set boxed set published by TSR in 1984 included the rulebooks from the Basic and Companion sets. The set was limited to a thousand copies, was sold by mail and at GenCon 17; the Keep on the Borderlands went out of print in the mid 1980s. However, the module was reprinted in the supermodule compilation B1–9 In Search of Adventure, which included the Caves of Chaos but not the keep or surrounding wilderness. A reprinting of the original adventure was made available in the Dungeons & Dragons Silver Anniversary Collector's Edition boxed set in 1999 to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the Dungeons & Dragons game, with slight modifications to make it distinguishable from the original. A sequel was released in 1999, Return to the Keep on the Borderlands for 2nd edition AD&D; the original B2 publication was generic in terms of setting, while the 1999 Return module placed the Keep in Yeomanry, making it a canonical location in the World of Greyhawk.
The placement of the Keep in Greyhawk did not match many details in the sequel, such as several non-Greyhawk deities and peoples. At least two of the non-player character descriptions refer to details from the Mystara setting rather than Greyhawk. In 2001, Wizards of the Coast published Keep on the Borderlands, a novelization by Ru Emerson for the Greyhawk Classics series; the novel was set in the World of Greyhawk with scant references to its location. A hacked version of the module was published for the HackMaster RPG in 2005, entitled Little Keep on the Borderlands. In September 2010, the module was re-released for D&D 4th Edition by Wizards of the Coast for use in the weekly D&D Encounters sessions. Like the original, this revised module was designed for use with the contemporaneously released Dungeons & Dragons Fantasy Roleplaying Game boxed set for D&D Essentials, oriented towards the beginning player; this time, The Keep on the Borderlands is set in the D&D base world of the Nentir Vale, in an area known as the Chaos Scar.
A revised edition was released at D&D Expo in January 2012 under the title Caves of Chaos as playtest mate
Fantastic art is a broad and loosely defined art genre. It is not restricted to a specific school of geographical location or historical period, it can be characterised by subject matter – which portrays non-realistic, mythical or folkloric subjects or events – and style, representational and naturalistic, rather than abstract – or in the case of magazine illustrations and similar, in the style of graphic novel art such as manga. Fantasy has been an integral part of art since its beginnings, but has been important in mannerism, magic realist painting, romantic art, symbolism and lowbrow. In French, the genre is called le fantastique, in English it is sometimes referred to as visionary art, grotesque art or mannerist art, it has had a circular interaction with fantasy literature. The subject matter of Fantastic Art may resemble the product of hallucinations, Fantastic artist Richard Dadd spent much of his life in mental institutions. Salvador Dalí famously said: "the only difference between me and a madman is that I am not mad".
Some recent Fantastic Art draws on the artist's experience, or purported experience, of hallucinogenic drugs. The term Fantasy Art is related, is applied to recent art inspired by, or illustrating, fantasy literature; the term has acquired some pejorative overtones. Fantastic art has traditionally been confined to painting and illustration, but since the 1970s has been found in photography. Fantastic art explores fantasy, the dream state, the grotesque and the uncanny, as well as so-called "Goth" art. Genres which may be considered as Fantastic Art include the Symbolism of the Victorian era, Surrealism. Works based on classical mythology, which have been a staple of European art from the Renaissance period arguably meet the definition of Fantastic Art, as art based on modern mythology such as JRR Tolkien's Middle Earth mythos unquestionably does. Religious art depicts supernatural or miraculous subjects in a naturalistic way, but is not regarded as Fantastic Art. Many artists have produced works.
Some, such as Nicholas Roerich, worked exclusively in the genre, others such as Hieronymus Bosch, described as the first "fantastic" artist in the Western tradition, produced works both with and without fantastic elements, for artists such as Francisco de Goya, fantastic works were only a small part of their output. Others again such as René Magritte are classed as Surrealists but use fantastic elements in their work, it is therefore impossible to give an exhaustive list of fantastic artists, but a selection of major and influential figures is listed below. Giuseppe Arcimboldo John Bauer William Blake Arnold Böcklin Hieronymus Bosch Brueghel Marc Chagall Giorgio de Chirico Richard Dadd Salvador Dalí Paul Delvaux Monsù Desiderio Gustave Doré Max Ernst Caspar David Friedrich Henry Fuseli Francisco de Goya Hans Baldung Grien Matthias Grünewald Thomas Häfner Max Klinger Gustave Moreau Giovanni Battista Piranesi Arthur Rackham Odilon Redon Nicholas Roerich Henri Rousseau Yves Tanguy Clovis Trouille George Frederic Watts The rise of fantasy and science fiction "pulp" magazines demanded artwork to illustrate stories and to promote sales.
This led to a movement of science fiction and fantasy artists prior to and during the Great Depression, as anthologised by Vincent Di Fate, himself a prolific SF and space artist. In the United States in the 1930s, a group of Wisconsin artists inspired by the Surrealist movement of Europe created their own brand of fantastic art, they included Wisconsin-based artists Marshall Glasier, Dudley Huppler and John Wilde. Their art combined macabre humor and irony, in direct and pointed contradiction to the American Regionalism in vogue. In postwar Chicago, the art movement Chicago Imagism produced many fantastic and grotesque paintings, which were little noted because they did not conform to New York abstract art fashions of the time. Major imagists include Roger Brown, Gladys Nilsson, Jim Nutt, Ed Paschke, Karl Wirsum. Non-European art may contain fantastic elements, although it is not easy to separate them from religious elements involving supernatural beings and miraculous events. Sculptor Bunleua Sulilat is a notable contemporary Asian Fantastic artist.
Dream art Outsider art Society for the Art of Imagination Surrealism Vienna School of Fantastic Realism Gruyères Castle Coleman, A. D.. The Grotesque in Photography. New York: Summit, Ridge Press. Watney, Simon. Fantastic Painters. London: Thames & Hudson. Colombo, Attilio. Fantastic Photographs. London: Gordon Fraser. Johnson, Diana L.. Fantastic illustration and design in Britain, 1850-1930. Rhode Island School of Design. Krichbaum, Jorg & Zondergeld. R. A.. Dictionary of Fantastic Art. Barron's Educational Series. Menton, Seymour. Magic Realism Rediscovered 1918-1981. Philadelphia, The Art Alliance Press. Day, Holliday T. & Sturges, Hollister. Art of the Fantastic: Latin America, 1920-1987. Indianapolis: Indianapolis Museum of Art. Clair, Jean. Lost Paradise: Symbolist Europe. Montreal: Montreal Museum of Fine Arts. Palumbo, Donald. Eros in the Mind's Eye: Sexuality and the Fantastic in Art and Film. Greenwood Press. Stathatos, John. A Vindication of Tlon: Photography and the Fantastic. Greece: Thessaloniki Museum of Photography Schurian, Prof. Dr. Walter.
Fantastic Art. Taschen. ISBN 978-3-8228-2954-7 BeinArt