Stand-up comedy is a comic style in which a comedian performs in front of a live audience speaking directly to them. The performer is known as a comic, stand-up comic, comedienne, stand-up comedian, or a stand-up. In stand-up comedy, the comedian gives the illusion that they are dialoguing, but in actuality, they are monologuing a grouping of humorous stories and one-liners called a shtick, routine, or set; some stand-up comedians use props, magic tricks to enhance their acts. Stand-up comedy is stated to be the "freest form of comedy writing", regarded as an "extension of" the person performing; the improvisation of stand-up is compared to jazz music. A comedian's process of writing is likened to the process of song writing. A comedian's ability to tighten their material has been likened to crafting a samurai sword; some of the main types of humor in stand-up comedy include observational comedy, blue comedy, dark comedy, clean comedy, cringe comedy. Alternative stand-up comedy deviates from the traditional, mainstream comedy by breaking either joke structure, performing in an untraditional scene, or breaking an audience's expectations.
Stand-up comedy is performed in corporate events, comedy clubs and pubs, neo-burlesques and theatres. Outside live performance, stand-up is distributed commercially via television, DVD, CD and the internet, it can take an amateur comedian about 10 years to perfect the technique needed to be a professional comedian. As the name implies, "stand-up" comedians perform their material while standing, though this is not mandatory. Similar acts performed while seated can be referred to as "sit-down comedy". "Comedians are more to exhibit psychotic traits" than the average person. In stand-up comedy, from the time the audience enters the building, their feedback is instant and crucial for the comedian's act. Audiences expect a stand-up comedian to provide four to six laughs per minute, a performer is always under pressure to deliver the first two minutes. A stand-up comedy show may be one comedian. A traditional format features an opening act known as a host, compère, master of ceremonies, or "opener" who, for 10-12 minutes warms up the crowd, interacts with audience members, makes announcements, introduces the other performers.
The second definition of an opener is applied when the opening act of a traveling comedian may perform a 25-minute set. The "showcase" format consists of several acts who perform for equal lengths of time, typical in smaller clubs such as the Comedy Cellar, or Jongleurs, or at large events where the billing of several names allows for a larger venue than the individual comedians could draw. A showcase format may still feature an MC. Many smaller venues hold open mic events, where anyone can take the stage and perform for the audience; this offers an opportunity for amateur performers to hone their craft and to break into the profession, or for established professionals to work on their material. Industry scouts will sometimes go to watch open mics. Breaking into the business requires "10 minute" of "A" material. Roadhouses start booking people for "20 minutes of'A' material". "A" material means getting a big laugh at least "75% of the time". "Bringer shows" are open mics that require amateur performers to bring a specified number of paying guests to receive stage time.
Some view this as exploitation. The guests have to pay a cover charge and there is a minimum number of drinks that must be ordered; these shows have a "showcase" format. Different comedy clubs have different requirements for their bringer shows. Gotham Comedy Club in New York City, for example has ten-person bringers, while Broadway Comedy Club in New York City has six-person bringers. In the'90s, the New York Comedy Club had pre-shows. In metropolitan areas, bringer shows may give comedians better exposure than open mics, because there is better audience turnout; this is an unpaid, five-to-ten-minute time slot, an audition to get booked for paid gigs. In stand-up comedy, a "canned" joke is made of a "premise...point of view" and "twist" ending. A joke contains the least amount of information necessary to be conveyed and laughed at. Most of stand-up comedy's jokes are the juxtaposition of two incongruous things. According to the founding editor of The Onion, there are eleven types of jokes. Stand-up comedians will deliver their jokes in the form of a typical joke structure, using comedic timing to deliver the setup and the punch line.
Stand-ups will frame their stories as having happened "recently." The comedian's delivery of a joke—the pause, inflection, "ener," and look—is "everything". Comedians include taglines (dependent punchlines that
The Simpsons Movie
The Simpsons Movie is a 2007 American animated comedy film based on the Fox television series The Simpsons. The film was directed by David Silverman, stars the regular television cast of Dan Castellaneta, Julie Kavner, Nancy Cartwright, Yeardley Smith, Hank Azaria, Harry Shearer, Tress MacNeille, Pamela Hayden, Maggie Roswell and Russi Taylor, as well as Albert Brooks; the film follows Homer Simpson, whose irresponsibility gets the best of him when he pollutes the lake in Springfield after the town has cleaned it up following receipt of a warning from the Environmental Protection Agency. As the townspeople exile him and his family abandons him, Homer works to redeem his folly by stopping Russ Cargill, the head of the EPA, who intends to destroy Springfield. Although previous attempts to create a Simpsons film had been made, they failed due to the lack of a script of appropriate length and production crew members. In 2001, producers James L. Brooks, Matt Groening, Al Jean, Richard Sakai and Mike Scully began development of the film, a writing team consisting of Brooks, Jean, Ian Maxtone-Graham, George Meyer, David Mirkin, Mike Reiss, Matt Selman, John Swartzwelder and Jon Vitti was assembled.
They conceived numerous plot ideas, with Groening's being the one developed into a film. The script was re-written over a hundred times, this rewriting continued after the animation had begun in 2006. Hours of finished material was cut from the final release, including cameo roles from Erin Brockovich, Minnie Driver, Isla Fisher, Kelsey Grammer and Edward Norton. Tie-in promotions were made with several companies to promote the film's release, including Burger King and 7-Eleven, the latter of which transformed selected stores into Kwik-E-Marts; the film premiered in Springfield, Vermont on July 21, 2007, was released six days by 20th Century Fox across the United States. The Simpsons Movie was a critical and commercial success, grossing over $527 million worldwide, making it the eighth highest-grossing film of 2007 and the highest-ever grossing film based on an animated television series. In August 2018, it was reported that a sequel is in development. While performing on Lake Springfield, the band Green Day perishes when the lake's pollution dissolves their barge, following an audience revolt after frontman Billie Joe Armstrong proposes an environmental discussion.
At their memorial, Grampa foresees the destruction of the town, but only Marge takes this seriously. That day, Homer dares Bart to skateboard naked to Krusty Burger and Bart ends up arrested. Bart considers their neighbor Ned Flanders a better father after Homer refuses to take responsibility for the incident. Meanwhile and her new friend named Colin convince the entire town to clean their lake. Meanwhile, Homer adopts a pig from Krusty Burger and names him "Spider Pig", he stores the pig's feces in a large silo, until Marge tells him to safely dispose of the waste. Homer intends to take his silo to the waste management plant, but after one of his friends calls to tell him that Lard Lad Donuts has been shut down due to health violations and is giving away free donuts, Homer foolishly dumps the silo straight into the lake on purpose, polluting it much worse than before. Moments a squirrel jumps into the lake and becomes mutated. Flanders and Bart discover the creature before the EPA capture it.
Russ Cargill, head of the EPA, presents five "unthinkable" options to U. S. President Arnold Schwarzenegger to keep the town's pollution contained; the slow-witted president picks an option without reading it, Springfield is trapped inside a gigantic glass dome. That night, the police discover the silo in the lake and accuse Homer for sealing Springfield in the dome; the townspeople except for the Flanders family form an angry mob and advance on the Simpsons' home to kill Homer for what he had done, but the family escapes the town through a sinkhole, which destroys their house and their car. With the EPA on their trail, the Simpsons flee on foot to a motel. Homer wins a truck at a carnival by riding a motorcycle inside a spherical steel cage, with Lisa's help, drives the family to Alaska. After three months of many escape attempts, Springfield's residents make a small crack in the dome. Pointing out the damage, Cargill manipulates Schwarzenegger into ordering the town's destruction. In Alaska, the Simpsons see an advert starring Tom Hanks for a new Grand Canyon on the site of Springfield.
Realizing that the town is in danger and the children want to go back to save it, but Homer refuses to return to Springfield and help the townspeople who tried to kill him. After failing to talk Homer into it, his family sadly leave him behind. Homer receives a video recording message left from Marge and finds a clip with him dancing with her on their wedding day. Having a change of heart, he goes searching for his family, but is stranded on a slab of ice and floats away. Meanwhile and the children are captured by the EPA after a conversation of theirs is overheard by the NSA. Elsewhere after a mysterious Inuit shaman woman saves Homer from a savage polar bear, he has an epiphany and decides to return to Springfield where he can save the town from destruction; as Homer arrives, a helicopter lowers a small but powerful bomb down a rope through a hole in the dome. While Homer climbs to the top of the dome from the outside using superglue on his hands, the townspeople inside attempt to climb the rope to escape t
The cinnamon challenge was a viral internet food challenge. The objective of the challenge is to film oneself eating a spoonful of ground cinnamon in under 60 seconds without drinking anything upload the video to the Internet; the challenge is difficult and carries substantial health risks because the cinnamon coats and dries the mouth and throat, resulting in coughing, gagging and inhaling of cinnamon, leading to throat irritation, breathing difficulties, risk of pneumonia or a collapsed lung. The challenge has been described online since 2001, increased in popularity in 2007, peaking abruptly in January 2012 and falling off as through the first half of that year tapering off to its previous level by 2014. By 2010, many people had posted videos of themselves attempting this challenge on YouTube and other social networking websites; the cinnamon challenge continues to be active, with Twitter mentions peaking at nearly 70,000 per day in January 2012. It is similar to the saltine cracker challenge, which involves ingesting at least six saltine crackers – known as soda crackers – within 60 seconds without drinking anything, the Gallon challenge, the Banana Sprite challenge.
The stunt can be dangerous, as there is a risk of gagging or choking on the cinnamon if it forms a clump and clogs one's airways. Accidental inhalation of cinnamon can damage the lungs by causing inflammation and leading to infection; the usual result of this stunt is "a coughing, gagging fit involving clouds of cinnamon" which "leaves some people gasping for air". Sometimes those performing the stunt may gag, choke or cough and accidentally exhale the cinnamon through their noses, coating their skin and mucous membranes in cinnamon; as cinnamon is rich in the compound cinnamaldehyde, the challenge results in considerable irritation, burning, or itching of the affected nasal tissue and nostrils. On YouTube, people have been seen "coughing and lunging for water as friends watch and laugh." Vomiting is known to have occurred. The risks can be worse fatal. In the first three months of 2012, American poison control centers had received over a hundred phone calls as a result of the cinnamon challenge.
A high-school student in Michigan spent four days in a hospital after attempting the cinnamon challenge. Pneumonia and scarring of the lungs, collapsed lungs are further risks; the cinnamon challenge was aired on the twelfth series of the reality television show Big Brother UK, in which show participants were to ingest ground cinnamon without the aid of water. Radio programmes have aired segments of people performing this stunt, others in the public limelight have been reported as airing the stunt for public display, including NBA players Nick Young and JaVale McGee. Many people upload their cinnamon challenge to YouTube. Comedian Colleen Ballinger told The Wall Street Journal that she took the challenge in character as Miranda Sings, in 2012, to increase her YouTube traffic after hundreds of her fans had asked her to take the challenge, her video received more than 2 million views though it is on a discontinued YouTube channel. Another comedian, GloZell Green, has attracted more than 50 million views with her cinnamon challenge video, in which she uses a soup ladle full of cinnamon instead of the usual tablespoon.
A large group attempt at the cinnamon challenge was held in 2012 at RMIT University in Australia and involved 64 participants in quick succession. In a 2012 episode of the Discovery Channel series MythBusters, each member of the Build Team attempted the challenge. Kari Byron and Grant Imahara failed, while Tory Belleci completed it by tucking his spoonful into his cheek and letting saliva accumulate in his mouth until he could swallow. However, it took him more than 60 seconds to do so. In the 2013 episode of Chicago Fire titled "Defcon 1", a cinnamon challenge is held to determine who will get to live in Severide's new apartment; the challenge is abandoned, the team is reprimanded by the chief. In 2015, Freddie Flintoff took the challenge on A League of Their Own, Criminal Minds actor Matthew Gray Gubler was recorded taking the challenge unsuccessfully; the challenge is featured on Fox's Family Guy's 14th-season opener, "Pilling Them Softly", in which Peter Griffin makes numerous attempts. Banana Sprite challenge Gallon challenge Saltine cracker challenge Salt and ice challenge Consumption of Tide Pods
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
Robotics is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and science that includes mechanical engineering, electronic engineering, information engineering, computer science, others. Robotics deals with the design, construction and use of robots, as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, information processing; these technologies are used to develop machines that can substitute for humans and replicate human actions. Robots can be used in many situations and for lots of purposes, but today many are used in dangerous environments, manufacturing processes, or where humans cannot survive. Robots can take on any form but some are made to resemble humans in appearance; this is said to help in the acceptance of a robot in certain replicative behaviors performed by people. Such robots attempt to replicate walking, speech and anything a human can do. Many of today's robots are inspired by nature; the concept of creating machines that can operate autonomously dates back to classical times, but research into the functionality and potential uses of robots did not grow until the 20th century.
Throughout history, it has been assumed by various scholars, inventors and technicians that robots will one day be able to mimic human behavior and manage tasks in a human-like fashion. Today, robotics is a growing field, as technological advances continue. Many robots are built to do jobs that are hazardous to people such as defusing bombs, finding survivors in unstable ruins, exploring mines and shipwrecks. Robotics is used in STEM as a teaching aid; the advent of nanorobots, microscopic robots that can be injected into the human body, could revolutionize medicine and human health. Robotics is a branch of engineering that involves the conception, design and operation of robots; this field overlaps with electronics, computer science, artificial intelligence, mechatronics and bioengineering. The word robotics was derived from the word robot, introduced to the public by Czech writer Karel Čapek in his play R. U. R., published in 1920. The word robot comes from the Slavic word robota; the play begins in a factory that makes artificial people called robots, creatures who can be mistaken for humans – similar to the modern ideas of androids.
Karel Čapek himself did not coin the word. He wrote a short letter in reference to an etymology in the Oxford English Dictionary in which he named his brother Josef Čapek as its actual originator. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word robotics was first used in print by Isaac Asimov, in his science fiction short story "Liar!", published in May 1941 in Astounding Science Fiction. Asimov was unaware. In some of Asimov's other works, he states that the first use of the word robotics was in his short story Runaround, where he introduced his concept of The Three Laws of Robotics. However, the original publication of "Liar!" Predates that of "Runaround" by ten months, so the former is cited as the word's origin. In 1948, Norbert Wiener formulated the principles of the basis of practical robotics. Autonomous only appeared in the second half of the 20th century; the first digitally operated and programmable robot, the Unimate, was installed in 1961 to lift hot pieces of metal from a die casting machine and stack them.
Commercial and industrial robots are widespread today and used to perform jobs more cheaply and more reliably, than humans. They are employed in some jobs which are too dirty, dangerous, or dull to be suitable for humans. Robots are used in manufacturing, assembly and packaging, transport and space exploration, weaponry, laboratory research and the mass production of consumer and industrial goods. There are many types of robots. For example, a robot designed to travel across heavy dirt or mud, might use caterpillar tracks; the mechanical aspect is the creator's solution to completing the assigned task and dealing with the physics of the environment around it. Form follows function. Robots have electrical components. For example, the robot with caterpillar tracks would need some kind of power to move the tracker treads; that power comes in the form of electricity, which will have to travel through a wire and originate from a battery, a basic electrical circuit. Petrol powered machines that get their power from petrol still require an electric current to start the combustion process, why most petrol powered machines like cars, have batteries.
The electrical aspect of robots is used for movement and operation (robots need some level of electrical energy supplied to their motors and sensors in order to activate and perform b
The Simpsons is an American animated sitcom created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company. The series is a satirical depiction of working-class life, epitomized by the Simpson family, which consists of Homer, Bart and Maggie; the show is set in the fictional town of Springfield and parodies American culture and society and the human condition. The family was conceived by Groening shortly before a solicitation for a series of animated shorts with producer James L. Brooks. Groening created a dysfunctional family and named the characters after his own family members, substituting Bart for his own name; the shorts became a part of The Tracey Ullman Show on April 19, 1987. After three seasons, the sketch was developed into a half-hour prime time show and became Fox's first series to land in the Top 30 ratings in a season. Since its debut on December 17, 1989, 659 episodes of The Simpsons have been broadcast, it is the longest-running American sitcom, the longest-running American scripted primetime television series in terms of seasons and number of episodes.
The Simpsons Movie, a feature-length film, was released in theaters worldwide on July 27, 2007, grossed over $527 million. On October 30, 2007, a video game was released; the Simpsons is on its thirtieth season, which began airing September 30, 2018. The Simpsons was renewed for a thirty-first and thirty-second season on February 6, 2019, in which the latter will contain the 700th episode; the Simpsons received acclaim throughout its first nine or ten seasons, which are considered its "Golden Age". Time named it the 20th century's best television series, Erik Adams of The A. V. Club named it "television's crowning achievement regardless of format". On January 14, 2000, the Simpson family was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, it has won dozens of awards since it debuted as a series, including 31 Primetime Emmy Awards, 30 Annie Awards, a Peabody Award. Homer's exclamatory catchphrase "D'oh!" has been adopted into the English language, while The Simpsons has influenced many other adult-oriented animated sitcoms.
However, it has been criticized for a perceived decline in quality over the years. The Simpsons is known for its wide ensemble of supporting characters; the main characters are the Simpson family, who live in a fictional "Middle America" town of Springfield. Homer, the father, works as a safety inspector at the Springfield Nuclear Power Plant, a position at odds with his careless, buffoonish personality, he is married to a stereotypical American housewife and mother. They have three children: a ten-year-old troublemaker and prankster. Although the family is dysfunctional, many episodes examine their relationships and bonds with each other and they are shown to care about one another. Homer's dad Grampa Simpson lives in the Springfield Retirement Home after Homer forced his dad to sell his house so that his family could buy theirs. Grampa Simpson has had starring roles in several episodes; the family owns a dog, Santa's Little Helper, a cat, Snowball V, renamed Snowball II in "I, -Bot". Both pets have had starring roles in several episodes.
The show includes an array of quirky supporting characters, which include Homer's co-workers Lenny Leonard and Carl Carlson, the school principal Seymour Skinner and teachers Edna Krabappel and Elizabeth Hoover, neighbor Ned Flanders, friends Barney Gumble, Apu Nahasapeemapetilon, Moe Szyslak, Milhouse Van Houten, Nelson Muntz, extended relatives Patty and Selma Bouvier, townspeople such as Mayor Quimby, Chief Clancy Wiggum, tycoon Charles Montgomery Burns and his executive assistant Waylon Smithers, local celebrities Krusty the Clown and news reporter Kent Brockman. The creators intended many of these characters as one-time jokes or for fulfilling needed functions in the town. A number of them subsequently starred in their own episodes. According to Matt Groening, the show adopted the concept of a large supporting cast from the comedy show SCTV. Despite the depiction of yearly milestones such as holidays or birthdays passing, the characters do not age between episodes, appear just as they did when the series began.
The series uses a floating timeline in which episodes take place in the year the episode is produced though the characters do not age. Flashbacks and flashforwards do depict the characters at other points in their lives, with the timeline of these depictions generally floating relative to the year the episode is produced. For example, in the 1991 episode "I Married Marge", Bart appears to be born in 1980 or 1981, but in the 1995 episode "And Maggie Makes Three", Maggie appears to be born in 1993 or 1994. A canon of the show does exist, although Treehouse of Horror episodes and any fictional story told within the series are non-canon. However, continuity is limited in The Simpsons. For example, Krusty the Clown may be able to read in one episode, but may not be able to read in another. Lessons learned by the family in one episode may be forgotten in the next; some examples of limited continuity include Sideshow Bob's appearances where Bart and Lisa flashback at all the crimes he committed in Springfield or when the characters try to remember things that happened in previous episodes.
The Simpsons takes place in the fictional American town of Springfield in an unknown and impossible-to-determine U. S. state. The show is intentionally e
SHOUTcast DNAS is cross-platform proprietary software for streaming media over the Internet. The software, developed by Nullsoft, is available free of charge, it allows digital audio content in MP3 or High-Efficiency Advanced Audio Coding format, to be broadcast to and from media player software, enabling the creation of Internet radio "stations". The most common use of SHOUTcast is for listening to Internet audio broadcasts; some traditional radio stations use SHOUTcast to extend their presence onto the Web. SHOUTcast Radio is a related website. Created in 1998, SHOUTcast's streaming protocol uses metadata tags and responses that all start with ICY, which stands for "I Can Yell." Nullsoft was purchased by AOL on June 1, 1999. On January 14, 2014, AOL sold Nullsoft to Belgian online radio aggregator Radionomy; the SHOUTcast software uses a client–server model, with each component communicating via a network protocol that intermingles audio or video data with metadata such as song titles and the station name.
It uses HTTP as a transport protocol. Although multicast was planned, it was never developed. SHOUTcast servers and clients are available for FreeBSD, macOS, Microsoft Windows, Solaris. Client-only versions exist for Android, BlackBerry OS, iOS, Palm OS and webOS, PlayStation Portable, Windows Mobile, Symbian S60 and UIQ, Nintendo DS, Wii; the output format is supported by multiple clients, including Nullsoft's own Winamp as well as Amarok, foobar2000, iTunes, Totem, XMMS, Zinf. If the client does not support the SHOUTcast protocol the SHOUTcast server sends the stream without the metadata thus allowing it to be heard/viewed in clients like Windows Media Player. SHOUTcast servers are linked to by means of playlist files, which are small text files that contain the URL of the SHOUTcast server; when that URL is visited in a Web browser which identifies itself as Mozilla-compatible, the server will return a generated SHOUTcast server info/status page, rather than streaming audio. A feature of SHOUTcast servers is the ability to optionally publish server information, including the current number of listeners, in a directory of stations that AOL maintains on the SHOUTcast website.
Site visitors can pick a station to listen to and download a playlist file for use in their own SHOUTcast-capable media player. In September 2008, AOL redesigned the SHOUTcast website, the same since 2000. In 2010, SHOUTcast again redesigned it with more of an AOL look; as part of the redesign, the directory and services were rebranded as "SHOUTcast Radio", rather than "SHOUTcast Streaming Technology." The redesign included a functional option to view the site and directory with the old layout. At the time VideoLAN said that AOL's license for use of the SHOUTcast Radio servers would “ us to integrate the spyware and adware based Shoutcast Radio Toolbar inside your browser.” and thus prevents open source software from using the SHOUTcast Radio servers. SHOUTcast said in 2011 that up to 900,000 concurrent listeners could be seen on public streams during peak hours; the audience on private streams is unknown. The maximum and minimum number of listeners fluctuates during a day, with three times as many listeners during peak hours as at low use times.
As of May 2014 SHOUTcast Radio included over 50,000 stations. During the early days of eSports for video games, SHOUTcast was used by some to stream play-by-play commentary on eSport matches; this led to the term "shoutcaster" which remains in use today to describe eSports commentators if they are not using the plugin. Sources: Icecast List of Internet radio stations List of streaming media systems Nullsoft Streaming Video Edcast Official website