45th parallel north
The 45th parallel north is a circle of latitude, 45 degrees north of Earth's equator. It crosses Europe, the Pacific Ocean, North America, the Atlantic Ocean; the 45th parallel north is called the halfway point between the Equator and the North Pole, but the true halfway point is 16.0 km north of the 45th parallel because Earth is an oblate spheroid. At this latitude, the Sun is visible for 15 hours 37 minutes during the summer solstice, 8 hours 46 minutes during the winter solstice; the midday Sun stands 21.6° above the southern horizon at the December solstice, 68.4° at the June solstice, 45.0° at either equinox. Starting at the Prime Meridian and heading eastwards, the parallel 45° north passes through: In North America, the 45th parallel forms some boundaries, passes through the U. S. states of Oregon, South Dakota, Wisconsin, New York, New Hampshire and Maine and through the Canadian provinces of Ontario, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. All of mainland New Brunswick lies north of the 45th parallel.
The southernmost point in mainland New Brunswick, just north of the 45th parallel, is Greens Point 90 kilometres west of Saint John. Two-thirds of Deer Island, plus all of Campobello and Grand Manan islands, are south of the 45th parallel; the parallel bisects mainland Nova Scotia. Halifax is 40 km south of the parallel; the 45th parallel marks the national border between the United States and Canada between the St. Lawrence and Connecticut rivers, where the parallel is sometimes called the "Canada line"; the actual boundary of Vermont lies 1 kilometre north of the parallel due to an error in the 1772 survey. In Michigan, the Old Mission Peninsula in Grand Traverse Bay ends just shy of the 45th parallel. Many guidebooks and signs at the Mission Point Lighthouse describe it as being halfway between the equator and north pole; when the Grand Traverse Bay recedes below normal level, it is possible to walk out to the exact line. Farther west, the line bisects the metropolitan area of Minneapolis-St. Paul.
In the Western United States, the parallel passes through the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains, intersecting the Pacific coast in Oregon. The 45th parallel makes up most of the boundary between Wyoming. Throughout the United States the parallel is marked in many places on highways by a sign proclaiming that the location is halfway between the North Pole and the equator. Continuing west, the parallel passes over vast stretches of the North Pacific Ocean before passing through Rishiri-Rebun-Sarobetsu National Park and the adjacent town of Horonobe on the northern tip of Hokkaidō, the northernmost of Japan's main islands, it continues through the northern part of the Sea of Japan, entering the Asian mainland on the coast of Primorsky Krai in Russia, north of Vladivostok. At Khanka Lake it enters northeast China, cutting across Heilongjiang and continuing through part of Jilin and eastern Inner Mongolia. Transecting southern Mongolia it passes through the provinces of Sükhbaatar, Dundgovi, Övörkhangai, Govi-Altai, Khovd.
In northwest China it passes through the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture in Xinjiang and the oil city of Karamay. The parallel passes through southern Kazakhstan, intersecting the city of Burylbaytal at the southern tip of Lake Balkhash and the city of Qyzylorda further west. At the border with Uzbekistan it bisects the Aral Sea and its toxic Vozrozhdeniya Island peninsula, site of an abandoned Soviet bioweapons laboratory, it skirts the northern edge of the Ustyurt Plateau, entering back into Kazakhstan before cutting across the northern tip of the Caspian Sea and into Europe and Russia. In Europe the 45th parallel stretches between the Caspian Sea coast of the Russian Caucasus in the east and Bay of Biscay coast of France in the west. In Russia it runs from the west coast of the Caspian Sea to the east coast of the Black Sea, through the Republic of Kalmykia, Stavropol Krai and its capital Stavropol, Krasnodar Krai and its capital Krasnodar. In Ukraine it crosses its capital Simferopol. Further west it passes through the Balkans: Romania, the Serbian autonomous province of Vojvodina, the eastern tip of Croatia, the northern edge of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a section of Adriatic Croatia.
The capital city of Serbia – Belgrade is just south of the parallel. In northern Italy it parallels the river Po, near Rovigo, passing by Voghera just south of Turin before passing into France in the Cottian Alps. In France, it crosses the river Rhône at Pont-de-l'Isère, just north of Valence, Drôme and through Grenoble, it continues across the Massif Central and into the Aquitaine region. The city of Bordeaux is just south of the parallel. 45th parallel south 44th parallel north 46th parallel north 45×90 points The 45th Parallel at the Minnesota Museum of the Mississippi and Other Natural Wonders From the Minas Astronomy Group: Midway from the Equator to the North Pole 45th Parallel Markers Degree Confluence Project
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
Iris is a genus of 260–300 species of flowering plants with showy flowers. It takes its name from the Greek word for a rainbow, the name for the Greek goddess of the rainbow, Iris; some authors state that the name refers to the wide variety of flower colors found among the many species. As well as being the scientific name, iris is widely used as a common name for all Iris species, as well as some belonging to other related genera. A common name for some species is'flags', while the plants of the subgenus Scorpiris are known as'junos' in horticulture, it is a popular garden flower. The often-segregated, monotypic genera Belamcanda and Pardanthopsis are included in Iris. Three Iris varieties are used in the Iris flower data set outlined by Ronald Fisher in his 1936 paper The use of multiple measurements in taxonomic problems as an example of linear discriminant analysis. Irises are perennial plants, they have long, erect flowering stems which may be simple or branched, solid or hollow, flattened or have a circular cross-section.
The rhizomatous species have 3–10 basal sword-shaped leaves growing in dense clumps. The bulbous species have basal leaves; the inflorescences contain one or more symmetrical six-lobed flowers. These grow on a peduncle; the three sepals, which are spreading or droop downwards, are referred to as "falls". They expand from their narrow base, into a broader expanded portion and can be adorned with veining, lines or dots. In the centre of the blade, some of the rhizomatous irises have a "beard", which are the plants filaments; the three, sometimes reduced, petals stand upright behind the sepal bases. They are called "standards"; some smaller iris species have all six lobes pointing straight outwards, but limb and standards differ markedly in appearance. They are united at their base into a floral tube; the styles divide towards the apex into petaloid branches. The iris flower is of interest as an example of the relation between flowering plants and pollinating insects; the shape of the flower and the position of the pollen-receiving and stigmatic surfaces on the outer petals form a landing-stage for a flying insect, which in probing for nectar, will first come into contact with the perianth with the stigmatic stamens in one whorled surface, borne on an ovary formed of three carpels.
The shelf-like transverse projection on the inner whorled underside of the stamens is beneath the overarching style arm below the stigma, so that the insect comes in contact with its pollen-covered surface only after passing the stigma. Thus, an insect bearing pollen from one flower will, in entering a second, deposit the pollen on the stigma; the iris fruit is a capsule. In some species, the seeds bear an aril. Iris is the largest genus of the family Iridaceae with up to 300 species – many of them natural hybrids. Modern classifications, starting with Dykes, have subdivided them. Dykes referred to the major subgroupings as sections. Subsequent authors such as Lawrence and Rodionenko have called them subgenera, while retaining Dykes' groupings, using six subgenera further divided into twelve sections. Of these, section Limneris was further divided into sixteen series. Like some older sources, Rodionenko moved some of the bulbous subgenera into separate genera, but this has not been accepted by writers such as Mathew, although the latter kept Hermodactylus as a distinct genus, to include Hermodactylus tuberosus, now returned to Hermodactyloides as Iris tuberosa.
Rodionenko reduced the number of sections in subgenus Iris, from six to two, depending on the presence or absence of arils on the seeds, referred to as arilate or nonarilate. Taylor provides arguments for not including all arilate species in Hexapogon. In general, modern classifications recognise six subgenera, of which five are restricted to the Old World; the two largest subgenera are further divided into sections. Iris Limniris Xiphium Nepalensis Scorpiris Hermodactyloides Nearly all species are found in temperate Northern hemisphere zones, from Europe to Asia and across North America. Although diverse in ecology, Iris is predominantly found in dry, semi-desert, or colder rocky mountainous areas, other habitats include grassy slopes, meadowlands and riverbanks. Iris is extensively grown as ornamental plant in botanical gardens. Presby Memorial Iris Gardens in New Jersey, for example, is a living iris museum with over 10,000 plants, while in Europe the most famous iris garden is arguably the Giardino dell'Iris in Florence which ev
The Oregon Ducks are the athletic teams that represent the University of Oregon in Eugene, Oregon. The Ducks compete at the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I level as a member of the Pac-12 Conference. With eighteen varsity teams, Oregon is best known for its American football team and track and field program, which has helped Eugene gain a reputation as "Track Town, USA". Oregon's main rivalries are with the Washington Huskies. Oregon teams were known as Webfoots as early as the 1890s; the Webfoots name applied to a group of fishermen from the coast of Massachusetts, heroes during the American Revolutionary War. A naming contest in 1926 won by Oregonian sports editor L. H. Gregory made the Webfoots name official, a subsequent student vote in 1932 affirmed the nickname, chosen over other suggested nicknames such as Pioneers, Lumberjacks and Yellow Jackets. Ducks, with their webbed feet, began to be associated with the team in the 1920s, live duck mascots were adopted to represent the team.
Journalists headline writers adopted the shorter Duck nickname, but it wasn't until the 1940s that the image of Donald Duck, permitted via a handshake deal between Walt Disney and Oregon athletic director Leo Harris, cemented the image of the Duck as the school's mascot. Both nicknames were still in use well into the 1970s. In 1978, a student cartoonist came up with a new duck image, but students rejected the alternative by a 2-to-1 margin. Although Donald wasn't on that ballot, the University Archivist declared that the election made Ducks the school's official mascot, replacing Webfoots; the University of Oregon sponsors teams in eight men's and twelve women's NCAA sanctioned sports competing in the Pac-12 Conference and acrobatics & tumbling competing in the National Collegiate Acrobatics & Tumbling Association, lacrosse and indoor track & field teams competing in the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation. The football program began in 1893 and played its first game on February 22, 1894, defeating Albany College 46-0.
The football team moved to its new home, Hayward Field in 1919 where it shared the facility with the track and field team until Autzen Stadium was completed in 1967. Winning its first Rose Bowl in 1917 against the University of Pennsylvania under head coach Hugo Bezdek, the Ducks have returned to the Rose Bowl six additional times in 1920, 1957, 1995, 2010, 2012 and 2015. While in the Pacific Coast Conference, the Ducks won five conference co-championships in 1919, 1933, 1948, 1957; the Pacific Coast Conference was disbanded in 1958, the Ducks played as an independent until they joined the PCC's effective successor, the Pacific-8 Conference, which became the Pacific-10 Conference and the Pac-12 Conference, in 2011. In the Pac-8 / 10/12, they have won shared one championship; the Ducks were 3–2 during the BCS era, winning the 2002 Fiesta Bowl, the 2012 Rose Bowl, the 2013 Fiesta Bowl and losing the 2010 Rose Bowl and the 2011 BCS National Championship Game. In 2014, Oregon won a school record 13 games and saw junior quarterback Marcus Mariota win the school's first Heisman Trophy.
That same year, the Ducks made the first College Football Playoff and beat the defending champion Florida State Seminoles 59–20 in the 2015 Rose Bowl semi-final. The loss to Oregon ended the Seminoles 29 game moved the Ducks into the final, they made the first CFP National Championship Game where they lost 42–20 to Ohio State. The Ducks men’s basketball team played its first season in 1902-1903 under head coach Charles Burden, it was not until 1927 that the Ducks played their first game at McArthur Court, defeating Willamette University 38-10. Head coach Howard Hobson was hired in 1936 and took the basketball team nicknamed "The Tall Firs" to win the first NCAA Men’s Basketball Championship in 1939; the Tall Firs achieved a 29-5 record, capped by a 46-33 victory over Ohio State University in the championship game. In the inaugural year for the event; the Ducks would add only one more shared Pacific Coast Conference title to their two until winning the Pacific-10 Conference title in the 2001-2002 season under head coach Ernie Kent.
The Ducks would make an Elite Eight appearance in the NCAA Tournament that season along with the 2006-2007 season. In 2010-2011, the Ducks welcomed new coach Dana Altman. Since, Altman has won three Pac-12 Conference Coach of the Year honors and led Oregon to the 2013 Pac-12 Conference Men's Basketball Tournament Championship. In addition, Altman has taken Oregon to four straight NCAA Men's Basketball Tournament for the first time in program history, including a trip to the Sweet 16 in 2013 and the Elite 8 in 2016; the Ducks won the 2015-2016 Pac-12 Conference Tournament. This led to the Ducks being the top seed in the West Regional of the 2015-2016 NCAA tournament, its first top seeding in the NCAA tournament; the Ducks defeated Holy Cross and Saint Joseph's in the first two rounds of the NCAA tournament to advance to the Sweet 16 in Anaheim, where they defeated the number four seed and defending national champion Duke Blue Devils, 82-68, to advance to the Elite 8. The University of Oregon Cross Country and Track & Field programs have a long and storied history, earning Eugene the nickname Track Town, United States.
After several years of struggling, Bill Hayward became the head coach in 1903 and provided s
The Willamette River is a major tributary of the Columbia River, accounting for 12 to 15 percent of the Columbia's flow. The Willamette's main stem is 187 miles long, lying in northwestern Oregon in the United States. Flowing northward between the Oregon Coast Range and the Cascade Range, the river and its tributaries form the Willamette Valley, a basin that contains two-thirds of Oregon's population, including the state capital and the state's largest city, which surrounds the Willamette's mouth at the Columbia. Created by plate tectonics about 35 million years ago and subsequently altered by volcanism and erosion, the river's drainage basin was modified by the Missoula Floods at the end of the most recent ice age. Humans began living in the watershed over 10,000 years ago. There were once many tribal villages along the lower river and in the area around its mouth on the Columbia. Indigenous peoples lived throughout the upper reaches of the basin as well. Rich with sediments deposited by flooding and fed by prolific rainfall on the western side of the Cascades, the Willamette Valley is one of the most fertile agricultural regions in North America, was thus the destination of many 19th-century pioneers traveling west along the Oregon Trail.
The river was an important transportation route in the 19th century, although Willamette Falls, just upstream from Portland, was a major barrier to boat traffic. In the 21st century, major highways follow the river, roads cross it on more than 50 bridges. Since 1900, more than 15 large dams and many smaller ones have been built in the Willamette's drainage basin, 13 of which are operated by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers; the dams are used to produce hydroelectricity, to maintain reservoirs for recreation, to prevent flooding. The river and its tributaries support 60 fish species, including many species of salmon and trout. Part of the Willamette Floodplain was established as a National Natural Landmark in 1987 and the river was named as one of 14 American Heritage Rivers in 1998; the upper tributaries of the Willamette originate in the mountains south and southeast of Eugene, Oregon. Formed by the confluence of the Middle Fork Willamette River and the Coast Fork Willamette River near Springfield, the main stem Willamette meanders north for 187 miles to the Columbia River.
The river's two most significant course deviations occur at Newberg, where it turns east, about 18 miles downstream from Newberg, where it turns north again. Near its mouth north of downtown Portland, the river splits into two channels that flow around Sauvie Island. Used for navigation purposes, these channels are managed by the U. S. federal government. The main channel, 40 feet deep and varies in width from 600 to 1,900 feet, enters the Columbia about 101 miles from the larger river's mouth on the Pacific Ocean; the channel forms the primary navigational conduit for Portland's harbor and riverside industrial areas. The smaller Multnomah Channel, a distributary, is 21 miles long, about 600 feet wide, 40 feet deep, it ends about 14.5 miles further downstream on the Columbia, near St. Helens in Columbia County. Proposals have been made for deepening the Multnomah Channel to 43 feet in conjunction with 103.5 miles of tandem-maintained navigation on the Columbia River. Between the 1850s and the 1960s, channel-straightening and flood control projects, as well as agricultural and urban encroachment, cut the length of the river between the McKenzie River confluence and Harrisburg by 65 percent.
The river was shortened by 40 percent in the stretch between Harrisburg and Albany. Interstate 5 and three branches of Oregon Route 99 are the two major highways that follow the river for its entire length. Communities along the main stem include Eugene in Lane County. Significant tributaries from source to mouth include the Middle and Coast forks and the McKenzie, Long Tom, Calapooia, Luckiamute, Molalla and Clackamas rivers. Beginning at 438 feet above sea level, the main stem descends 428 feet between source and mouth, or about 2.3 feet per mile. The gradient is steeper from the source to Albany than it is from Albany to Oregon City. At Willamette Falls, between West Linn and Oregon City, the river plunges about 40 feet. For the rest of its course, the river is low-gradient and is affected by Pacific Ocean tidal effects from the Columbia; the main stem of the Willamette varies in width from about 330 to 660 feet. With an average flow at the mouth of about 37,400 cubic feet per second, the Willamette ranks 19th in volume among rivers in the United States and contributes 12 to 15 percent of the total flow of the Columbia River.
The Willamette's flow varies season to season, averaging about 8,200 cubic feet per second in August to more than 79,000 cubic feet per second in December. The U. S. Geological Survey operates five stream gauges along the river, at Harrisburg, Albany and Portland; the average discharge at the lowermost gauge, near the Morrison Bridge in Portland, was 33,220 cubic feet per second
The Willamette Valley is a 150-mile long valley in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. The Willamette River flows the entire length of the valley, it is surrounded by mountains on three sides – the Cascade Range to the east, the Oregon Coast Range to the west, the Calapooya Mountains to the south, it forms the cultural and political heart of Oregon, is home to 70 percent of its population including its six largest cities: Portland, Salem, the state capital, the cities of Gresham and Beaverton in the Portland metropolitan area. Eight of Oregon's ten – and 16 of its 20 – largest cities are located in the Willamette Valley; the valley's numerous waterways the Willamette River, are vital to the economy of Oregon, as they continuously deposit fertile alluvial soils across its broad, flat plain. A massively productive agricultural area, the valley was publicized in the 1820s as a'promised land of flowing milk and honey'. Throughout the 19th century it was the destination of choice for the oxen-drawn wagon trains of emigrants who made the perilous journey along the Oregon Trail.
Today the valley is considered synonymous with "Oregon Wine Country", as it contains more than 19,000 acres of vineyards and 500+ wineries. Much of the Willamette's fertility is derived from a series of massive ice-age floods that came from Lake Missoula in Montana and scoured across Eastern Washington, sweeping its topsoil down the Columbia River Gorge; when floodwaters met log- and ice-jams at Kalama in southwest Washington, the water caused a backup that filled the entire Willamette Valley to a depth of 300 to 400 feet above current sea level. Some geologists suggest that the Willamette Valley flooded in this manner multiple times during the last ice age. If floodwaters of that magnitude covered Portland in 2010, only the tops of the West Hills, Mount Tabor, Rocky Butte, Kelley Butte and Mount Scott would be visible, as would only some of the city's tallest skyscrapers. Elevations for other cities in the valley are Newberg, 175 feet; the lake drained away, leaving layered sedimentary soils on the valley floor to a height of about 180 to 200 feet above current sea level throughout the Tualatin and Willamette valleys.
Geologists have come to refer to the resulting lake as Lake Allison, named for Oregon State University geologist Ira S. Allison, who first described Willamette Silt soil in 1953 and noted its similarity to soils on the floor of former Lake Lewis in Eastern Washington. Allison is known for his work in the 1930s documenting the hundreds of non-native boulders washed down by the floods, rafted on icebergs and deposited on the valley bottom and in a ring around the lower hills surrounding the Willamette Valley. One of the most prominent of these is the Bellevue Erratic, just off Oregon Route 18 west of McMinnville, it is believed that the Willamette Meteorite was rafted by flood and ice to the location near West Linn where it was found in 1902. The valley may be loosely defined as the broad plain of the Willamette, bounded on the west by the Oregon Coast Range and on the east by the Cascade Range, it is bounded on the south by the Calapooya Mountains, which separate the headwaters of the Willamette from the Umpqua River valley about 25 miles south of Hidden Valley.
Interstate 5 runs the length of the valley. Because of differing cultural and political interests, the Portland metropolitan area and Tualatin River valley are not included in the local use of the term. Additionally, the east slopes of the Coast Ranges and the west slopes of the Cascade Range from Oakridge to Detroit Lake can be considered part of the Willamette Valley in a cultural sense, despite being mountainous areas. Cities in the valley include, from south to north, Cottage Grove, Corvallis, Dallas, Keizer, McMinnville, Oregon City, Portland, St. Helens. Parts of the following counties, from south to north, lie within the valley: Douglas, Linn, Polk, Clackamas, Washington and Columbia. Sometimes the area around Albany and Corvallis and surrounding Benton and Linn counties is referred to locally as the Mid-Valley. Marion and other counties are sometimes included in the definition of the Mid-Valley; the climate of the Willamette Valley is Mediterranean with oceanic features. This climate is characterized by dry and cloudless summers, ranging from warm to very hot, followed by cool and cloudy winters.
The precipitation pattern is distinctly Mediterranean, with little to no rainfall occurring during the summer months and over half of annual precipitation falling between November and February. Temperatures are predictable throughout the year, with daytime highs reaching the low to mid 80s in the summer and the mid 40s in the winter. Lengthy stretches of 90 °F days occur every summer reaching 100 °F. Cold days where the daytime high fails to rise above freezing are rare and may occur only two or three days per year, not at all in the lowest elevations of the valley. Temperatures of 5 °F or lower occur only about once every 25 years. Spring and fall days are between 50 and 70 degrees, with occasional surges of summer-like or winter-like temperatures that last more than a week. Precipitation varies across the valley and is correlated with elevation. Annual totals range from 36 inches (
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif