The Kel-Tec P-32 is a sub-compact semi-automatic pistol using the short-recoil principle of operation, chambered in.32 ACP. It was designed by George Kellgren, it is manufactured by Kel-Tec CNC Industries Inc. of Cocoa and was designed for concealed carry by citizens and by law enforcement officers as a back-up gun. Manufactured by Kel-Tec CNC Industries in the city of Cocoa, United States, the P-32 has a barrel length of 2.68 inches. The P-32 operates on Browning's short-recoil principle with a locked breech. Similar in concept to a revolver, the P-32 has no manual safety, relying instead on the long double-action trigger pull and an internal hammer block to provide safe operation; the pistol meets SAAMI guidelines, will not fire if dropped. The P-32 has passed extensive SAAMI drop-testing at the H. P. White labs, as well as drop tests to military specifications; the trigger must physically be pulled for the gun to fire. The P-32 is made of the following materials: SAE 4140 ordnance steel for the slide.
Kel-Tec CNC Industries of Cocoa, FL Pocket pistol Single column magazine Kel-Tec CNC Industries Kel-Tec P32 Safety and Parts Manual Kel-Tec Owners Group
SU-16 refers to a series of semi-automatic rifles and carbines manufactured by Kel-Tec CNC Industries, Inc. of Cocoa, referred to in Kel-Tec's marketing as "Sport Utility rifles". The SU-16 series is notable for its compact and simple design. While the barrel, bolt-carrier and mechanism are steel, the SU-16's stock and forend are manufactured of high-strength polymer plastic. There are seven variants of the SU-16; the SU-16A has an 18.5 in barrel and comes with a windage-adjustable hooded light-gathering blade front sight mounted near the muzzle. A Picatinny rail is equipped on the top of the receiver; the stock and trigger mechanism fold down below the upper receiver and clamp to the barrel when the weapon is broken down. The fore-arm of the rifle opens out into an integrated collapsible bipod; the stock has a hollow recess with spring detents capable of holding two 10-round magazines or one 20- or 30-round magazine. The SU-16B has the same features of the A model, but has a lighter barrel, an M-16-type adjustable-post front sight, a windage adjustable rear sight.
The B model has been criticized by some users for the light construction of its barrel, said to be too light for sustained firing. The SU-16C has a true folding stock as it can be fired with the stock folded, rather than the folding stock and trigger group design of the other weapons; the C has a medium-weight barrel in response to the criticism against the lighter barrel of the B model. The barrel is threaded at the muzzle, can be mounted with accessories, such as a flash-hider; the front sight, an M-16 adjustable-post type, is incorporated over the gas block and is not removable. The C includes a reciprocating dust cover over the ejection port and a case-deflecting charging handle; the SU-16CA model incorporates most of the features of the C model, except for the true folding stock design, instead using the collapsible stock and trigger group design of the A model, which prevents the weapon from being fired when broken-down. This change makes it legal for sale in jurisdictions such as California.
The SU-16D model is a short-barreled version which makes the weapon NFA-regulated as short barreled rifles, subject to ownership restrictions and transfer taxes. Owing to the short barrel, the D does not include the folding bipod, but otherwise contains the same features as the C model, including the folding buttstock; the D models include a second bottom-mounted Picatinny rail. The SU-16E model is a pistol grip version of the rifle, It has a 16-inch barrel, threaded at the muzzle, can be mounted with accessories; the SU-16f model is a longer barreled version. It has an 18.5 inch barrel, making it compliant with the Canadian Firearms Act, making it legal for sale in Canada as a non-restricted rifle. It includes the folding bipod/forend. Kel-Tec's homepage—Contains descriptions of each variant, plus downloadable manuals and parts lists Kel-tec Owner's Group http://world.guns.ru/civil/civ002-e.htm
A gun barrel is a crucial part of gun-type ranged weapons such as small firearms, artillery pieces and air guns. It is the straight shooting tube made of rigid high-strength metal, through which a contained rapid expansion of high-pressure gas is introduced behind a projectile in order to propel it out of the front end at a high velocity; the hollow interior of the barrel is called the bore. The measurement of the diameter of the bore is called the caliber. Caliber is measured in inches or millimetres; the first firearms were made at a time when metallurgy was not advanced enough to cast tubes capable of withstanding the explosive forces of early cannons, so the pipe needed to be braced periodically along its length for reinforcement, producing an appearance somewhat reminiscent of storage barrels being stacked together, hence the English name. Gun barrels are metal. However, the early Chinese, the inventors of gunpowder, used bamboo, which has a strong tubular stalk and is cheaper to obtain and process, as the first barrels in gunpowder projectile weapons such as the fire lances.
The Chinese were the first to master cast-iron cannon barrels, used the technology to make the earliest infantry firearms — the hand cannons. Early European guns were made of wrought iron with several strengthening bands of the metal wrapped around circular wrought iron rings and welded into a hollow cylinder. Bronze and brass were favoured by gunsmiths because of their ease of casting and their resistance to the corrosive effects of the combustion of gunpowder or salt water when used on naval vessels. Early firearms were muzzle-loading, with the gunpowder and the shot loaded from the front end of the barrel, were capable of only a low rate of fire due to the cumbersome loading process; the later-invented breech-loading designs provided a higher rate of fire, but early breechloaders lacked an effective way of sealing the escaping gases that leaked from the back end of the barrel, reducing the available muzzle velocity. During the 19th century, effective breechblocks were invented that sealed a breechloader against the escape of propellant gases.
Early cannon barrels were thick for their caliber. This was because manufacturing defects such as air bubbles trapped in the metal were common back in the days, played key factors in many gun explosions. A gun barrel must be able to hold in the expanding gas produced by the propellants to ensure that optimum muzzle velocity is attained by the projectile as it is being pushed out. If the barrel material cannot cope with the pressure within the bore, the barrel itself might suffer catastrophic failure and explode, which will not only destroy the gun but present a life-threatening danger to people nearby. Modern small arms barrels are made of carbon steel or stainless steel materials known and tested to withstand the pressures involved. Artillery pieces are made by various techniques providing reliably sufficient strength. In firearms terminology, fluting refers to the removal of material from a cylindrical surface creating rounded grooves, for the purpose of reducing weight; this is most done to the exterior surface of a rifle barrel, though it may be applied to the cylinder of a revolver or the bolt of a bolt-action rifle.
Most flutings on rifle barrels and revolver cylinders are straight, though helical flutings can be seen on rifle bolts and also rifle barrels. While the main purpose of fluting is just to reduce weight and improve portability, when adequately done it can retain the structural strength and rigidity and increase the overall specific strength. Fluting will increase the surface-to-volume ratio and make the barrel more efficient to cool after firing, though the reduced material mass means the barrel will heat up during firing; the chamber is the cavity at the back end of a breech-loading gun's barrel where the cartridge is inserted in position ready to be fired. In most firearms, the chamber is an integral part of the barrel made by reaming the rear bore of a barrel blank, with a single chamber within a single barrel. In revolvers, the chamber is a component of the gun's cylinder and separate from the barrel, with a single cylinder having multiple chambers that are rotated in turns into alignment with the barrel in anticipation of being fired.
Structurally, the chamber consists of the body and neck, the contour of which correspond to the casing shape of the cartridge it is designed to hold. The rear opening of the chamber is the breech of the whole barrel, sealed tight from behind by the bolt, making the front direction the path of least resistance during firing; when the cartridge's primer is struck by the firing pin, the propellant is ignited and deflagrates, generating high-pressure gas expansion within the cartridge case. However, the chamber restrains the cartridge case from moving, allowing the bullet to separate cleanly from the casing and be propelled forward along the barrel to exit out of the front end as a projectile; the act of chambering a gun refers to the process of loading a cartridge into the gun's chamber, either manually as in single loading, or via operating the weapon's own action as in pump action, lever action, bolt action or self-loading actions. In the case of an air gun, a pellet itself has no casing to be retained and will be inserted into the chamber (often called "seating
The.40 S&W is a rimless pistol cartridge developed jointly by major American firearms manufacturers Smith & Wesson and Winchester. The.40 S&W was developed from the ground up as a law enforcement cartridge designed to duplicate performance of the Federal Bureau of Investigation's reduced-velocity 10mm Auto cartridge which could be retrofitted into medium-frame semi-automatic handguns. It uses 0.40-inch diameter bullets ranging in weight from 105 to 200 grains. In the aftermath of the 1986 FBI Miami shootout, in which two FBI special agents were killed and five wounded, the FBI started the process of testing 9×19mm Parabellum and.45 ACP ammunition in preparation to replace its standard-issue revolver with a semi-automatic pistol. The semi-automatic pistol offered two advantages over the revolver: increased ammunition capacity and increased ease of reloading during a gunfight; the FBI was satisfied with the performance of its.38 Special +P 158 gr lead semi-wadcutter hollowpoint cartridge based on decades of dependable performance.
Ammunition for the new semi-automatic pistol had to deliver terminal performance equal or superior to the.38 Special FBI load. The FBI developed a series of oriented tests involving eight test events that they believed reasonably represented the kinds of situations that FBI agents encountered in shooting incidents. During tests of the 9×19mm and.45 ACP ammunition, the FBI Firearms Training Unit's special agent-in-charge, John Hall, decided to include tests of the 10mm Auto cartridge, supplying his own Colt Delta Elite 10mm semi-automatic, handloaded ammunition. The FBI's tests revealed that a 170–180 gr JHP 10mm bullet, propelled between 900–1,000 ft/s, achieved desired terminal performance without the heavy recoil associated with conventional 10mm ammunition; the FBI contacted Smith & Wesson and requested it to design a handgun to FBI specifications, based on the existing large-frame Smith & Wesson Model 4506.45 ACP handgun, that would reliably function with the FBI's reduced-velocity 10 mm ammunition.
During this collaboration with the FBI, S&W realized that downsizing the 10mm full power to meet the FBI's medium velocity specification meant less powder and more airspace in the case. They found that by removing the airspace they could shorten the 10mm case enough to fit within their medium-frame 9mm handguns and load it with a 180 gr JHP bullet to produce ballistic performance identical to the FBI's reduced-velocity 10mm cartridge. S&W teamed with Winchester to produce a new cartridge, the.40 S&W. It uses a small pistol primer. The.40 S&W cartridge debuted January 17, 1990, along with the new Smith & Wesson Model 4006 pistol, although it was several months before the pistols were available for purchase. Austrian manufacturer Glock Ges.m.b. H. Beat Smith & Wesson to the dealer shelves in 1990, with pistols chambered in.40 S&W which were announced a week before the 4006. Glock's rapid introduction was aided by its engineering of a pistol chambered in 10mm Auto, the Glock 20, only a short time earlier.
Since the.40 S&W uses the same bore diameter and case head as the 10mm Auto, it was a matter of adapting the 10mm design to the shorter 9×19mm Parabellum frames. The new guns and ammunition were an immediate success, pistols in the new caliber were adopted by several law enforcement agencies around the nation, including the FBI, which adopted the Glock pistol in.40 S&W in May 1997. The popularity of the.40 S&W accelerated with the passage of the now-expired Federal Assault Weapons Ban of 1994 which prohibited sales of pistol or rifle magazines that could hold more than ten rounds, regardless of caliber. Several U. S. states, a number of local governments banned or regulated so-called "high capacity" magazines. As a result, many new firearm buyers limited to purchasing pistols with a maximum magazine capacity of 10 rounds chose pistols in the.40 S&W chambering instead of smaller-diameter cartridges such as the 9x19mm. The.40 S&W case length and overall cartridge length are shortened, but other dimensions except case web and wall thickness remain identical to the 10mm Auto.
Both cartridges headspace on the mouth of the case. Thus in a semi-auto they are not interchangeable. Fired from a 10mm semi-auto, the.40 Smith & Wesson cartridge will headspace on the extractor and the bullet will jump a 0.142 inches freebore just like a.38 Special fired from a.357 Magnum revolver. If the cartridge is not held by the extractor, the chances for a ruptured primer are great. Smith & Wesson does make a double-action revolver. A single-action revolver in the.38–40 chambering can be modified to fire the.40 or the 10mm if it has an extra cylinder. Some.40 caliber handguns can be converted to 9mm with a special purpose made barrel, magazine change, other parts. The.40 S&W has 1.25 ml cartridge case capacity. The common rifling twist rate for this cartridge is 406 millimetres, 6 grooves, ∅ lands = 9.91. According to the official C. I. P. Guidelines, the.40 S&W case can handle up to 225 megapascals piezo pressure. In C. I. P.-regulated countries every pistol/cartridge combo has to be proofed at 130% of this maximum C.
I. P. pressure to certify for sale to consumers. The SAAMI pressure limit for the.40 S&W is set at 241.32 megapascals piezo pressure. The.40 S&W cartridge has been popular with law
Grendel Inc. founded by George Kellgren, was a Florida firearms company which produced polymer framed semi-automatic pistols from 1987 to 1994. Zytel was used for grips and furniture while slides, slide rails, other high-pressure parts were manufactured using LaSalle Stressproof steel. Grendel P10 - introduced in 1988, the P10 is a.380 double action only with no levers with rudimentary sights and had a large trigger guard. It had no detachable magazine and was loaded by locking the slide back and feeding ten rounds through the open chamber into the spring-loaded grip itself with a stripper clip. Grendel P12 - produced from 1991 until 1994, the P12 is a P10 with a 9-round detachable box magazine, it was Grendel's last.380. Grendel P30 - a single-action, fluted barrel.22 WMR magnum blowback pistol that used a 30 round box magazine. The five inch barrel model gave an overall length of 8.5 inches. Grendel P30M - Introduced in 1990 the P30MA is a carbine version of the Grendel P30 and has a built-in muzzle brake.
Grendel R31 - another.22 WMR magnum carbine. Kel-Tec Kel-Tec PMR-30 a modern rendition of the P30
The SUB-2000 is a pistol-caliber carbine manufactured by Kel-Tec CNC Industries of Cocoa, United States. The rifle is a blowback operated, semi-automatic firearm with its operating spring located in the tubular stock; the weapon feeds from a grip-located magazine well, using magazines designed for popular models of various other manufacturer's handguns, is an inexpensive carbine. The distinguishing characteristic of this rifle is that it folds in half, for storage and transportation, its slim profile compared to other rifles; the benefit of the weapon accepting magazines made for other manufacturer's popular handguns is so the user can choose a version of the weapon that allows them to share magazines and ammunition between both the user's sidearm and the Sub-2000 carbine. The main advantages of a carbine in a pistol caliber over a handgun include the increased sight radius which aids with accurate shooting, it is available in two versions chambered for 9 mm or.40 S&W caliber cartridges. It was designed by George Kellgren, a Swedish-American designer who designed many earlier Husqvarna and Grendel brand firearms.
The receiver is made of an impact modified. The front end houses the rear sight; this block is securely locked in place by a swiveling trigger guard. The receiver rigidly attaches to the stock by multiple lugs; the bottom of the receiver forms the pistol grip accepting different magazines according to the version specified. The receiver houses the firing mechanism; the 4130 ordnance steel barrel has a spring-loaded collar to ensure an accurate lock between the receiver and the polymer fore end and the adjustable front sight. The fore end has integrated the ability to house batteries and/or other small devices; the tubular steel stock is ended by the polymer butt stock. The heavy two-piece steel bolt holds the firing pin, the extractor and has the operating handle on the bottom. A captive guide recoil spring with buffer actuates the bolt; the firing mechanism is of conventional single action type. It has a positive disconnector, a push bolt safety that blocks the sear and disengages the trigger bar.
The hardened steel ejector is internal. This design, with its long bolt travel, allows for large functioning marginals; the basic SUB-2000 design is implemented in a rather unusual folding design that folds for storage into half its total extended length. Folding is accomplished by pulling downward on the trigger guard and swinging the barrel assembly back over the top of the rifle. A latch in the buttstock secures to the front sight housing, the gun can be locked with a key in the folded position for added safety; the gun can not be fired. Models are available using a variety of semi-automatic pistol magazines in both 9mm Parabellum and.40 S&W. Manufacturer: Kel-Tec
Concealed carry in the United States
Concealed carry or carrying a concealed weapon, is the practice of carrying a weapon in public in a concealed manner, either on one's person or in close proximity. Not all weapons that fall under CCW laws are lethal. For example, in Florida, carrying pepper spray in more than a specified volume of chemical requires a CCW permit, whereas everyone may carry a smaller, “self-defense chemical spray” device hidden on his person without a CCW permit; as of 2018 there have been 17.25 million concealed weapon permits issued in the United States. There is no federal statutory law concerning the issuance of concealed-carry permits. All 50 states have passed laws allowing qualified individuals to carry certain concealed firearms in public, either without a permit or after obtaining a permit from a designated government authority at the state and/or local level. A comprehensive 2004 literature review by the National Academy of Sciences concluded that there was no evidence that concealed carry either increases or reduces violent crime.
Concealed weapons bans were passed in Kentucky and Louisiana in 1813. By 1859, Tennessee, Virginia and Ohio had followed suit. By the end of the nineteenth century, similar laws were passed in places such as Texas and Oklahoma, which protected some gun rights in their state constitutions. Before the mid 1900s, most U. S. states had passed concealed carry laws rather than banning weapons completely. Until the late 1990s, many Southern states were either "No-Issue" or "Restrictive May-Issue". Since these states have enacted "Shall-Issue" licensing laws, with numerous states legalizing "Unrestricted concealed carry". Regulations differ by state, with most states maintaining a "Shall-Issue" policy; as as the mid-'90s most states were no-issue or may-issue, but over the past 30 years states have migrated to less restrictive alternatives. There is a circuit split between several federal circuit courts regarding the standards for issuance of permits and the right to carry weapons outside the home; the 9th and 3rd circuits have ruled in favor of may-issue permitting policies, while the 7th and D.
C. circuits have ruled that states are required to implement shall-issue policies, because the right to carry weapons extends outside the home. The Federal Gun Free School Zones Act limits; when in contact with an officer, some states require you to inform that officer that you are carrying a handgun. For detailed information on individual states' permitting policies, see Gun laws in the United States by state. Unrestricted jurisdiction: one in which a permit is not required to carry a concealed handgun Shall-issue jurisdiction: one that requires a license to carry a concealed handgun, but where the granting of such licenses is subject only to meeting determinate criteria laid out in the law. An unrestricted jurisdiction is one; this is sometimes called constitutional carry. Within the unrestricted category, there exists states that are unrestricted, where no permit is required for lawful open or concealed carry, unrestricted, where certain forms of concealed carry may be legal without a permit, while other forms of carry may require a permit.
Among U. S. states, Arizona, Idaho, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, North Dakota, South Dakota, West Virginia and Wyoming are unrestricted, allow those who are not prohibited from owning a firearm to carry a concealed firearm in any place not deemed off-limits by law without a permit. Idaho, North Dakota and Wyoming only extend. Permitless concealed carry in Mississippi only covers certain manners of carrying; these states allow the open carry of a handgun without a permit with the exception of North Dakota and certain localities in Missouri. Vermont does not have any provision for issue of concealed-carry licenses, as none has been necessary