Louis I, Duke of Bavaria
Ludwig I, called the Kelheimer or of Kelheim, since he was born and died at Kelheim, was the Duke of Bavaria from 1183 and Count Palatine of the Rhine from 1214. He was his wife Agnes of Loon. Ludwig was married to a daughter of Duke Frederick of Bohemia. Soon after his father's death in 1183, Ludwig was appointed under the guardianship of his uncle Conrad of Wittelsbach and Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, his mother, Agnes, an energetic and enterprising leader, had taken over the regency of Bavaria in the meantime, securing her son's inheritance. Upon his coming-of-age, in 1189, at sixteen years old, at the beginning of his reign, he had fallen in the midst of a conflict which triggered the nearly simultaneous extinction of the Burgrave of Regensburg and the Count of Sulzbach in the years 1188 and 1189; this allowed Barbarossa to expand his royal domains within the Empire to include Regensburg and Sulzbach at Ludwig's expense. When the Emperor died on Crusade, his son, Henry VI had ascended the throne on 15 April 1191 in Rome, he had found a princely opposition on Ottokar I of Bohemia and his brother-in-law Count Albert III of Bogen who demanded a revision of the Staufen imperial land policy.
Using that justification, Albert had designs to seize the Sulzbach domains from Emperor Henry's royal territory. Ludwig attempted to mediate and called for a Hoftag in Laufen, which caught the attention of many great men within the Empire, to settle the dispute, yet he could not stop the Count of Bogen and the Sulzbach land was taken. When Duke Ludwig turned against that, it came to war. Ludwig's forces were pushed back by the combined might of Duke Ottokar; when the vicious counter-attack of Leopold V, Duke of Austria and Berthold, Duke of Merania were not able to change the situation. And Ludwig had vowed to never stop, it was in the summer of 1192 at Worms where he received the German tradition of knighting, the handing of sword and belt, in the presence of Emperor Henry VI and many other Princes. By 1193, Emperor Henry became involved in-person over the affair and seized Sulzbach and Albert declared a standstill of arms. In exchange for this service, Ludwig was to remain, for the next decade and a half, on the side of the Staufen.
Ludwig would demonstrate his partisanship at the Hoftag at Würzburg and his attendance of the Imperial retinue to Apulia and Sicily, where he would stand with the Emperor on securing Emperor Henry's inheritance of southern Italy. Until the death of the emperor, Ludwig remained a loyal supporter of Henry VI and accompanied the Hohenstaufen in 1194 to Italy on his second expedition for the conquest of the kingdom of Sicily, entitled Henry's wife Constance as sole heir. In the struggle for the throne after the death of Henry VI, he remained one of the main supporters of the Hohenstaufen Philip of Swabia, his continued support, had a price. When the Landgrave of Stefling died without an heir in 1196, instead of including the region over to his royal domain, Henry enfeoffed it to Ludwig instead. Eberhard, Archbishop of Salzburg and Conrad, Bishop of Regensburg, falling at variance, declared war on Duke Ludwig and spared no sacred nor profane structures, it was only through Ludwig's character. The following year, in 1197, Ludwig went with the Emperor to Sicily to prepare for their departure for the German Crusade of 1197.
But Henry had died of an illness. And the journey was canceled. Henry's death thus began a most difficult epoch in German history; the northern and western German Princes demanded a new Holy Emperor, choosing Otto of Brunswick under the encouragement of Pope Celestine III, while the southern and eastern German Princes remained loyal to the Hohenstaufen. While it was true that Emperor Henry was still alive when his young son Frederick II was elected Emperor at two years of age, he had no way of knowing that his son would become challenged by such a force; the only force that could counter the north and west German's choice was Henry's brother King Philip of Swabia who had considered being regent, but was refused that right as the south and east Germans needed an acting king. Because of all that, it resulted in a double-election in 1198; that same year, Albert III of Bogen, had died. Thus leaving him with one less problem and one great opportunity. Ludwig took to wife the widowed Ludmilla of Bohemia in 1204 to gain the alliance of her uncle King Ottokar I of Bohemia.
This gave him claim to the lands of Albert III of Bogen, if at least not directly. That same year, the Margraviate of Vohburg passed to Ludwig as well. An old story goes that the Duke made the acquaintance of Ludmilla of Bohemia with affection and she fearing he did it to delude her, hid three persons she trusted behind a curtain and gave them three pictures to hold up; this done, she begged of him to see her no more. The Duke hesitated and she pointed to the three pictures saying,"Those said persons should be witnesses to your promises." Ludwig, thinking those persons could never rise in judgement against him, made her all the protestations she could desire, so she drew back the curtains and revealed the three living witnesses. He was so taken with the contrivance; the Margraves of Cham died without heirs in 1204 which resulted in major areas given to Ludwig by King Philip.
Vehicle registration plate
A vehicle registration plate known as a number plate or a license plate, is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. All countries require registration plates for road vehicles such as cars and motorcycles. Whether they are required for other vehicles, such as bicycles, boats, or tractors, may vary by jurisdiction; the registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric ID that uniquely identifies the vehicle owner within the issuing region's vehicle register. In some countries, the identifier is unique within the entire country, while in others it is unique within a state or province. Whether the identifier is associated with a vehicle or a person varies by issuing agency. There are electronic license plates. Most governments require a registration plate to be attached to both the front and rear of a vehicle, although certain jurisdictions or vehicle types, such as motorboats, require only one plate, attached to the rear of the vehicle.
National databases relate this number to other information describing the vehicle, such as the make, colour, year of manufacture, engine size, type of fuel used, mileage recorded, vehicle identification number, the name and address of the vehicle's registered owner or keeper. In the vast majority of jurisdictions, the government holds a monopoly on the manufacturing of vehicle registration plates for that jurisdiction. Either a government agency or a private company with express contractual authorization from the government makes plates as needed, which are mailed to, delivered to, or picked up by the vehicle owners. Thus, it is illegal for private citizens to make and affix their own plates, because such unauthorized private manufacturing is equivalent to forging an official document. Alternatively, the government will assign plate numbers, it is the vehicle owner's responsibility to find an approved private supplier to make a plate with that number. In some jurisdictions, plates will be permanently assigned to that particular vehicle for its lifetime.
If the vehicle is either destroyed or exported to a different country, the plate number is retired or reissued. China requires the re-registration of any vehicle that crosses its borders from another country, such as for overland tourist visits, regardless of the length of time it is due to remain there. Other jurisdictions follow a "plate-to-owner" policy, meaning that when a vehicle is sold the seller removes the current plate from the vehicle. Buyers must either obtain new plates or attach plates they hold, as well as register their vehicles under the buyer's name and plate number. A person who sells a car and purchases a new one can apply to have the old plates put onto the new car. One who sells a car and does not buy a new one may, depending on the local laws involved, have to turn the old plates in or destroy them, or may be permitted to keep them; some jurisdictions permit the registration of the vehicle with "personal" plates. In some jurisdictions, plates require periodic replacement associated with a design change of the plate itself.
Vehicle owners may or may not have the option to keep their original plate number, may have to pay a fee to exercise this option. Alternately, or additionally, vehicle owners have to replace a small decal on the plate or use a decal on the windshield to indicate the expiration date of the vehicle registration, periodic safety and/or emissions inspections or vehicle taxation. Other jurisdictions have replaced the decal requirement through the use of computerization: a central database maintains records of which plate numbers are associated with expired registrations, communicating with automated number plate readers to enable law-enforcement to identify expired registrations in the field. Plates are fixed directly to a vehicle or to a plate frame, fixed to the vehicle. Sometimes, the plate frames contain advertisements inserted by the vehicle service centre or the dealership from which the vehicle was purchased. Vehicle owners can purchase customized frames to replace the original frames. In some jurisdictions registration plate frames have design restrictions.
For example, many states, like Texas, allow plate frames but prohibit plate frames from covering the name of the state, district, Native American tribe or country that issued of license plate. Plates are designed to conform to standards with regard to being read by eye in day or at night, or by electronic equipment; some drivers purchase clear, smoke-colored or tinted covers that go over the registration plate to prevent electronic equipment from scanning the registration plate. Legality of these covers varies; some cameras incorporate filter systems that make such avoidance attempts unworkable with infra-red filters. Vehicles pulling trailers, such as caravans and semi-trailer trucks, are required to display a third registration plate on the rear of the trailer. An engineering study by the University of Illinois published in 1960 recommended that the state of Illinois adopt a numbering system and plate design "composed of combinations of characters which can be perceived and are legible at a distance of 125 feet under daylight conditions, are adapted to filing and administrative procedures".
It recommended that a standard plate size of 6 inches by 14 inches be adopte
Otto I, Duke of Bavaria
Otto I, called the Redhead, was Duke of Bavaria from 1180 until his death. He was called Otto VI as Count Palatine of Bavaria from 1156 to 1180, he was the first Bavarian ruler from the House of Wittelsbach, a dynasty which reigned until the abdication of King Ludwig III of Bavaria in the German Revolution of 1918. Duke Otto I was born at Kelheim, the son of Count Palatine Otto IV of Wittelsbach and Heilika of Pettendorf-Lengenfeld, a grandson of the Hohenstaufen duke Frederick I of Swabia, he was the brother of Archbishop Conrad I of Salzburg. Upon the death of his father in 1156, he succeeded him as Count palatine of the Bavarian duchy under the rule of Henry the Lion, a scion of the Welf dynasty; as one of the best knights in the employ of Emperor Frederick Barbarossa in 1155 he had prevented a defeat of the Emperor near Verona, where the army caravan was ambushed on the way back to Germany after the coronation at Rome. In the Dominium mundi conflict between emperor and pope culminating at the 1157 Reichstag of Besançon, fiery Otto could only be kept from smiting the papal legate Cardinal Rolando Bandinelli with his battleaxe by the personal intervention of Frederick.
He was rewarded with the duchy of Bavaria on 16 September 1180 at Altenburg in Thuringia, after the deposition of Duke Henry the Lion. But he was so little regarded by many of the Bavarian aristocracy that they are said to have refused him the customary homage, they went so far as to refuse to attend his first court assembly at Regensburg. With the separation of Styria under Duke Ottokar IV in the same year, Bavaria lost the last of her southeastern territories. With the support of the emperor and his brother Conrad, Otto was able to secure the rule of his dynasty from the wary Bavarian nobility, his descendants ruled Bavaria for the next 738 years. In 1182 or 1183, Duke Otto bought Dachau castle, the ministeriales, all other appurtenances for a large sum of cash from the widow of the last duke of Dachau and Merania, Conrad II, Duke of Merania. In 1183 Otto accompanied Emperor Frederick to sign the Peace of Constance with the Lombard League and died on the way back at Pfullendorf in Swabia, he was succeeded by his only surviving son Louis.
Otto's mortal remains are buried in the crypt of Scheyern Abbey. About 1169 Otto married a daughter of Count Louis I of Loon. Agnes and Otto had the following children: Otto Ulrich Agnes Heilika I, married in 1184 to Hallgrave Dietrich of Wasserburg Agnes, married Count Henry of Plain Richardis, married in 1186 to Count Otto I of Guelders and Zutphen Louis I, married in 1204 to Ludmilla of Bohemia Heilika II, married Count Adelbert III of Dillingen Elisabeth, married Count Berthold II of Vohburg Mechtild, married in 1209 to Count Rapoto II of Ortenburg. Sophia, married Landgrave Hermann I of Thuringia Citations Bibliography
A meander is one of a series of regular sinuous curves, loops, turns, or windings in the channel of a river, stream, or other watercourse. It is produced by a stream or river swinging from side to side as it flows across its floodplain or shifts its channel within a valley. A meander is produced by a stream or river as it erodes the sediments comprising an outer, concave bank and deposits this and other sediment downstream on an inner, convex bank, a point bar; the result of sediments being eroded from the outside concave bank and their deposition on an inside convex bank is the formation of a sinuous course as a channel migrates back and forth across the down-valley axis of a floodplain. The zone within which a meandering stream shifts its channel across either its floodplain or valley floor from time to time is known as a meander belt, it ranges from 15 to 18 times the width of the channel. Over time, meanders migrate downstream, sometimes in such a short time as to create civil engineering problems for local municipalities attempting to maintain stable roads and bridges.
The degree of meandering of the channel of a river, stream, or other watercourse is measured by its sinuosity. The sinuosity of a watercourse is the ratio of the length of the channel to the straight line down-valley distance. Streams or rivers with a single channel and sinuosities of 1.5 or more are defined as meandering streams or rivers. The term derives from the Meander River located in present-day Turkey and known to the Ancient Greeks as Μαίανδρος Maiandros, characterised by a convoluted path along the lower reach; as a result in Classical Greece the name of the river had become a common noun meaning anything convoluted and winding, such as decorative patterns or speech and ideas, as well as the geomorphological feature. Strabo said: ‘…its course is so exceedingly winding that everything winding is called meandering.’The Meander River is south of Izmir, east of the ancient Greek town of Miletus, now Milet, Turkey. It flows through a graben in the Menderes Massif, but has a flood plain much wider than the meander zone in its lower reach.
Its modern Turkish name is the Büyük Menderes River. When a fluid is introduced to an straight channel which bends, the sidewalls induce a pressure gradient that causes the fluid to alter course and follow the bend. From here, two opposing processes occur: secondary flow. For a river to meander, secondary flow must dominate. Irrotational flow: From Bernoulli's equations, high pressure results in low velocity. Therefore, in the absence of secondary flow we would expect low fluid velocity at the outside bend and high fluid velocity at the inside bend; this classic fluid mechanics result is irrotational vortex flow. In the context of meandering rivers, its effects are dominated by those of secondary flow. Secondary flow: A force balance exists between pressure forces pointing to the inside bend of the river and centrifugal forces pointing to the outside bend of the river. In the context of meandering rivers, a boundary layer exists within the thin layer of fluid that interacts with the river bed. Inside that layer and following standard boundary-layer theory, the velocity of the fluid is zero.
Centrifugal force, which depends on velocity, is therefore zero. Pressure force, remains unaffected by the boundary layer. Therefore, within the boundary layer, pressure force dominates and fluid moves along the bottom of the river from the outside bend to the inside bend; this initiates helicoidal flow: Along the river bed, fluid follows the curve of the channel but is forced toward the inside bend. The downstream velocity of the fluid is convectively transported to the outside bend, resulting in higher velocities at the outside bend; this secondary flow effect dominates over that of irrotational flow: In real meandering rivers, we observe higher downstream fluid velocities at the outside bends. The higher velocities at the outside bend result in higher shear stresses and therefore results in erosion, thus meander bends erode at the outside bend, causing the river to becoming sinuous. Deposition at the inside bend occur such that for most natural meandering rivers, the river width remains nearly constant as the river evolves.
Where the is not forced to bend by a natural obstacle, Coriolis force of the earth can cause a small imbalance in velocity distribution such that velocity on one bank is higher than on the other. This can trigger deposition of sediment on the other; the technical description of a meandering watercourse is termed meander geometry or meander planform geometry. It is characterized as an irregular waveform. Ideal waveforms, such as a sine wave, are one line thick, but in the case of a stream the width must be taken into consideration; the bankfull width is the distance across the bed at an average cross-section at the full-stream level estimated by the line of lowest vegetation. As a waveform the meandering stream follows the down-valley axis, a straight line fitted to the curve such that the sum of all the amplitudes measured from it is zero; this axis represents the overall direction of the stream. At any cross-section the flow is following the centerline of the bed. Two consecutive crossing points of sinuous and down-valley axes define a meander loop.
The meander is two consecutive loops pointing in opposite transverse directions. The distance of one meander alo
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of humankind. It was preceded by the Bronze Age; the concept has been applied to Europe and the Ancient Near East, and, by analogy to other parts of the Old World. The duration of the Iron Age varies depending on the region under consideration, it is defined by archaeological convention, the mere presence of some cast or wrought iron is not sufficient to represent an Iron Age culture. For example, Tutankhamun's meteoric iron dagger comes from the Bronze Age. In the Ancient Near East, this transition takes place in the wake of the so-called Bronze Age collapse, in the 12th century BC; the technology soon spread to South Asia. Its further spread to Central Asia, Eastern Europe, Central Europe is somewhat delayed, Northern Europe is reached still by about 500 BC; the Iron Age is taken to end by convention, with the beginning of the historiographical record. This does not represent a clear break in the archaeological record.
The Germanic Iron Age of Scandinavia is taken to end c. AD 800, with the beginning of the Viking Age. In South Asia, the Iron Age is taken to begin with the ironworking Painted Gray Ware culture and to end with the reign of Ashoka; the use of the term "Iron Age" in the archaeology of South and Southeast Asia is more recent, less common, than for western Eurasia. The Sahel and Sub-Saharan Africa are outside of the three-age system, there being no Bronze Age, but the term "Iron Age" is sometimes used in reference to early cultures practicing ironworking such as the Nok culture of Nigeria; the three-age system was introduced in the first half of the 19th century for the archaeology of Europe in particular, by the 19th century expanded to the archaeology of the Ancient Near East. Its name harks back to the mythological "Ages of Man" of Hesiod; as an archaeological era it was first introduced for Scandinavia by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen in the 1830s. By the 1860s, it was embraced as a useful division of the "earliest history of mankind" in general and began to be applied in Assyriology.
The development of the now-conventional periodization in the archaeology of the Ancient Near East was developed in the 1920s to 1930s. As its name suggests, Iron Age technology is characterized by the production of tools and weaponry by ferrous metallurgy, more from carbon steel; the Iron Age in Europe is being seen as a part of the Bronze Age collapse in the ancient Near East, in ancient India, ancient Iran, ancient Greece. In other regions of Europe the Iron Age began in the 8th century BC in Central Europe and the 6th century BC in Northern Europe; the Near Eastern Iron Age is divided into two subsections, Iron I and Iron II. Iron I illustrates both discontinuity with the previous Late Bronze Age. There is no definitive cultural break between the 13th and 12th centuries BC throughout the entire region, although certain new features in the hill country and coastal region may suggest the appearance of the Aramaean and Sea People groups. There is evidence, however, of strong continuity with Bronze Age culture, although as one moves into Iron I the culture begins to diverge more from that of the late 2nd millennium.
The Iron Age as an archaeological period is defined as that part of the prehistory of a culture or region during which ferrous metallurgy was the dominant technology of metalworking. The periodization is not tied to the presence of ferrous metallurgy and is to some extent a matter of convention; the characteristic of an Iron Age culture is mass production of tools and weapons made from steel alloys with a carbon content between 0.30% and 1.2% by weight. Only with the capability of the production of carbon steel does ferrous metallurgy result in tools or weapons that are equal or superior to bronze. To this day bronze and brass have not been replaced in many applications, with the spread of steel being based as much on economics as on metallurgical advancements. A range of techniques have been used to produce steel from smelted iron, including techniques such as case-hardening and forge welding that were used to make cutting edges stronger. By convention, the Iron Age in the Ancient Near East is taken to last from c. 1200 BC to c. 550 BC, taken as the beginning of historiography or the end of the proto-historical period.
In Central and Western Europe, the Iron Age is taken to last from c. 800 BC to c. 1 BC, in Northern Europe from c. 500 BC to 800 AD. In China, there is no recognizable prehistoric period characterized by ironworking, as Bronze Age China transitions directly into the Qin dynasty of imperial China; the following gives an overview over the
The Befreiungshalle is a neoclassical monument on the Michelsberg hill above the town of Kelheim in Bavaria, Germany. It stands upstream of Regensburg on the river Danube at the confluence of the Danube and the Altmühl, i.e. the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal. It is just downstream of the Danube Gorge, towering above its lower end, it was commissioned by King Ludwig I of Bavaria to commemorate the victory over Napoleon in the Befreiungskriege of 1813-15. King Ludwig I of Bavaria ordered the Befreiungshalle to be built in order to commemorate the victories against Napoleon during the Wars of Liberation that lasted from 1813 to 1815; the construction was started in 1842 by Friedrich von Gärtner in a mixture of Neoclassical and Christian styles. It occurred on Michelsberg, in a place occupied by a part of the ruins of a pre-historic fortification or town, thought by some to have been Alcimoennis. At the behest of the King, Leo von Klenze altered the plans and completed the building in 1863; the ceremonial opening took place on 18 October 1863 – the 50th anniversary of the Battle of Nations near Leipzig.
The following dictum by King Ludwig I, embedded into the marble floor, commemorates the occasion of the construction of the Befreiungshalle: MOECHTEN DIE TEUTSCHEN NIE VERGESSEN WAS DEN BEFREIUNGSKAMPF NOTHWENDIG MACHTE UND WODURCH SIE GESIEGT. This inscription of dedication is to be found above the ornamented door frame of the entrance portal: DEN TEUTSCHEN BEFREIUNGSKAEMPFERN LUDWIG I KOENIG VON BAYERNFor the celebration of the first stone laying on 19 October Ludwig I had written a poem dedicated to the soldiers who had fought in the Napoleonic Wars. Joseph Hartmann Stutz had set it to music: The hall is open to the public, but restoration work on the façade is expected to continue until the end of 2017; the upper exterior gallery is closed to visitors. Völkerschlachtdenkmal Walhalla temple Ruhmeshalle Heldenberg Memorial Prussian National Monument for the Liberation Wars, Germany Official Website Befreiungshalle – Photos
Wheat beer is a beer top-fermented, brewed with a large proportion of wheat relative to the amount of malted barley. The two main varieties are Weissbier, based on the German tradition, Witbier, based on the Belgian tradition. Two common varieties of wheat beer are Weißbier based on the German tradition of mixing at least 50% wheat to barley malt to make a light coloured top-fermenting beer, witbier based on the Belgian tradition of using flavorings such as coriander and orange peel. Belgian white beers are made with raw unmalted wheat, as opposed to the malted wheat used in other varieties. Both German Weißbier and Belgian witbier are termed "white beers" because "wheat" has the same etymological root as "white" in most West Germanic languages. U. S. Brewers and Canadian brewers follow both of the main wheat beer traditions with greater variation. In Britain, wheat beer is not considered traditional; this is in line with the rising sales of other speciality products. It tends to be a hybrid of the continental style with an English bitter, rather than an exact emulation.
Other minor wheat beer styles such as Berliner Weiße, Lambic are made with a significant proportion of wheat. Weizenbier or Hefeweizen, in the southern parts of Bavaria called Weißbier, is a beer, traditionally from Bavaria, in which a significant proportion of malted barley is replaced with malted wheat. By German law, Weißbiers brewed in Germany must be fermented using a "top-fermenting" yeast, technically an "ale yeast". Specialized strains of yeast are used which produce overtones of banana and clove as by-products of fermentation. Weißbier is so called because it was, at the time of its inception, paler in color than Munich's traditional brown beer, it is well known throughout Germany. The terms Hefeweizen or Hefeweißbier refer to wheat beer in its unfiltered form; the term Kristallweizen, or kristall Weiß, refers to a wheat beer, filtered to remove the yeast and wheat proteins which contribute to its cloudy appearance. The Hefeweizen style is noted for its low hop bitterness and high carbonation, considered important to balance the beer's malty sweetness.
Another balancing flavor note unique to Hefeweizen beer is its phenolic character. Hefeweizen's phenolic character has been described as "clove" and "medicinal" but smoky. Other more typical but less assertive flavour notes produced by Weißbier yeast include "banana", "bubble gum", sometimes "vanilla". Weißbier is available in a number of other forms, including Dunkelweizen and Weizenstarkbier referred to as Weizenbock; the dark wheat varieties are made with darker, more kilned malts. The Weizenbocks have a much higher alcohol content than their lighter cousins; the four largest brands in Germany are Erdinger, Paulaner and Maisel. Other renowned brands are Augustiner, Weihenstephaner and Andechser. Regional brands in Bavaria are Hopf, Ayinger and Plank. Aventinus is an example of Weizen Doppelbock and darker version of Weizenbock, made by the G. Schneider & Sohn brewery in Kelheim. British brewers producing cask-conditioned varieties include Oakleaf Eichenblatt Bitte, Hoskins White Dolphin, Fyfe Weiss Squad and Oakham White Dwarf.
Witbier, white beer, bière blanche, or witte is a barley/wheat, top-fermented beer brewed in Belgium and the Netherlands. It gets its name due to suspended yeast and wheat proteins which cause the beer to look hazy, or white, when cold, it is a descendant from those medieval beers which were flavored and preserved with a blend of spices and other plants such as coriander and bitter orange referred to as "gruit" instead of using hops. The style was revived by Pierre Celis at the Hoegaarden Brewery in Belgium and the Celis Brewery in Austin, is traditionally made with up to 50% raw wheat rather than wheat malt; the beers have a somewhat sour taste due to the presence of lactic acid or acetic acid, much more pronounced in the past than today. The suspended yeast in the beer causes some continuing fermentation in the bottle. A minor variety of wheat beer is represented by Berliner Weiße, low in alcohol and intentionally tart. Sweetened syrups of lemon, raspberry or woodruff herb are added before drinking.
Leipziger Gose is similar to Berliner Weiße but stronger at around 4% ABV. Its ingredients include salt, which are unusual for German beers. Belgian Lambic is made with wheat and barley, but differs from nearly all beers in the use of wild yeast for spontaneous fermentation. A variation on the barley wine style involves adding a large quantity of wheat to the mash bill, resulting in what is referred to as wheat wine; this style originated in the United States in the 1980s. Wheat beers vary in name according to the place in which they are brewed and small variations in the recipe. Among those used are: Weißbier, short Weiße: "Weiß" is German for "white"