The Miami Marlins are an American professional baseball team based in Miami, Florida. They compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the National League East division, their home park is Marlins Park. Though one of only two MLB franchises to have never won a division title, the Marlins have won two World Series championships as a wild card team; the team began play as an expansion team in the 1993 season as the Florida Marlins and played home games from their inaugural season to the 2012 season at what was called Joe Robbie Stadium, which they shared with the Miami Dolphins of the National Football League. Since the 2012 season, they have played at Marlins Park in downtown Miami, on the site of the former Orange Bowl; the new park, unlike their previous home, was designed foremost as a baseball park. Per an agreement with the city and Miami-Dade County, the Marlins changed their name to the "Miami Marlins" on November 11, 2011, they adopted a new logo, color scheme, uniforms. The Marlins have the distinction of winning a World Series championship in both seasons they qualified for the postseason, doing so in 1997 and 2003—both times as the National League wild card team.
They defeated the American League champion Cleveland Indians in the 1997 World Series, with shortstop Édgar Rentería driving in second baseman Craig Counsell for the series-clinching run in the 11th inning of the seventh and deciding game. In the 2003 season, manager Jeff Torborg was fired after 38 games; the Marlins were in last place in the NL East with a 16–22 record at the time. Torborg's successor, 72-year-old Jack McKeon, led them to the NL wild card berth in the postseason. Wayne Huizenga, CEO of Blockbuster Entertainment Corporation, was awarded an expansion franchise in the National League for a $95 million expansion fee and the team began operations in 1993 as the Florida Marlins; the Marlins qualified for the postseason and won the World Series in 1997 and 2003, but both titles were followed by controversial periods where the team sold off all the high-priced players and rebuilt. Although they followed their 2003 World Series win with a stretch in which the team posted winning records in four of the next six seasons, along with a surprise 2006 season in which they exceeded expectations and stayed in the postseason race until September, the team has had the least number of winning seasons of any Major League Baseball franchise, with just six.
They are one of only two current MLB teams. The Marlins moved into their new ballpark, Marlins Park in 2012, which coincided with a change in the team colors/uniforms and name to the Miami Marlins; the Marlins are the only team to win a World Series in their first two winning seasons. In those two seasons, they managed to make a surprise run to the World Series, both times as heavy underdogs, they are the only team to never lose a postseason series. No-Hitters: Marlins pitchers have pitched six no-hitters in team regular-season history, five coming against teams in the NL West and one against a team from the American League. Hitting for the cycle: No Marlins player has hit for the cycle in franchise history. See also: List of Major League Baseball retired numbers § Alternative methods of recognition. From 1993 until 2011, the Marlins had retired the number 5 in honor of Carl Barger, the first president of the Florida Marlins, who had passed away prior to the team's inaugural season. Barger's favorite player was Joe DiMaggio, thus the selection of number 5.
With the move to the new ballpark, the team opted to honor Barger with a plaque. Logan Morrison, a Kansas City native and fan of Royals Hall-of-Famer George Brett, became the first Marlins player to wear the number. After José Fernández's death as a result of a boating accident on September 25, 2016, the Miami Marlins announced plans to build a memorial at Marlins Park in his honor. However, Fernández's number 16 has yet to be retired; the Marlins began construction of a new, state-of-the-art stadium at the Miami Orange Bowl site on July 18, 2009. The now approved stadium was the subject of a protracted legal battle. A lawsuit by local automobile franchise mogul and former Philadelphia Eagles owner Norman Braman contested the legality of the deal with Miami-Dade County and the City of Miami. However, Miami-Dade County Judge Beth Cohen dismissed all the charges in Braman's lawsuit; the seating capacity for Marlins Park is 36,742, making it the third-smallest stadium in the MLB. Its first regular season game was April 4, 2012, against the St. Louis Cardinals, the ballpark became only the sixth MLB stadium to have a retractable roof, joining Rogers Centre in Toronto, Chase Field in Phoenix, T-Mobile Park in Seattle, Minute Maid Park in Houston, Miller Park in Milwaukee.
As part of the new stadium agreement, the team renamed itself the Miami Marlins on November 11, 2011 and unveiled new uniforms and team logo in time for the move to the new stadium in 2012. Until a naming-rights deal is reached, the park will be known as Marlins Park; the Marlins' flagship radio station from their inception in 1993 through 2007 was WQAM 560 AM. Although the Marlins had plans to leave WQAM after 2006, they remained with WQAM for the 2007 season. On October 11, 2007, the Marlins announced an agreement with WAXY 790 AM to broadcast all games for th
Daniel Scott Kooistra is a former American football offensive tackle. He played college football at North Carolina State and was drafted by the Cincinnati Bengals in the seventh round of the 2003 NFL Draft. Kooistra was a member of the Cleveland Browns, Baltimore Ravens and Minnesota Vikings. Kooistra played high school football for Cary High School in North Carolina. Kooistra attended North Carolina State University where he started every game as a tackle as a junior and a senior; as a senior in 2002, Kooistra was starting tackle for team that posted 11–3 record, capped by a win in the Gator Bowl. He was a History major while at NC State. Kooistra was drafted by the Cincinnati Bengals in the seventh round of the 2003 NFL Draft, he made his NFL debut versus the Denver Broncos on September 7. In his first season, he played in eight games. In 2004, he played in both the 2005 and 2006 seasons he played in 15 games. On January 30, 2007, Kooistra was tendered a 3-year deal with the Bengals keeping him in Cincinnati through the 2009 season.
Kooistra was waived by the Bengals on November 3, 2009. He was re-signed on November 9, but waived again on November 24. Kooistra signed with the Cleveland Browns on December 22, 2009 after quarterback Brady Quinn was placed on injured reserve. Kooistra was waived on December 26. Kooista was re-signed on December 29 after the team waived linebacker Arnold Harrison, but waived again on January 1, 2010 after defensive end Titus Adams was claimed off waivers. Kooistra was re-signed to a future contract by the Browns on January 5, 2010. Kooistra was cut on September 4. Kooistra signed with the Baltimore Ravens on October 5, 2010. Cincinnati Bengals bio Cleveland Browns bio
History of the San Diego Chargers
The professional American football team now known as the Los Angeles Chargers played in San Diego, California as the San Diego Chargers from 1961 to 2017 before relocating back to Los Angeles where the team played their inaugural 1960. The Chargers franchise relocated from Los Angeles to San Diego in 1961; the Chargers' first home game in San Diego was at Balboa Stadium against the Oakland Raiders on September 17, 1961. Their last game as a San Diego-based club was played at Qualcomm Stadium in San Diego on January 1, 2017 against the Kansas City Chiefs, who defeated the host Chargers, 30–13; the Chargers played in four of the first five AFL national championship games -- winning once. In the early years, the wide receiver, Lance Alworth made 543 receptions for 10,266 yards in his career of eleven AFL and NFL seasons, he made a record at ninety-six consecutive games with a reception. With players such as Alworth, Paul Lowe, Keith Lincoln and John Hadl, the Chargers reached the AFL championship game four times and won it once.
In 1959, the team began as the "Los Angeles Chargers" when they entered the American Football League, joining seven other teams: the Denver Broncos, Dallas Texans, Oakland Raiders, New York Titans, Houston Oilers, Buffalo Bills, Boston Patriots. The Chargers' first owner was Barron Hilton, the son of Conrad Hilton, founder of the Hilton Hotels corporation. Lamar Hunt, instrumental in organizing the AFL, said that he had asked Gene Mako for a suggestion for somebody to start a team in Los Angeles and he recommended Hilton. Hunt said that he visited Hilton for less than an hour and Hilton agreed to start a team. Barron Hilton held a contest to find a name for his team; the prize was a trip to Mexico. A man from Hollywood named Gerald Courtney won. Conrad Hilton said, "I liked because they were yelling "charge" and sounding the bugle at Dodger Stadium and at USC games". Hunt said he thought Hilton picked the team name from the first batch of letters as publicity for his new charge account business Carte Blanche.
The team's first general manager was a former University of Notre Dame football coach. The team's first head coach was Sid Gillman from the Los Angeles Rams, his strength lay in offense innovation and he was honoured in the Hall of Fame. Gillman signed a contract with the team for three years; when Frank Leahy resigned due to poor health, Gillman became the general manager in addition to his coaching role. The Chargers planned to play at the Rose Bowl, but instead signed a lease to play at the Los Angeles Coliseum; the Chargers were to host the first AFL national championship game at the Los Angeles Coliseum in 1961. However, as its attendance for home games was falling below 10,000 league and ABC television officials fearing that showing empty seats in the 100,000+ seat Coliseum might jeopardize the entire league persuaded the Chargers to give up the advantage and move the game to Houston. In December 1960, reports surfaced that Chargers were considering relocation offers from San Diego and Seattle.
Greg Gregston of the San Diego Union reported that the Chargers "have learned in one season that Los Angeles has been saturated beyond sensible proportions with sports." In January 1961, the team announced the move to Balboa Stadium in San Diego. Hilton was reported to have lost $900,000 in the first season. San Diego would spend $250,000 to increase stadium seating from 22,000 to 30,000; the Junior Chamber Commerce reported. Seating was increased more in May 1961 with upper deck bring the total capacity to 34,000. By Detroit native George Pernicano had become a minor shareholder in the team. In the 1961 season, their first in San Diego, the team's defense made forty-nine pass interceptions; the term, "Fearsome Foursome" described the 1961 Chargers' defensive players' lineup. The anchoring players were Ernie Ladd; the "Fearsome Foursome" phrase was used by other NFL teams. In 1961, the Chargers lost the championship to Houston by ten points to three with 29,556 patrons attending the game at Balboa Stadium.
In 1962, the team won four games and lost ten, including eight of the final nine games of the season. This was due to injuries. In the 1963 season, eight Charger players scored in the final week. Paul Lowe rushed over 183 yards, scoring 2 touchdowns on 17 carries. In the championship game, the Chargers beat Denver 58 points to 20 and became the AFL West champions; the season ended a week late due to a postponement of games after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963; the Chargers won the 1963 AFL title when they defeated the Boston Patriots 51 points to 10. Spectators numbering 30,127 attended the game at Balboa Stadium. Keith Lincoln's effort made up 349 yards of the total offense. In 1964, the Chargers played the New York Jets resulting in 17 points each. 50,222 spectators attended the game at New York. The game earned $46,828 in entrance fees. On Thanksgiving Day, Buffalo defeated the Chargers 27-24 at Balboa Stadium; the attendance was 34,865 spectators. The Chargers won their fourth AFL West title by defeating the Jets 38-3 before 25,753 spectators at Balboa Stadium.
Lance Alworth left the game with a knee injury, the fullback, Keith Lincoln was sidelined in the first quarter with a fractured rib. At the 1964 championship game in Buffalo, the Chargers were beaten 20-7; the AFL teams signed a five-year tel
New York Jets
The New York Jets are a professional American football team located in the New York metropolitan area. The Jets compete in the National Football League as a member club of the league's American Football Conference East division; the team is headquartered in New Jersey. In a unique arrangement for the league, the Jets share MetLife Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey with the New York Giants; the franchise is and corporately registered as New York Jets, LLC. The team was founded in 1959 as the Titans of New York, an original member of the American Football League; the team began to play in 1960 at the Polo Grounds. Under new ownership, the current name was adopted in 1963 and the franchise moved to Shea Stadium in 1964 and to the Meadowlands Sports Complex in 1984; the Jets advanced to the playoffs for the first time in 1968 and went on to compete in Super Bowl III where they defeated the Baltimore Colts, becoming the first AFL team to defeat an NFL club in an AFL–NFL World Championship Game.
Since 1968, the Jets have appeared in the playoffs 13 times, in the AFC Championship Game four times, most losing to the Pittsburgh Steelers in 2010. However, the Jets have never returned to the Super Bowl, making them one of three NFL teams to win their lone Super Bowl appearance, along with the New Orleans Saints and Tampa Bay Buccaneers. Apart from the Cleveland Browns and Detroit Lions, who have never reached the Super Bowl, the Jets' drought is the longest among current NFL franchises; the team's training facility, Atlantic Health Jets Training Center, which opened in 2008, is located in Florham Park. The team holds their annual training camp sessions in Florham Park, New Jersey; the first organizational meeting of the American Football League took place on August 14, 1959. Harry Wismer, representing the city of New York at the meeting, proclaimed the state was ready for another professional football team and that he was more than capable of running the daily operations. Wismer was granted the charter franchise dubbed the Titans of New York as Wismer explained, "Titans are bigger and stronger than Giants."
He secured the Titans' home field at the decrepit Polo Grounds, where the team struggled financially and on the field during its first three years. By 1962, the debt continued to mount for Wismer, forcing the AFL to assume the costs of the team until season's end. A five-man syndicate, headed by Sonny Werblin, saved the team from certain bankruptcy, purchasing the lowly Titans for $1 million. Werblin renamed the team the New York Jets since the team would play in Shea Stadium near LaGuardia Airport; the new name was intended to reflect the modern approach of his team. The Jets' owners hired Weeb Ewbank as the general head coach. Ewbank and quarterback Joe Namath led the Jets to prominence in 1969, when New York defeated the favored Baltimore Colts in Super Bowl III and solidified the AFL's position in the world of professional football; when the AFL and NFL merged, the team fell into a state of mediocrity along with their star quarterback, who only had three successful post-merger seasons after injuries hampered much of his career.
The Jets continued to spiral downward before enjoying a string of successes in the 1980s, which included an appearance in the 1982 AFC Championship Game, the emergence of the popular New York Sack Exchange. The early 1990s saw the team struggling. After firing coach Bruce Coslet, owner Leon Hess hired Pete Carroll who struggled to a 6–10 record and was promptly fired at the end of the season. Thereafter, Rich Kotite was selected to lead the team to victory. Kotite stepped down at the end of his second season forcing the Jets to search for a new head coach. Hess lured then-disgruntled New England Patriots head coach Bill Parcells to New York in 1997. Parcells led the team back to relevance and coached them to the AFC Championship Game in 1998. Hess died in 1999 while the team, plagued by injuries, produced an eight win record, falling short of a playoff berth. At the end of the season, Parcells stepped down as head coach deferring control to his assistant, Bill Belichick; the franchise obtained a new owner in Woody Johnson in 2000.
Additionally, through the 2000s the Jets visited the playoffs five times, a franchise record, under the direction of three different coaches. Rex Ryan was hired in January 2009. Ryan led the team to back-to-back AFC Championship appearances during his first two years but the team never made the playoffs again during his tenure. Harry Wismer, a businessman, had been interested in sports for much of his life when he was granted a charter franchise in the American Football League. A three-sport letterman, football stuck with Wismer who went on to play for the University of Florida and Michigan State University before a knee injury ended his playing career. Undeterred, Wismer began his career as a broadcaster with Michigan State and became a pioneer of the industry; as the Titans owner, Wismer formulated a league-wide policy which allowed broadcasting rights to be shared among the teams. Wismer, who had had a 25% stake in the Washington Redskins, was interested in the American Football League and was given a franchise to develop in New York.
Wismer, whose philosophy was who you knew mattered most, tried to make the team and the league a success. His efforts began to accrue debt as the Titans' first two
University of Tennessee
The University of Tennessee is a public research university in Knoxville, Tennessee. Founded in 1794, two years before Tennessee became the 16th state, it is the flagship campus of the University of Tennessee system, with ten undergraduate colleges and eleven graduate colleges, it hosts 28,000 students from all 50 states and more than 100 foreign countries. In its 2019 universities ranking, U. S. News & World Report ranked UT 115th among all national universities and 52nd among public institutions of higher learning. Seven alumni have been selected as Rhodes Scholars. James M. Buchanan, M. S.'41, received the 1986 Nobel Prize in Economics. UT's ties to nearby Oak Ridge National Laboratory, established under UT President Andrew Holt and continued under the UT–Battelle partnership, allow for considerable research opportunities for faculty and students. Affiliated with the university are the Howard H. Baker Jr. Center for Public Policy, the University of Tennessee Anthropological Research Facility, the University of Tennessee Arboretum, which occupies 250 acres of nearby Oak Ridge and features hundreds of species of plants indigenous to the region.
The university is a direct partner of the University of Tennessee Medical Center, one of two Level I trauma centers in East Tennessee. The University of Tennessee is the only university in the nation to have three presidential papers editing projects; the university holds collections of the papers of all three U. S. presidents from Tennessee—Andrew Jackson, James K. Polk, Andrew Johnson. UT is one of the oldest public universities in the United States and the oldest secular institution west of the Eastern Continental Divide. On September 10, 1794, two years before Tennessee became a state and at a meeting of the legislature of the Southwest Territory at Knoxville, the University of Tennessee was chartered as Blount College; the new, all-male, non-sectarian institution struggled for 13 years with a small student body and faculty, in 1807, the school was rechartered as East Tennessee College as a condition of receiving the proceeds from the settlement devised in the Compact of 1806. When Samuel Carrick, its first president and only faculty member, died in 1809, the school was temporarily closed until 1820.
When it reopened, it began experiencing growing pains. Thomas Jefferson had recommended that the college leave its confining single building in the city and relocate to a place it could spread out. Coincidentally, in the Summer of 1826, the trustees explored "Barbara Hill" as a potential site and relocated there by 1828. In 1840, the college was elevated to East Tennessee University; the school's status as a religiously non-affiliated institution of higher learning was unusual for the period of time in which it was chartered, the school is recognized as the oldest such establishment of its kind west of the Appalachian Divide. Tennessee was a member of the Confederacy in 1862 when the Morrill Act was passed, providing for endowment funds from the sale of federal land to state agricultural colleges. On February 28, 1867, Congress passed a special Act making the State of Tennessee eligible to participate in the Morrill Act of 1862 program. In January 1869, ETU was designated as Tennessee's recipient of the Land-Grant designation and funds.
In accepting the funds, the university would focus upon instructing students in military and mechanical subjects. ETU received $396,000 as its endowment under the program. Trustees soon approved the establishment of a medical program under the auspices of the Nashville School of Medicine and added advanced degree programs. East Tennessee University was renamed the University of Tennessee in 1879 by the state legislature. During World War II, UT was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. African-American attorney Rita Sanders Geier filed suit against the state of Tennessee in 1968 alleging that its higher education system remained segregated despite a federal mandate ordering desegregation, she claimed that the opening of a University of Tennessee campus at Nashville, Tennessee would lead to the creation of another predominantly white institution that would strip resources from Tennessee State University, the only state-funded Historically black university.
The suit was not settled until 2001, when the Geier Consent Decree resulted in the appropriation of $77 million in state funding to increase diversity among student and faculty populations among all Tennessee institutions of higher learning. The University of Tennessee at Knoxville is the flagship campus of the statewide University of Tennessee system, governed by a 26-member board of trustees appointed by the Governor of Tennessee; the campus is headed by a Chancellor who functions as the chief executive officer of the campus, responsible for its daily administration and management. The chancellor reports to the president of the university system and is elected annually by the UT Board of Trustees at the recommendation of the system president. Joseph A. DiPietro has been system president since January 1, 2011 until December 2018. Randy Boyd, a former candidate for governor, was appointed interim president while a search has been convened. Provost and Senior Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs Susan D. Martin is responsible for the academic administration of the Knoxville campus and reports directly to the Chancellor.
On December 15, 2016, the UT Board of Trustees confirmed Beverly J. Davenport as the next Chancellor of the Knoxville campus, succeeding Jimmy Cheek, she began her role on February
2008 NFL season
The 2008 NFL season was the 89th regular season of the National Football League, themed with the slogan "Believe in Now." Super Bowl XLIII, the league's championship game, was at Raymond James Stadium in Tampa, Florida, on February 1, 2009, with the Pittsburgh Steelers coming out victorious over the Arizona Cardinals 27–23 and winning their NFL-record sixth Vince Lombardi Trophy. Conversely, the Detroit Lions became the first NFL team with a winless season since the strike-shortened 1982 NFL season, finishing their season 0–16. For the first time since the NFL expanded to the sixteen game season in 1978, three teams won two or fewer games: the Lions, the Kansas City Chiefs and the St. Louis Rams. Two teams won two or fewer games in 1979, 1981, 1983, 1985, 1992 and 2001; the regular season began on September 4 with the defending Super Bowl champion New York Giants defeating the Washington Redskins 16–7, concluded with the 2009 Pro Bowl on February 8, 2009, in Honolulu. The following rule changes were passed at the league's annual owners’ meeting in Palm Beach, during the week of March 31: One defensive player will be allowed to wear a radio similar to the one worn by the quarterback to communicate with the coaching staff on the field.
The "force-out" rule on catches made near the sidelines has been eliminated. A receiver now must come down with both feet in bounds for a pass to be ruled complete. However, if a receiver is wrapped up in mid-air by a defender and carried out of bounds before both feet touch the ground, the official can still rule the play a completion; the 5-yard incidental grabbing of the face mask penalty has been eliminated. Teams that win the opening coin toss now have the option to defer the decision until the start of the second half, the same as in college and Canadian football. Field goal attempts that bounce off the goal post are now reviewable under instant replay; this change followed a decision during the previous season during a Browns-Ravens game when Phil Dawson’s game-tying field goal hit an upright and the curved support behind the crossbar, again went over the crossbar to land in front of the goal post. Legal forward hand offs that touch the ground and attempted snaps when the ball hits the ground before the quarterback touches it are now considered fumbles.
Gerald Austin and Larry Nemmers retired. Carl Cheffers and Alberto Riveron were promoted to referee; this was the third season under the league's current television contracts with its American broadcast partners. CBS Sports and Fox Sports televised Sunday afternoon NFC away games, respectively. For primetime games, NBC broadcast ESPN airs Monday Night Football; the NFL Network's Run to the Playoffs broadcast seven Thursday and one Saturday late season night games, although there were negotiations to move those games to ESPN Classic. This was the last NFL season to be broadcast over the air in analog television in the United States. Border stations in Canada and Mexico will continue to broadcast in analog. NBC broadcast Super Bowl XLIII, their first Super Bowl since Super Bowl XXXII at the end of the 1997 season. ESPN reduced the on-air roles of sideline reporters Michele Tafoya and Suzy Kolber during the Monday Night Football telecast. Emmitt Smith has been replaced on Sunday NFL Countdown by Cris Carter, who came over from HBO.
Meanwhile, NBC's Football Night in America reunited Dan Patrick with Keith Olbermann on television for the first time since 1997 when they co-hosted SportsCenter. The in-house NFL Network saw Bryant Gumbel resign as their play-by-play announcer after two seasons on the network's Run to the Playoffs package after critics described his play-by-play calling as "lackluster." New York Giants radio announcer Bob Papa took his place. Additionally, NFL Films-produced Inside the NFL changed premium cable homes from Time Warner's HBO after three decades to CBS’ Showtime. Changed: James Brown as host and Phil Simms as one of the analysts. Cris Collinsworth is staying, but Dan Marino has been dropped as a studio analyst, the aforementioned Cris Carter moved to ESPN. Taking their place is Warren Sapp. On December 4, the NFL Network broadcast its game between the Oakland Raiders and the San Diego Chargers to theaters in New York City and Los Angeles using state of the art 3-D technology; the viewings, which were limited to NFL and consumer electronics executives, served as a test for future use of 3D in NFL television games.
Because of a technical glitch, the first half was not shown. On radio, Westwood One separated from its longtime corporate sister, CBS Radio and the Sports USA Radio Network, another syndicator, has been sold along with parent company Jones Radio Networks to the Triton Media Group.. This led to the former "NFL on Westwood One" giving way in 2011 to "NFL on Dial Global". On Internet television, both NFL.com and NBCSports.com carried complete live games of NBC Sunday Night Football for the first time ever. NFL.com continued its live coverage of Thursday and Saturday Night Football, which began in 2007, however for the first time the complete game rather than live look-i
The Baltimore Ravens are a professional American football team based in Baltimore, Maryland. The Ravens compete in the National Football League as a member club of the American Football Conference North division; the team is headquartered in Owings Mills. The Ravens were established in 1996, after Art Modell, the owner of the Cleveland Browns, announced plans to relocate the franchise from Cleveland to Baltimore in 1995; as part of a settlement between the league and the city of Cleveland, Modell was required to leave the Browns' history and records in Cleveland for a replacement team and replacement personnel that would take control in 1999. In return, he was allowed to take his own personnel and team to Baltimore, where such personnel would form an expansion team; the Ravens have qualified for the NFL playoffs eleven times since 2000, with two Super Bowl victories, two AFC Championship titles, 15 playoff victories, four AFC Championship game appearances, five AFC North division titles, are the only team in the NFL to hold a perfect record in multiple Super Bowl appearances.
The Ravens organization was led by general manager Ozzie Newsome from 1996 until his retirement following the 2018 season, has had three head coaches: Ted Marchibroda, Brian Billick, John Harbaugh. With a record-breaking defensive unit in their 2000 season, the team established a reputation for relying on strong defensive play, led by players like middle linebacker Ray Lewis, until his retirement, was considered the "face of the franchise." The team is owned by Steve Bisciotti and valued at $2.5 billion, making the Ravens the 27th-most valuable sports franchise in the world. The name "Ravens" was inspired by Edgar Allan Poe's poem The Raven. Chosen in a fan contest that drew 33,288 voters, the allusion honors Poe, who spent the early part of his career in Baltimore and is buried there; as the Baltimore Sun reported at the time, fans "liked the tie-in with the other birds in town, the Orioles, found it easy to visualize a tough, menacing black bird." After the controversial relocation of the Colts to Indianapolis, several attempts were made to bring an NFL team back to Baltimore.
In 1993, ahead of the 1995 league expansion, the city was considered a favorite, behind only St. Louis, to be granted one of two new franchises. League officials and team owners feared litigation due to conflicts between rival bidding groups if St. Louis was awarded a franchise, in October Charlotte, North Carolina was the first city chosen. Several weeks Baltimore's bid for a franchise—dubbed the Baltimore Bombers, in honor of the locally produced Martin B-26 Marauder bomber—had three ownership groups in place and a state financial package which included a proposed $200 million, rent-free stadium and permission to charge up to $80 million in personal seat license fees. Baltimore, was unexpectedly passed over in favor of Jacksonville, despite Jacksonville's minor TV market status and that the city had withdrawn from contention in the summer, only to return with then-Commissioner Paul Tagliabue's urging. Although league officials denied that any city had been favored, it was reported that Taglibue and his longtime friend Washington Redskins owner Jack Kent Cooke had lobbied against Baltimore due to its proximity to Washington, D.
C. and that Taglibue had used the initial committee voting system to prevent the entire league ownership from voting on Baltimore's bid. This led to public outrage and the Baltimore Sun describing Taglibue as having an "Anybody But Baltimore" policy. Maryland governor William Donald Schaefer said afterward that Taglibue had led him on, praising Baltimore and the proposed owners while working behind-the-scenes to oppose Baltimore's bid. By May 1994, Baltimore Orioles owner Peter Angelos had gathered a new group of investors, including author Tom Clancy, to bid on teams whose owners had expressed interest in relocating. Angelos found a potential partner in Georgia Frontiere, open to moving the Los Angeles Rams to Baltimore. Jack Kent Cooke opposed the move, intending to build the Redskins' new stadium in Laurel, close enough to Baltimore to cool outside interest in bringing in a new franchise; this led to heated arguments between Cooke and Angelos, who accused Cooke of being a "carpetbagger." The league persuaded Rams team president John Shaw to relocate to St. Louis instead, leading to a league-wide rumor that Tagliabue was again steering interest away from Baltimore, a claim which Tagliabue denied.
In response to anger in Baltimore, including Governor Schaefer's threat to announce over the loudspeakers Tagliabue's exact location in Camden Yards any time he attended a Baltimore Orioles game, Tagliabue remarked of Baltimore's financial package: "Maybe can open another museum with that money." Following this, Angelos made an unsuccessful $200 million bid to bring the Tampa Bay Buccaneers to Baltimore. Having failed to obtain a franchise via the expansion, the city, despite having "misgivings," turned to the possibility of obtaining the Cleveland Browns, whose owner Art Modell was financially struggling and at odds with the city of Cleveland over needed improvements to the team's stadium. Enticed by Baltimore's available funds for a first-class stadium and a promised yearly operating subsidy of $25 million, Modell announced on November 6, 1995 his intention to relocate the team from Cleveland to Baltimore the following year; the resulting controversy ended when representatives of Cleveland and the NFL reached a settlement on February 8, 1996.
Tagliabue promised the city of Cleveland that an NFL team would be located