The London Gazette
The London Gazette is one of the official journals of record of the British government, the most important among such official journals in the United Kingdom, in which certain statutory notices are required to be published. The London Gazette claims to be the oldest surviving English newspaper and the oldest continuously published newspaper in the UK, having been first published on 7 November 1665 as The Oxford Gazette; this claim is made by the Stamford Mercury and Berrow's Worcester Journal, because The Gazette is not a conventional newspaper offering general news coverage. It does not have a large circulation. Other official newspapers of the UK government are The Edinburgh Gazette and The Belfast Gazette, apart from reproducing certain materials of nationwide interest published in The London Gazette contain publications specific to Scotland and Northern Ireland, respectively. In turn, The London Gazette carries not only notices of UK-wide interest, but those relating to entities or people in England and Wales.
However, certain notices that are only of specific interest to Scotland or Northern Ireland are required to be published in The London Gazette. The London and Belfast Gazettes are published by TSO on behalf of Her Majesty's Stationery Office, they are subject to Crown copyright. The London Gazette is published each weekday, except for bank holidays. Notices for the following, among others, are published: Granting of royal assent to bills of the Parliament of the United Kingdom or of the Scottish Parliament The issuance of writs of election when a vacancy occurs in the House of Commons Appointments to certain public offices Commissions in the Armed Forces and subsequent promotion of officers Corporate and personal insolvency Granting of awards of honours and military medals Changes of names or of coats of arms Royal Proclamations and other DeclarationsHer Majesty's Stationery Office has digitised all issues of the Gazette, these are available online; the official Gazettes are published by The Stationery Office.
The content, apart from insolvency notices, is available in a number of machine-readable formats, including XML and XML/RDFa via Atom feed. The London Gazette was first published as The Oxford Gazette on 7 November 1665. Charles II and the Royal Court had moved to Oxford to escape the Great Plague of London, courtiers were unwilling to touch London newspapers for fear of contagion; the Gazette was "Published by Authority" by Henry Muddiman, its first publication is noted by Samuel Pepys in his diary. The King returned to London as the plague dissipated, the Gazette moved too, with the first issue of The London Gazette being published on 5 February 1666; the Gazette was not a newspaper in the modern sense: it was sent by post to subscribers, not printed for sale to the general public. Her Majesty's Stationery Office took over the publication of the Gazette in 1889. Publication of the Gazette was transferred to the private sector, under government supervision, in the 1990s, when HMSO was sold and renamed The Stationery Office.
In time of war, despatches from the various conflicts are published in The London Gazette. People referred to are said to have been mentioned in despatches; when members of the armed forces are promoted, these promotions are published here, the person is said to have been "gazetted". Being "gazetted" sometimes meant having official notice of one's bankruptcy published, as in the classic ten-line poem comparing the stolid tenant farmer of 1722 to the lavishly spending faux-genteel farmers of 1822: Notices of engagement and marriage were formerly published in the Gazette. Gazettes, modelled on The London Gazette, were issued for most British colonial possessions. History of British newspapers Iris Oifigiúil The Dublin Gazette – in Ireland London Gazette index Official Journal of the European Union List of government gazettes London and Belfast Gazettes official site Great Fire of London 1666 – Facsimile and transcript of London Gazette report
Gentry are "well-born and well-bred people" of high social class in the past. In the United Kingdom, the term gentry refers to the landed gentry, the majority of the land-owning social class who were armigerous, but did not have titles of nobility. Gentry, in its widest connotation, refers to people of good social position connected to landed estates, upper levels of the clergy, "gentle" families of long descent who never obtained the official right to bear a coat of arms; the historical term gentry by itself, so Peter Coss argues, is a construct that historians have applied loosely to rather different societies. Any particular model may not fit a specific society, yet a single definition remains desirable. Linguistically, the word gentry arose to identify the social stratum created by the small number, by the standards of Continental Europe, of the Peerage of England, of the parts of Britain, where nobility and titles are inherited by a single person, rather than the family, as usual in Europe.
Before creation of the gentry, there were analogous traditional social elites. The adjective patrician describes the governing elites in a medieval metropolis, such as those of the free cities of Italy, the free imperial cities of Germany and Switzerland, the Hanseatic League, which were different from the gentry; the Indo-Europeans who settled Europe and Western Asia and the Indian subcontinent conceived their societies to be ordered in a tripartite fashion, the three parts being castes. Castes came to be further divided as a result of greater specialisation; the "classic" formulation of the caste system as described by Georges Dumézil was that of a priestly or religiously occupied caste, a warrior caste, a worker caste. Dumézil divided the Proto-Indo-Europeans into three categories: sovereignty and productivity, he further subdivided sovereignty into two complementary sub-parts. One part was formal and priestly, but rooted in this world; the other was powerful and priestly, but rooted in the "other", the supernatural and spiritual world.
The second main division was connected with the use of force, the military, war. There was a third group, ruled by the other two, whose role was productivity: herding and crafts; this system of caste roles can be seen in the castes which flourished on the Indian subcontinent and amongst the Italic peoples. Examples of the Indo-European castes: Indo-Iranian – Brahmin/Athravan, Kshatriyas/Rathaestar, Vaishyas Roman – Flamines, Quirites Celtic – Druids, Plebes Anglo-Saxon – Gebedmen, Weorcmen Slavic – Volkhvs, Krestyanin/Smerd Nordic – Earl, Thrall Greece – Eupatridae, Demiurgi Greece – Homoioi, HelotsKings were born out of the warrior or noble class. Emperor Constantine convoked the First Council of Nicaea in 325 whose Nicene Creed included belief in "one holy catholic and apostolic Church". Emperor Theodosius I made Nicene Christianity the state church of the Roman Empire with the Edict of Thessalonica of 380. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century, there emerged no single powerful secular government in the West, but there was a central ecclesiastical power in Rome, the Catholic Church.
In this power vacuum, the Church rose to become the dominant power in the West. In essence, the earliest vision of Christendom was a vision of a Christian theocracy, a government founded upon and upholding Christian values, whose institutions are spread through and over with Christian doctrine; the Catholic Church's peak of authority over all European Christians and their common endeavours of the Christian community—for example, the Crusades, the fight against the Moors in the Iberian Peninsula and against the Ottomans in the Balkans—helped to develop a sense of communal identity against the obstacle of Europe's deep political divisions. The classical heritage flourished throughout the Middle Ages in both the Byzantine Greek East and Latin West. In Plato's ideal state there are three major classes, representative of the idea of the "tripartite soul", expressive of three functions or capacities of the human soul: "appetites", "the spirited element" and "reason" the part that must guide the soul to truth.
Will Durant made a convincing case that certain prominent features of Plato's ideal community were discernible in the organization and effectiveness of "the" Medieval Church in Europe: For a thousand years Europe was ruled by an order of guardians like that, visioned by our philosopher. During the Middle Ages it was customary to classify the population of Christendom into laboratores and oratores; the last group, though small in number, monopolized the instruments and opportunities of culture, ruled with unlimited sway half of the most powerful continent on the globe. The clergy, like Plato's guardians, were placed in authority... by their talent as shown in ecclesiastical studies and administration, by their disposition to a life of meditation and simplicity, and... by the influence of their relatives with the powers of state and church. In the latter half of the period in which they ruled, the clergy were as free from family cares as Plato could desire... Celibacy was
Mendeley is a desktop and web program produced by Elsevier for managing and sharing research papers, discovering research data and collaborating online. It combines Mendeley Desktop, a PDF and reference management application available for Windows, macOS and Linux, it provides Mendeley for Android and iOS, with Mendeley Web, an online social network for researchers. Mendeley requires the user to store all basic citation data on its servers—storing copies of documents is at the user's discretion. Upon registration, Mendeley provides the user with 2 GB of free web storage space, upgradeable at a cost. Since its 1.19 release in 2018, Mendeley encrypts its local database using a proprietary algorithm. It is further no longer possible to export collections of annotated files, such as for scientific collaboration, leading to a vendor lock-in situation. Mendeley, named after the biologist Gregor Mendel and chemist Dmitri Mendeleyev, was founded in November 2007 by three German PhD students and is based in London.
The first public beta version was released in August 2008. The company's investors include some people involved with Last.fm, Warner Music Group, as well as academics from Cambridge and Johns Hopkins University. Mendeley won several awards in 2009: Plugg.eu "European Start-up of the Year 2009", TechCrunch Europas "Best Social Innovation Which Benefits Society 2009", The Guardian ranked it #6 in "Top 100 tech media companies". On September 23, 2013, Mendeley announced iPad apps that are free to install. Mendeley was purchased by the Elsevier publishing company in 2013; the deal price was speculated to be €50 million, following earlier speculation that it was between $69 million and $100 million. The sale led to debate on scientific networks and in the media interested in Open Access, upset members of the scientific community who felt that the program's acquisition by publishing giant Elsevier, known for implementing restrictive publishing practices, the high prices of their journals, publicly supporting the SOPA bill, was antithetical to the open sharing model of Mendeley.
David Dobbs, in The New Yorker, suggested Elsevier's reasons for buying Mendeley could have been to acquire its user data and/or to "destroy or coopt an open-science icon that threatens its business model."In 2012, Mendeley was one of the repositories for green Open Access recommended by Peter Suber. The recommendation was revoked in 2013. In 2018, an update to Mendeley resulted in some users losing PDFs and annotations stored in their accounts. After a number of weeks, Elsevier announced a potential fix for this problem. Since its 1.19 release in 2018 Mendeley encrypts its local database using a proprietary algorithm, making it difficult for users to export their data from the application and creating a vendor lock-in situation. Mendeley is available either as a premium payable version or a basic version, free but requires registration. Mendeley Desktop, based on Qt, runs on Windows and Linux. Automatic extraction of metadata from PDF papers. Back-up and synchronization across multiple computers and with a private online account.
PDF viewer with text highlighting and full-screen reading. Full-text search across papers. Smart filtering and automatic PDF file renaming. Citations and bibliographies in Microsoft Word, OpenOffice.org, LibreOffice. Import of documents and research papers from external websites via browser bookmarklet. BibTeX export/file sync. Private groups to collaboratively tag and annotate research papers. Public groups to share reading lists. Social networking features. Usage-based readership statistics about papers and publications. IPhone app. iPad app. Android app. Comparison of reference management software Metadata discovery Citation Style Language COinS Official website
University of Leicester
The University of Leicester is a public research university based in Leicester, England. The main campus is south of the city centre, adjacent to Victoria Park. In 1957, the university's predecessor gained university status. For 2018/19, the university is nationally ranked 34th in The Sunday Times Good University Guide, 63rd by The Guardian University Guide and 29th in The Complete University Guide, it is ranked as one of the top 200 universities in the world by the 2018 Times Higher Education World University Rankings, the 25th in the United Kingdom. The university had an income of £302.8 million in 2016/17, of which £52.2 million was from research grants. The university is famous for the discovery of genetic fingerprinting and contributing to the discovery and identification of the remains of King Richard III, it is argued that the first serious suggestions for a university in Leicester began with the Leicester Literary and Philosophical society which had its interest in literature and philosophy in the old sense, meaning science.
With the success of Owen's College in Manchester, the establishment of Birmingham University in 1900, Nottingham University College, it was thought that Leicester ought to have a university college too. University colleges could not award degrees. In most cases students sat the exam of the University of London. In the late 19th century, presidents of the society Revered James Went, headmaster of the Wyggeston Boys' School, Mr J. D Paul called for an establishment of a University College However, no private donations to establish the University were forthcoming and the Corporation of Leicester was busy funding the School of Art and the Technical School; the matter was brought up again by Dr Astey V Clarke in 1912. Born in Leicester in 1870, he was educated at Wyggeston and Cambridge before receiving his medical training at Guy's Hospital, he was the new president of the Philosophy society. Reaction was mixed with some saying. With the outbreak of the war in 1914, talk of the University subsided.
In 1917, during the despair of war, the Leicester Daily Post urged in an editorial that something more of practical utility than memorials ought to be used to commemorate the dead. With the ending of the war, the local newspapers, The Leicester Post and The Leicester Mail encouraged donations to form the University; some suggested that Leicester should join forces with neighboring university colleges of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington and Loughborough, to create a federal East Midlands college, rather than an independent one. The old asylum building had been suggested as a site for the new university, after it was due to be finished being used as a hospital for the wounded, Astley Clarke was keen to urge the citizens and local authorities to buy it. Clarke learned the building had been bought by Thomas Fielding Johnson, a wealthy philanthropist that owned a worsted manufacturing business, he had bought 37 acres of land for £40,000 and intended not only to house the college, but the boys and girl's grammar schools.
Soon, further donations topped £100,000. King George V gave his blessing to the scheme after a visit to the town in 1919. Talk turned to the curriculum with many arguing that it should focus on Leicester's chief industries hosiery and shoes. Others had higher hopes than just technical training; the education acts of 1902 and 1918, which brought education to the masses was thought to have increased the need for a college, not least to train the new teachers that were needed. Talk of a federal university soured and the decision was for Leicester to become a stand-alone college. In 1920, the college appointed its first official. W. G. Gibbs, a long-standing supporter of the college while editor of the Leicester Daily Post, was nominated as Secretary. On 9 May 1921, Dr R. F Rattray, was appointed Principal, aged 35. Rattray was an impressive academic. Having gained a first class English degree at Glasgow, he studied at Manchester College, Oxford, he studied in Germany, secured his Ph. D at Harvard. After that, heworked as a Unitarian Minister.
Rattray was to teach English. He recruited others including Miss Measham to teach Botany, Miss Sarson to teach geography, Miss Chapuzet to teach French. In all, 14 people started at the University when it opened its doors in October 1921: the principal, the secretary, 3 lecturers and nine students. Two types of students were expected, around 100–150 teachers in training, undergraduates hoping to sit the external degrees of London University. A students union was formed in 1923–24 with a Miss Bonsor as its first president. In 1927, after it became University College, students sat for the examinations for external degrees of the University of London. Two years it merged with the Vaughan Working Men's College, providing adult education in Leicester since 1862. In 1931, Dr Rattray resigned as principal, he was replaced in 1932 by Frederick Attenborough, the father of David and Richard Attenborough. He was succeeded by Charles Wilson in 1952. In 1957, the University College was granted its Royal Charter, has since had the status of a university with the right to award its own degrees.
The Percy Gee Student Union building was opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 9 May 1958. Leicester University won the first series of University Challenge, in 1963; the University's motto Ut Vitam
RELX plc is a corporate group comprising companies that publish scientific and medical material, legal textbooks. It serves customers in over 180 nations, it was known as Reed Elsevier, came into being in 1992 as a result of the merger of Reed International, a British trade book and magazine publisher, Elsevier, a Netherlands-based scientific publisher. The company is publicly-listed, with shares traded on the London Stock Exchange, Amsterdam Stock Exchange and New York Stock Exchange. About 55 per cent of the company’s revenues are generated from the US, with 23 per cent from Europe and 22 per cent from the rest of the world; the company is one of the constituents of the FTSE 100 Index, Financial Times Global 500 and Euronext 100 Index. The company, known as Reed Elsevier, came into being in 1992, as a result of the merger of Reed International, a British trade book and magazine publisher, Elsevier, a Netherlands-based scientific publisher; the company re-branded itself as RELX in February 2015.
In 1895, Albert E. Reed established a newsprint manufacturing operation at Tovil Mill near Maidstone, Kent. In 1965 Reed Group, as it was known, became a conglomerate, creating its Decorative Products Division with the purchase of Crown Paints and Sanderson's wallpaper and DIY decorating interests. In 1970, Reed Group merged with the International Publishing Corporation and the company name was changed to Reed International Limited; the company continued to grow by merging with other publishers and produced high quality trade journals as IPC Business Press Ltd and women's and other consumer magazines as IPC magazines Ltd. The original family owners, the Reeds, were Methodists and encouraged good working conditions for their staff in the then-dangerous print trade. In 1985 the company decided to rationalise its operations, focusing on publishing and selling off its other interests. Sanderson was sold to WestPoint Pepperell, Inc. of Georgia, United States, that year, while Crown Paint and Polycell were sold to Williams Holdings in 1987.
The company's paper and packaging production operations were bundled together to form Reedpack and sold to private equity firm Cinven in 1988. In 1880, Jacobus George Robbers started a publishing company called NV Uitgeversmaatschappij Elsevier to publish literary classics and the encyclopedia Winkler Prins. Robbers named the company after the old Dutch printers family Elzevir, for example, published the works of Erasmus in 1587. Elsevier NV was based in Rotterdam but moved to Amsterdam in the late 1880s. Up to the 1930s, Elsevier remained a small family-owned publisher, with no more than ten employees. After the war it launched the weekly Elsevier magazine, which turned out to be profitable. A rapid expansion followed. Elsevier Press Inc. started in 1951 in Houston, Texas, USA, in 1962 publishing offices were opened in London and New York. Multiple mergers in the 1970s led to name changes, settling at "Elsevier Scientific Publishers" in 1979. In 1991, two years before the merger with Reed, Elsevier acquired Pergamon Press in the UK.
In February 1997, Reed Elsevier divested its trade publishing group to Random House. In 1998, Reed Elsevier sold the children's divisions of Heinemann, Methuen and Mammoth to the Egmont Group. In February 2007, the company announced its intention to sell Harcourt, its educational publishing division. On 4 May 2007 Pearson, the international education and information company, announced that it had agreed to acquire Harcourt Assessment and Harcourt Education International from Reed Elsevier for $950m in cash. In July 2007, Reed Elsevier announced its agreement to sell the remaining Harcourt Education business, including international imprint Heinemann, to Houghton Mifflin for $4 billion in cash and stock. In July 2009, Reed Elsevier announced its intention to sell most of its North American trade publications, including Publishers Weekly, Broadcasting & Cable, Multichannel News, although it planned to retain Variety. In April 2010, Reed Elsevier announced that it had sold 21 US magazines to other owners in recent months, that an additional 23 US trade magazines, including Restaurants & Institutions and Trade Show Week would cease publication.
The closures were due to the weak economy including an advertising slump. Variety, the company's last remaining North American title, was sold in October 2012. In 2014, Reed Business Information sold an online marketplace. In 2016, RELX sold Elsevier BeleggersBelangen in the Netherlands. In 2017 the company sold New Scientist magazine. RELX's Scientific, Technical & Medical business provides information and tools that help investors make decisions that improve scientific and healthcare outcomes, it operates under the name of Elsevier and generated revenues in the year to 31 December 2017 of £2.5 billion. ScienceDirect, an online database of primary research, contains 13 million documents. Scopus is a bibliographic database containing citations for academic journal articles, it contains more than 50 million items in more 20,000 titles from 5,000 publishers worldwide. Mendeley is a desktop and web program for managing and sharing research papers, discovering research data and collaborating online.
Elsevier is the world's largest publisher of academic articles with 16 per cent market share, accordin
LexisNexis Group is a corporation providing computer-assisted legal research as well as business research and risk management services. During the 1970s, LexisNexis pioneered the electronic accessibility of legal and journalistic documents; as of 2006, the company has the world's largest electronic database for legal and public-records related information. LexisNexis is owned by RELX Group; the story of LexisNexis starts in western Pennsylvania in 1956, when attorney John Horty began to explore the use of CALR technology in support of his work on comparative hospital law at the University of Pittsburgh Health Law Center. In 1965, Horty's pioneering work inspired the Ohio State Bar Association to develop its own separate CALR system, Ohio Bar Automated Research. In 1967, the OSBA signed a contract with Data Corporation, a local defense contractor, to build OBAR based on the OSBA's written specifications. Data proceeded to implement OBAR on Data Central, an interactive full-text search system developed in 1964 as Recon Central to help U.
S. Air Force intelligence analysts search text summaries of the contents of aerial and satellite reconnaissance photographs. In 1968, paper manufacturer Mead Corporation purchased Data Corporation for $6 million to gain control of its inkjet printing technology. Mead hired the Arthur D. Little firm to study the business possibilities for the Data Central technology. Arthur D. Little dispatched a team of consultants to Ohio led by H. Donald Wilson. Mead asked for a practicing lawyer on the team, so the team included Jerome Rubin, a Harvard-trained attorney with 20 years of experience; the resulting study concluded that the nonlegal market was nonexistent, the legal market had potential, OBAR needed to be rebuilt to profitably exploit that market. At the time, OBAR searches took up to five hours to complete if more than one user was online, its original terminals were noisy Teletypes with slow transmission rates of 10 characters per second. OBAR had quality control issues. Wilson and Rubin were installed as president and vice president.
A year Mead bought out the OSBA's interests in the OBAR project, OBAR disappears from the historical record after that point. Wilson was reluctant to implement his own study's recommendation to abandon the OBAR/Data Central work to date and start over. In September 1971, Mead relegated Wilson to vice chairman of the board and elevated Rubin to president of MDC. Rubin promptly pushed the legacy Data Central technology back to Mead Corporation. Under a newly organized division, Mead Technical Laboratories, Data Central continued to operate as a service bureau for nonlegal applications until 1980. With that out of the way, Rubin hired a new team to build from scratch an new information service dedicated to legal research, he coined a new name: LEXIS, from “lex,” the Latin word for law, “IS” for “information service.” After several iterations, the original functional and performance specifications were finalized by Rubin and executive vice president Bob Bennett by the late summer of 1972. System designer Edward Gottsman supervised the implementation of the specifications as working computer code.
At the same time and Bennett orchestrated the necessary keyboarding of the legal materials to be provided through LEXIS, designed a business plan, marketing strategy, training program. MDC's corporate headquarters were moved to New York City, while the data center stayed in Dayton, Ohio. According to Trudi Bellardo Hahn and Charles P. Bourne, LEXIS was the first of the early information services to realize the vision of a future in which large populations of end users would directly interact with computer databases, rather than going through professional intermediaries like librarians. Other early information services in the 1970s crashed into financial and technological constraints and were forced to retreat to the professional intermediary model until the early 1990s. Rubin explained that they were trying “to crack the librarian barrier. Our goal was to get a LEXIS terminal on every lawyer’s desk.” To persuade American lawyers to use LEXIS, MDC targeted them with aggressive marketing and training campaigns.
On April 2, 1973, MDC publicly launched LEXIS at a press conference in New York City, with libraries of New York and Ohio case law as well as a separate library of federal tax materials. By the end of that year, the LEXIS database had reached two billion characters in size and had added the entire United States Code, as well as the United States Reports from 1938 through 1973. By 1974, LEXIS was running on an IBM 370/155 computer in Ohio supported by a set of IBM 3330 disk storage units which could store up to about 4 billion characters, its communications processor could handle 62 terminals with transmission speed at 120 characters per second per user. On this platform, LEXIS was able to execute over 90% of searches within less than five seconds. Over 100 text terminals had been deployed to various legal offices and there were over 4,000 trained LEXIS users. By 1975, the LEXIS database had grown to 5 billion characters and it could handle up to 200 terminals simultaneously. By 1976, the LEXIS database included case law from six states, plus various federal materials.
MDC turned a profit for the first time in 1977. In 1980, LEXIS completed
The Guildhall Library is a public reference library specialising in subjects relevant to London. It is administered by the Corporation of London, the government of the City of London, the historical heart of London, England; the library was founded in the 1420s under the terms of the will of Lord Mayor Dick Whittington. Many volumes in store rooms were lost due to bombing in World War Two; the library was housed in the Old Library at the Guildhall, moved to modern premises elsewhere in the Guildhall complex in the 1970s. The library is specialises in subjects relevant to London; the collection has its greatest depth on topics concerned with the City, but contains a great deal of material on the other parts of metropolitan London. It is divided into three main sections: printed books; the material dates from the eleventh century onwards. William Herbert was elected librarian of the Guildhall Library, re-established by the Corporation of London, in 1828, he prepared a second edition of the catalogue in 1840, retired in 1845.
David Pearson was the Director of Libraries, Archives in the City of London between 2009 and early 2017. His brief included London Metropolitan Archives, City Business Library and Guildhall Art Gallery. BooksThere are specialist book collections on the following subjects: London and its history Local history Family history English law Parliamentary material Wine and food Clocks and clockmakers Business history Marine history Several smaller collectionsThe local history collections are not restricted to London but cover the whole of the British Isles. In addition to complete sets of the Victoria County History of England volumes and Nikolaus Pevsner's Buildings of England, the library holds a collection of county and village histories, holds journals and other publications of many local history and archaeological societies. Guildhall Library section of the City of London's site Collage database of images from the City of London's collections