The bass guitar is a plucked string instrument similar in appearance and construction to an electric guitar, except with a longer neck and scale length, four to six strings or courses. The four-string bass is tuned the same as the double bass, which corresponds to pitches one octave lower than the four lowest-pitched strings of a guitar, it is played with the fingers or thumb, or striking with a pick. The electric bass guitar has pickups and must be connected to an amplifier and speaker to be loud enough to compete with other instruments. Since the 1960s, the bass guitar has replaced the double bass in popular music as the bass instrument in the rhythm section. While types of basslines vary from one style of music to another, the bassist plays a similar role: anchoring the harmonic framework and establishing the beat. Many styles of music include the bass guitar, it is a soloing instrument. According to the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, an "Electric bass guitar a Guitar with four heavy strings tuned E1'-A1'-D2-G2."
It defines bass as "Bass. A contraction of Double bass or Electric bass guitar." According to some authors the proper term is "electric bass". Common names for the instrument are "bass guitar", "electric bass guitar", "electric bass" and some authors claim that they are accurate; the bass guitar is a transposing instrument, as it is notated in bass clef an octave higher than it sounds. In the 1930s, musician and inventor Paul Tutmarc of Seattle, developed the first electric bass guitar in its modern form, a fretted instrument designed to be played horizontally; the 1935 sales catalog for Tutmarc's electronic musical instrument company, featured his "Model 736 Bass Fiddle", a four-stringed, solid-bodied, fretted electric bass guitar with a 30 1⁄2-inch scale length, a single pick up. The adoption of a guitar's body shape made the instrument easier to hold and transport than any of the existing stringed bass instruments; the addition of frets enabled bassists to play in tune more than on fretless acoustic or electric upright basses.
Around 100 of these instruments were made during this period. Audiovox sold their “Model 236” bass amplifier. Around 1947, Tutmarc's son, began marketing a similar bass under the Serenader brand name, prominently advertised in the nationally distributed L. D. Heater Music Company wholesale jobber catalogue of 1948. However, the Tutmarc family inventions did not achieve market success. In the 1950s, Leo Fender and George Fullerton developed the first mass-produced electric bass guitar; the Fender Electric Instrument Manufacturing Company began producing the Precision Bass in October 1951. The "P-bass" evolved from a simple, un-contoured "slab" body design and a single coil pickup similar to that of a Telecaster, to something more like a Fender Stratocaster, with a contoured body design, edges beveled for comfort, a split single coil pickup; the "Fender Bass" was a revolutionary new instrument for gigging musicians. In comparison with the large, heavy upright bass, the main bass instrument in popular music from the early 1900s to the 1940s, the bass guitar could be transported to shows.
When amplified, the bass guitar was less prone than acoustic basses to unwanted audio feedback. In 1953 Monk Montgomery became the first bassist to tour with the Fender bass guitar, in Lionel Hampton's postwar big band. Montgomery was possibly the first to record with the bass guitar, on July 2, 1953 with The Art Farmer Septet. Roy Johnson, Shifty Henry, were other early Fender bass pioneers. Bill Black, playing with Elvis Presley, switched from upright bass to the Fender Precision Bass around 1957; the bass guitar was intended to appeal to guitarists as well as upright bass players, many early pioneers of the instrument, such as Carol Kaye, Joe Osborn, Paul McCartney were guitarists. In 1953, following Fender's lead, Gibson released the first short-scale violin-shaped electric bass, with an extendable end pin so a bassist could play it upright or horizontally. Gibson renamed the bass the EB-1 in 1958. In 1958, Gibson released the maple arched-top EB-2 described in the Gibson catalogue as a "hollow-body electric bass that features a Bass/Baritone pushbutton for two different tonal characteristics".
In 1959 these were followed by the more conventional-looking EB-0 Bass. The EB-0 was similar to a Gibson SG in appearance. Whereas Fender basses had pickups mounted in positions in between the base of the neck and the top of the bridge, many of Gibson's early basses featured one humbucking pickup mounted directly against the neck pocket; the EB-3, introduced in 1961 had a "mini-humbucker" at the bridge position. Gibson basses tended to be smaller, sleeker instruments with a shorter scale length than the Precision. A number of other companies began manufacturing bass guitars during the 1950s: Kay in 1952, Hofner and Danelectro in 1956, Rickenbacker in 1957 and Burns/Supersound in 1958. 1956 saw the appearance at the German trade fair "Musikmesse Frankfurt" of the distinctive Höfner 500/1 violin-shaped bass made using violin construction techniques by Walter Höfner, a second-generation violin luthier. The design was known popularly as the "Beat
"99 Luftballons" is a song by the German band Nena from their 1983 self-titled album. An English-language version titled "99 Red Balloons", with lyrics by Kevin McAlea, was released on the album 99 Luftballons in 1984 after widespread success of the original in Europe and Japan; the English version is not a direct translation of the German original and contains lyrics with a somewhat different meaning. While at a June 1982 concert by the Rolling Stones in West Berlin, Nena's guitarist Carlo Karges noticed that balloons were being released; as he watched them move toward the horizon, he noticed them shifting and changing shapes, where they looked like strange spacecraft. He thought about. Cited by the band was a newspaper article from the Las Vegas Review-Journal about five local high school students in 1973 who played a prank to simulate a UFO by launching 99 aluminized Mylar balloons attached with ribbons to a traffic flare; the red flame from the flare reflected by the balloons gave the appearance of a large pulsating red object floating over Red Rock Canyon outside the Las Vegas Valley in Nevada.
A direct translation of the title is sometimes given as "Ninety-Nine Air Balloons", but the song became known in English as "Ninety-Nine Red Balloons". The title "99 Red Balloons" scans with the syllables falling in the right places within the rhythm of the first line of lyrics, although Neunundneunzig has one syllable more than "ninety-nine"; the lyrics of the original German version tell a story: 99 balloons set free by a couple of friends are mistaken for UFOs, causing a general to send pilots to investigate. Finding nothing but children's balloons, the pilots decide to shoot them down; the display of force worries the nations along the borders and the defense ministers on each side bang the drums of conflict to grab power for themselves. In the end, a 99-year war results from the otherwise harmless flight of balloons, causing devastation on all sides without a victor. At the end, the singer walks through the devastated ruins with a balloon. Thinking of someone, they watch it fly away; the English version retains the spirit of the original narrative, but many of the lyrics are translated poetically rather than directly translated: red helium balloons are casually released by the civilian singer with her unnamed friend into the sky and are registered as missiles by a faulty early warning system.
From the outset Nena and other members of the band expressed disapproval for the English version of the song, "99 Red Balloons". In March 1984, the band's keyboardist and song co-writer Uwe Fahrenkrog Petersen said, "We made a mistake there. I think the song loses something in translation and sounds silly." In another interview that month the band including Nena herself were quoted as being "not satisfied" with the English version since it was "too blatant" for a group not wishing to be seen as a protest band. Despite having given in excess of 500 concerts over a period of more than 30 years, Nena has never sung "99 Red Balloons" live at her rare concerts in England, always performing the German version instead. There have been two re-recordings of the original German version of the song that have been released by Nena: a modern version in 2002, included on Nena feat. Nena, a retro version in 2009, which included some verses in French. Live recordings of the song are included on all seven of Nena's live albums, dating from 1995 to 2018.
A special edit that combined the English and German versions of the song was played on American Top 40 with Casey Kasem for the week of 24 March 1984. A version of this song with Spanish lyrics, Mi Globo Azul, was recorded by the Mexican band, Timbiriche in 1985. American and Australian audiences preferred the original German version, which became a successful non-English-language song, topping charts in both countries, reaching No. 1 on the Cash Box chart, Kent Music Report, No. 2 on the Billboard Hot 100, behind "Jump" by Van Halen. It was certified Gold by the RIAA; the later-released English translation, "99 Red Balloons", topped the charts in the UK, Canada and Ireland. In his 2010 book Music: What Happened?, critic and musician Scott Miller declared that the song possesses "one of the best hooks of the eighties" and listed it among his top song picks for 1984. Nonetheless, he cautioned: "It must be admitted that this song suffers from an embarrassingly out-of-place disco funk interlude, the word kriegsminister."
The promotional video, made for the Dutch music programme TopPop and broadcast on 13 March 1983, was shot in a Dutch military training camp, the band performing the song on a stage in front of a backdrop of fires and explosions provided by the Dutch Army. Towards the end of the video, the band are seen taking cover and abandoning the stage, unplanned and genuine since they believed the explosive blasts were getting out of control. VH1 Classic, an American cable television station, ran a charity event for Hurricane Katrina relief in 2006. Viewers who made donations were allowed to choose. One viewer donated $35,000 for the right to program an entire hour and requested continuous play of "99 Luftballons" and "99 Red Balloons" videos; the station broadcast the videos as requested from 2:00 to 3:00 pm EST on 26 March 2006. Lyrics
Fear is an American punk rock band from Los Angeles, formed in 1977. The band is credited for helping to shape the style of Californian hardcore punk; the group gained national prominence after an infamous 1981 performance on Saturday Night Live. Frontman Lee Ving has been the band's only constant member. Since its formation, the band has gone through various lineup changes, at one point, featured Flea of the Red Hot Chili Peppers on bass. Fear was formed in 1977 by vocalist/guitarist Lee bassist Derf Scratch, they recruited drummer Johnny Backbeat to fill out the original lineup. In 1978, Fear released the single "I Love Livin' in the City". Shortly after this and Backbeat left the band and were replaced by Philo Cramer and Spit Stix. Film director Penelope Spheeris met Ving and Stix while they were hanging handbills on telephone poles in Los Angeles on Laurel Canyon Boulevard. After a brief discussion, she asked if they wanted to be in a documentary about the Los Angeles punk scene, The Decline of Western Civilization.
In the film, Fear performed a set in which they baited members of the audience with personal attacks and homophobic slurs, offbeat humor, inspiring some audience members to come on stage to fight them. At the time, Spheeris was married to Slash Records president Bob Biggs who that year, signed a recording deal with Fear. Fear appeared in the 1981 rotoscope animated film American Pop, directed by Ralph Bakshi. Ving performed under the name Lee James Jude. Spheeris's documentary brought the band to the attention of John Belushi, who lobbied to get the band a spot as a musical guest on the 1981 Halloween episode of his former show Saturday Night Live. Belushi had offered Fear the soundtrack for his major motion picture Neighbors; the film's producers forced Fear off the project, Belushi got them the infamous SNL gig as compensation. The band's appearance included a group of slamdancers, among them Belushi, Ian MacKaye of Minor Threat, Tesco Vee of the Meatmen, Harley Flanagan and John Joseph of the Cro-Mags, John Brannon of Negative Approach.
The show's director wanted to prevent the dancers from participating, so Belushi offered to be in the episode if the dancers were allowed to stay. The end result was the shortening of Fear's appearance on TV, they started their second song by saying, "It's great to be in New Jersey", drawing boos from SNL's New York live audience. Fear played "I Don't Care About You", "Beef Bologna", "New York's Alright If You Like Saxophones", started to play "Let's Have a War" when the telecast faded into commercial; the slamdancers left. Cameras, a piano and other property were damaged. After their SNL appearance, which resulted in $20,000 in damage, some clubs chose not to hire the band. A New York Post article reported the figure to be $500,000; this is believed to have originated from Ving, who told the Post that "...we caused $500,000 worth of damage, a cool half a million dollars' worth of damage,'cause we're professionals, I counted the damage myself." Ving told a television talk show host that the New York Post contacted him the next day to confirm accounts that it was rumored that the band was responsible for $10,000 worth of damage to the set and that he had replied that no, his band were professionals and that they had caused $400,000 worth of damage, that he had counted the damage himself.
He admitted to the host that he had inflated the figure but to his amazement, The Post printed that as being the actual figure. In 1982, Fear released their debut album The Record. After touring in support of the album, Ving fired Scratch. Eric Feldman filled in on bass before he was replaced by Flea. Flea was replaced by Lorenzo Buhne. On July 3, 1983, Fear performed at the "Rock Against Reagan" protest concert at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D. C. along with the Dead Kennedys, MDC, Toxic Reasons, the Crucifucks and others. In the summer of 1983 through early 1984, while Stix was touring Europe with Nina Hagen, Chuck Biscuits was supposed to replace him, but Stix returned and Biscuits never played any shows with Fear. With Ving producing, the band recorded their second album More Beer in 1985 in just two days, supposedly. However, according to a representative from Enigma Records, it took a full year, as quoted in a March 1986 issue of Spin. Live... For the Record, a live album of a 1985 performance, was released in 1991.
Shortly afterwards, bassist Will "Sluggo" MacGregor was hired. After 1991–93 North American tours, Fear disbanded. Cramer and Stix left the band, citing disputes with Ving over finances, his right wing beliefs, his lack of empathy. For the next two years, Ving performed in Texas as Lee Ving's Army; this became the new Fear lineup, including Ving backed by LVA members Sean Cruse, Scott Thunes and Andrew Jamiez. In 1995, Fear released the Have Another Beer with Fear album, followed by American Beer, which featured Ving and Jamiez along with new members Richard Presley and Mando Lopez; the album included new recordings of several unreleased older Fear songs, as well as some new compositions. Presley and Lopez began playing with Kim Deal and Kelley Deal in the Breeders. Fear performed in the annual Warped Tour in 2008, at South by Southwest in 2012. A re-recording of 1982's The Record was released in late 2012. In 2018, the band reunited with Cramer and Stix, added former AFI bassist Geoff Kresge and former Viva Hate guitarist Eric Razo.
Current members Lee Ving – lead vocals, rhythm guitar (1977–presen
Goldfinger is the self-titled debut album by punk rock band Goldfinger, released on Mojo Records in February 1996 and produced by Mojo founder Jay Rifkin. The album was a hit on college radio; the single "Here in Your Bedroom" was a top 5 rock hit in the U. S. in the summer of 1996, reached #47 on the Billboard Hot 100 Airplay chart, making it their highest charting single ever. The album was certified Gold in Canada in 2002, it is the only album by the band not to be produced by frontman John Feldmann in any capacity. Horns on the album are provided by members of other Southern California ska and ska punk bands, including trombonist Dan Regan and trumpeter Scott Klopfenstein of Reel Big Fish and saxophonist Efren Santana of Hepcat. Paul Hampton of The Skeletones provides keyboards on the album and is featured in the video for "Here In Your Bedroom"; the cover for the album was drawn by Alan Forbes. It depicts a "big sex god alien chasing this little man,'50s style". Although Goldfinger is a well-known album among the ska punk community, Feldmann doesn't consider it a work of that genre.
Goldfinger was recorded in Hans Zimmer studio by the time he was recording The Lion King II: Simba's Pride. In the album's 20th anniversary, Feldmann commented on its music: The opening track "Mind's Eye" was the first song Feldmann wrote for Goldfinger. Commenting on the feedback heard in the first seconds of the song, he said: "We recorded that album on tape, it was all super experimental—'Well what if we have the feedback going, we hit record and start playing so the tape starts with nothing.'". "Anything" was written by a 17-year-old Feldmann. All songs written except where noted. John Feldmann – vocals, guitar Charlie Paulson – guitar, vocals Dangerous Darrin Pfeiffer – drums, vocals Simon Williams – bass, vocals
Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality, a variety of vocal techniques. A person who sings is called a vocalist. Singers perform music that can be sung without accompaniment by musical instruments. Singing is done in an ensemble of musicians, such as a choir of singers or a band of instrumentalists. Singers may perform as soloists or accompanied by anything from a single instrument up to a symphony orchestra or big band. Different singing styles include art music such as opera and Chinese opera, Indian music and religious music styles such as gospel, traditional music styles, world music, blues and popular music styles such as pop, electronic dance music and filmi. Singing arranged or improvised, it may be done as a form of religious devotion, as a hobby, as a source of pleasure, comfort or ritual, as part of music education or as a profession. Excellence in singing requires time, dedication and regular practice.
If practice is done on a regular basis the sounds can become more clear and strong. Professional singers build their careers around one specific musical genre, such as classical or rock, although there are singers with crossover success, they take voice training provided by voice teachers or vocal coaches throughout their careers. In its physical aspect, singing has a well-defined technique that depends on the use of the lungs, which act as an air supply or bellows. Though these four mechanisms function independently, they are coordinated in the establishment of a vocal technique and are made to interact upon one another. During passive breathing, air is inhaled with the diaphragm while exhalation occurs without any effort. Exhalation may be aided by lower pelvis/pelvic muscles. Inhalation is aided by use of external intercostals and sternocleidomastoid muscles; the pitch is altered with the vocal cords. With the lips closed, this is called humming; the sound of each individual's singing voice is unique not only because of the actual shape and size of an individual's vocal cords but due to the size and shape of the rest of that person's body.
Humans have vocal folds which can loosen, tighten, or change their thickness, over which breath can be transferred at varying pressures. The shape of the chest and neck, the position of the tongue, the tightness of otherwise unrelated muscles can be altered. Any one of these actions results in a change in pitch, timbre, or tone of the sound produced. Sound resonates within different parts of the body and an individual's size and bone structure can affect the sound produced by an individual. Singers can learn to project sound in certain ways so that it resonates better within their vocal tract; this is known as vocal resonation. Another major influence on vocal sound and production is the function of the larynx which people can manipulate in different ways to produce different sounds; these different kinds of laryngeal function are described as different kinds of vocal registers. The primary method for singers to accomplish this is through the use of the Singer's Formant, it has been shown that a more powerful voice may be achieved with a fatter and fluid-like vocal fold mucosa.
The more pliable the mucosa, the more efficient the transfer of energy from the airflow to the vocal folds. Vocal registration refers to the system of vocal registers within the voice. A register in the voice is a particular series of tones, produced in the same vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, possessing the same quality. Registers originate in laryngeal function, they occur. Each of these vibratory patterns appears within a particular range of pitches and produces certain characteristic sounds; the occurrence of registers has been attributed to effects of the acoustic interaction between the vocal fold oscillation and the vocal tract. The term "register" can be somewhat confusing; the term register can be used to refer to any of the following: A particular part of the vocal range such as the upper, middle, or lower registers. A resonance area such as chest voice or head voice. A phonatory process A certain vocal timbre or vocal "color" A region of the voice, defined or delimited by vocal breaks.
In linguistics, a register language is a language which combines tone and vowel phonation into a single phonological system. Within speech pathology, the term vocal register has three constituent elements: a certain vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, a certain series of pitches, a certain type of sound. Speech pathologists identify four vocal registers based on the physiology of laryngeal function: the vocal fry register, the modal register, the falsetto register, the whistle register; this view is adopted by many vocal pedagogues. Vocal resonation is the process by which the basic product of phonation is en
Paul Brandon Gilbert, is an American hard rock/heavy metal guitarist. He is best known for being the co-founder of the band Mr. Big, he was a member of Racer X, with whom he released several albums. In 1996, Gilbert launched a solo career, for which he has released numerous solo albums, featured in numerous collaborations and guest appearances on other musicians' albums. Gilbert has been voted fourth-best on GuitarOne magazine's "Top 10 Greatest Guitar Shredders of All Time", he has ranked in Guitar World's "50 Fastest Guitarists of All Time" list. Gilbert was raised in the small Pittsburgh suburb of Greensburg, Pennsylvania, he began playing music at age five. Around 1981, Gilbert first contacted Mike Varney, asking for a gig with metal mega-star Ozzy Osbourne. At the time, Varney couldn't think, they continued talking over the next 3 years, culminating in Gilbert's 1984 cross-country move to Los Angeles to attend the GIT. At the young age of 17, Gilbert became a local legend due to his advanced alternate picking technique, record-breaking speed, his young age, his massive repertoire of cover material.
He was hired as a GIT instructor in 1985, recorded Racer X's debut album Street Lethal soon after. Formed in Los Angeles in 1985, Racer X was composed of Paul Gilbert, Juan Alderete, Harry Gschoesser, Jeff Martin, they were influenced by Judas Priest, Gilbert's playing was reminiscent of Yngwie Malmsteen, displaying fast-driven solos with extreme-level technique. Gschoesser was replaced by Scott Travis in 1986, Bruce Bouillet, one of Gilbert's private students at GIT, was added as a second guitarist after demonstrating an ability to harmonize Gilbert's string skipping sequences. Gilbert gained recognition as one of the world's fastest guitarists due to technical pieces like "Technical Difficulties", "Frenzy", "Scarified", "Y. R. O." and "Scit Scat Wah". Around this time, Gilbert recorded his first instructional video, Intense Rock, in which he demonstrated a number of his famous techniques and practice regimens in detail. Throughout his career he would go on to release many more instructional videos.
Racer X toured the American southwest the state of California, would sell out thousand-seat venues. Despite their rigorous fan base, the band did not have prospects for a major label deal and Gilbert became disinterested. In 1987, he was approached by Talas bassist Billy Sheehan, one of his biggest influences, about forming a band that would become Mr. Big. Gilbert reformed it after the 1996 breakup of Mr. Big. Paul contacted the members of Racer X, all agreed to return with the exception of Bruce Bouillet, who could play guitar at the time due to a severe bout of carpal tunnel syndrome. In mid-1999, the band recorded the album Technical Difficulties. Racer X's new record label requested a follow-up. To further capitalize on their new-found success in Japan, Universal Japan requested that the band perform for a live-album CD and DVD. On May 25, 2001, the band played their first live performance in thirteen years, to a sold-out crowd, at the world-famous "The Whisky" in Los Angeles; the resulting CD and DVD were released in 2002 under the title Snowball of Doom.
In January 2002, in support of Superheroes and Snowball of Doom, Racer X toured Taiwan. The band performed these shows in their Superheroes costumes; the tour's final show, in Yokohama, was hastily recorded in two tracks on the sound board and released as Snowball of Doom 2. That year, Universal Japan pushed for another Racer X release. In October 2002, all four members of Racer X gathered at Gilbert's house in Las Vegas to record Getting Heavier, sold alongside Snowball of Doom 2 in a package deal. Although the album was a successful release in Japan, some fans were disappointed with the lighter tracks, which resembled a Paul Gilbert solo album more than a conventional Racer X album. Racer X performed at the 2009 NAMM show at the Anaheim Convention Center in California. Andy Timmons and his band opened the show, followed by a solo set from Paul Gilbert, Racer X; the Racer X lineup consisted of Scott Travis, Jeff Martin and John Alderete. When bass guitarist Billy Sheehan left David Lee Roth's solo band in 1988, he and Gilbert co-founded Mr. Big which included Pat Torpey on drums and Eric Martin on vocals.
The band was successful in Japan, but achieved international stardom with the 1991 release of their second studio album Lean into It. This album featured the acoustic ballad "To Be with You" which received strong play on radio stations and MTV, rising to #1 on the Billboard Hot 100. Mr. Big broke up in 1996; when Mr. Big reformed soon after, committed to his own record contract, was replaced by Richie Kotzen. Mr. Big disbanded again in 2002, but Gilbert reunited the original members in June 2009 for a worldwide reunion tour; the band recorded a new album with producer Kevin Shirley titled What If.... The album was released in Japan on Dec. 2010, in Europe on Jan.. 21st, 2011 and in the U. S. in Feb. 2011. A tour to support the album kicked off at the Holly