Abbotsford, British Columbia
Abbotsford is a city located in the Fraser Valley region of British Columbia, adjacent to Greater Vancouver. The Abbotsford–Mission metropolitan area of around 170,191 inhabitants as of the 2011 census is the 23rd largest census metropolitan area in Canada, Abbotsford has the third highest proportion of visible minorities among census metropolitan areas in Canada, after the Greater Toronto Area and the Greater Vancouver CMA. It has named by Statistics Canada as Canada’s most generous city in terms of charitable donations for nine straight years. The community of 375.55 square kilometres is the largest city by area in British Columbia and it is home to the University of the Fraser Valley and Abbotsford International Airport, which hosts the Abbotsford International Airshow. The municipalitys southern boundary is the Canada–United States border, across which is Sumas, in Canada, it is bordered by the Township of Langley to the west, the Fraser River and the District of Mission to the north, and the City of Chilliwack to the east.
Much of Abbotsford enjoys views of Mount Baker and the Coast Mountains, Abbotsfords colonial development began when the Royal Engineers surveyed the area in response to the gold rush along the Fraser River in 1858. This led to the building of Yale Road, the first transportation route to link the Fraser Valley, the settlement grew and the production of butter and tobacco began by the late 1860s. In 1889, former Royal Engineer John Cunningham Maclure applied for a Crown grant to obtain the 160 acres that would become Abbotsford, there is some controversy over the origin of the Abbotsford name. The most commonly cited origin is that Maclure named the land Abbotsford after family friend Henry Braithwaite Abbott, until 1922 the name was spelled Abottsford. The title passed hands to Robert Ward, who filed a subdivision on July 9,1891. Also in 1891, the CPR built a line through the area that connected Mission with the Seattle, Lake Shore and Eastern Railway at Sumas. This route was the rail connection between Vancouver and Seattle until 1904.
The Village of Abbotsford was incorporated in 1892, the British Columbia Electric Railway arrived in 1910. Service to Vancouver runs from neighbouring Mission by way of the West Coast Express, the most notable natural disaster to hit Abbotsford was a major flood of the Fraser River in 1948. In September 1984 Pope John Paul II held a mass for over 200,000 people at the Abbotsford International Airport. The amalgamation of the Village of Abbotsford and the District of Sumas into the District of Abbotsford occurred in 1972, the District of Abbotsford amalgamated with the District of Matsqui in 1995 to become the City of Abbotsford, raising the population significantly. In June 2013, the City of Abbotsford spread chicken manure on a camp located in the city. Abbotsford Mayor Bruce Banman publicly apologized for the incident, a lawsuit was launched on behalf of some of the homeless, stating that a bylaw which prevents overnight camping in Abbotsford parks is against their right to shelter
The BC Lions are a professional Canadian football team competing in the West Division of the Canadian Football League. Based in Vancouver, British Columbia, the Lions play their games at BC Place. The Lions played their first season in 1954, and have played every season since, as such, they are the oldest professional sports franchise in the city of Vancouver and in the province of British Columbia. They have appeared in the leagues Grey Cup championship game 10 times, winning six of those games, the Lions currently have the longest active playoff streak, and are tied for the second-longest in CFL history, having made the playoffs for 20 straight seasons. Braley was a member of the Canadian Senate, Rugby unions had been organized in all of the Prairie provinces by 1907 and the Western Canada Rugby Football Union had been formed in 1911. However, it would not be until 1926 that the British Columbia Rugby Football Union was formed, the Vancouver Meralomas were the most successful British Columbian team of the era.
They played in the Western Final in 1930 and again in 1934, the BCRFU stopped challenging for the Grey Cup following the formation of the Western Interprovincial Football Union. After the BCRFUs collapse in 1941, the Vancouver Grizzlies joined the WIFU and they played only one season, finishing 1-7, before the WIFU suspended operations for the duration of the Second World War. The Grizzlies did not return after the war, in 1951, a group led by Ken Stauffer and Tiny Radar were inspired by Vancouver Sun columnist Andy Lytles article to start a new football team in Vancouver that would play in the WIFU. The ownership group sent Radar and Orville Burke to represent them at the off-season WIFU meetings to initiate Vancouver’s bid for a team. The Burkes were told to return to the meetings the following year with a $25,000 good-faith bond if they could generate sufficient interest in the Vancouver area. The first meetings were held at the Arctic Club in November, the group in Vancouver, did not give up their efforts to have a franchise in the WIFU.
On January 22,1953, the first annual meeting of the club was held, in that meeting, Arthur E. Mercer was hired as the clubs first president. Later in the year, Bill Morgan, Bill Ralston and this time, they sold the idea of a fifth Western team, and Vancouver was granted a conditional franchise. They were required to provide a 15, 000-seat stadium, sell at least 6,500 season tickets, and guarantee travel expenses for the visiting teams. By Easter of 1953, Annis Stukus was lured away from the Toronto Argonauts to return to the West to become the first public relations manager, general manager, and head coach of the franchise. During the rest of 1953, a fan contest was held by all of the media to pick the teams new name. The nickname was chosen because it represented a landmark and legend of the area
Canadian Football League
The Canadian Football League is a professional sports league in Canada. The CFL is the highest level of competition in Canadian football and its nine teams, which are located in nine separate cities, are divided into two divisions, the East Division, with four teams, and the West Division with five teams. As of 2016, the features a 20-week regular season. The CFL was officially founded on January 19,1958, the league was formed from a merger between the Interprovincial Rugby Football Union founded in 1907 and the Western Interprovincial Football Union founded in 1936. Rugby football began to be played in Canada in the 1860s, the CRFU was reorganized as the Canadian Rugby Union in 1891, and served as an umbrella organization for several provincial and regional unions. The Grey Cup was donated by Governor General Earl Grey in 1909 to the winning the Senior Amateur Football Championship of Canada. By that time, the sport as played in Canada had diverged markedly from its rugby origins, in 1956, the IRFU and WIFU formed a new umbrella organization, the Canadian Football Council.
In 1958, the CFC left the CRU and became the Canadian Football League, as part of an agreement between the CRU and CFL, the CFL took possession of the Grey Cup, even though amateurs had not competed for it since 1954. The CRU remained the governing body for amateur play in Canada, the two unions remained autonomous, and there was no intersectional play between eastern and western teams except at the Grey Cup final. This situation was analogous to how the American baseball leagues operated for years. The IRFU was renamed the Eastern Football Conference in 1960, while the WIFU was renamed the Western Football Conference in 1961, in 1961, limited intersectional play was introduced. It was not until 1981 that the two agreed to a full merger, becoming the East and West Divisions of the CFL. With the merger came a full interlocking schedule of 16 games per season, Other team names had traditional origins. With rowing a national craze in the late 19th century, the Argonaut Rowing Club of Toronto formed a team for its members off-season participation.
The football team name Toronto Argonauts still remains though it. After World War II, the two teams in Hamilton—the Tigers and the Flying Wildcats—merged both their organizations into the Hamilton Tiger-Cats, after the 1981 season, the Alouettes folded and were replaced the next year by a new franchise named the Concordes. In 1986 the Concordes were renamed the Alouettes to attract more fan support, the demise of the Alouettes forced the League to move its easternmost Western team, into the East Division. In 1993, the league admitted its first United States-based franchise, after modest success, the league expanded further in the U. S. in 1994 with the Las Vegas Posse, Baltimore Stallions, and Shreveport Pirates
Jamie Taras is a former professional Canadian football player with the Canadian Football League British Columbia Lions, and current Director of Community Relations with the BC Lions. Taras spent his entire 16-year career with the Lions as a fullback and offensive lineman, Taras played Canadian college football at the University of Western Ontario. In 2003, Taras was voted a member of the B. C, Lions All-Time Dream Team as part of the club’s 50th anniversary celebration. Taras number 60 jersey is one of eleven numbers retired by the B. C, from 1979 to 1983, Taras played high school football at Bishop MacDonell High School in Guelph, Ontario. From 1983 to 1986, he played Canadian college football at the University of Western Ontario, Taras was an offensive guard for the Mustangs. Following his graduation from the University of Western Ontario, Taras was drafted by the B. C, Lions in the third round of the 1987 CFL Draft as a guard. Taras initially played fullback for the Lions for four years, but achieved the greatest success of his career as an offensive guard.
In 1994, Taras was a part of the Lions 11-6-1 season that culminated in a Grey Cup matchup with the Baltimore Stallions, the following season,1995, playing guard, was named a CFL All-Star for the first time. Taras would be named a CFL All-Star a second time, in 1999, Taras twice won the DeMarco-Becket Memorial Trophy as the CFL Western Divisions Most Outstanding Lineman, in 1995 and 1999. In 2000, Taras was a member of the Lions fourth Grey Cup championship team, the Lions defeated the Montreal Alouettes 28-26, with Taras snapping the ball to then-Lions quarterback, Damon Allen. Taras retired from the Lions in 2003, and was voted a member of the B. C, Lions All-Time Dream Team, at the guard position, as part of the club’s 50 year anniversary celebration. Taras #60 was retired by the Lions, but curiously, his number was worn during the 2006 CFL season by Lions tackle. Following his retirement in 2003, Taras became the Vice-President of the Canadian Football League Players Association, now the Director of Community Relations with the BC Lions.
Taras currently resides in South Surrey, British Columbia with his wife Jennifer, Taras is very active in the Greater Vancouver area in community and charitable activities
Damon Allen is a former professional quarterback who played in the Canadian Football League. He is pro-footballs combined passing & rushing leader with a total of 84,301 yards. Allen retired as professional footballs all-time leading passer with 72,381 passing yards after he surpassed Warren Moons total of 70,553 yards on September 4,2006 in the annual Labour Day Classic. He retired in place in all-time CFL rushing yards with 11,920 yards, behind Mike Pringle. The 2007 season marked Allens twenty-third season in the CFL and he announced his retirement on May 28,2008 at age 44. Allen is the brother of Pro Football Hall of Famer Marcus Allen. Allen has been mentioned as one of the greatest CFL quarterbacks of all time after winning four Grey Cups with four different teams, in 2005 he was the CFL Most Outstanding Player at 42 yrs. old, becoming the oldest MVP of any North American sports franchise. He was a formidable passer and rusher, as he retired only 323 yards behind his brother Marcus, in 2012, he was elected into the Canadian Football Hall of Fame.
In May 2010, Allen launched the Damon Allen Quarterback Academy, in which he teaches the skills and strategies of quarterbacking to students of all ages. Damon has three daughters, Amanda and Ateya and son Airus, Damon Allen started playing football by the age of six for Valencia Park Pop Warner in San Diego. Damon played safety on defense and helped bring his team to the game in the Mighty-Mites league only to lose. In the Junior Peewee league, Damon again made it to the championships and this marked his first year as a quarterback. Damon became a force to be reckoned with, leading his team to two undefeated seasons, and winning the Junior Peewee league title for three years in a row, in high school, Damon was a 2 Sport Athlete - Football the starting quarterback at Lincoln High School. He went on a 22-2 record as a starting Quarterback at Lincoln, first team all-CIF and Tribute Athlete of the Year. He led his team to Back to Back 2A Division CIF Football Championships, Damon went on to play college football for California State University, Fullerton.
There, Allen led the Titans to two Pacific Coast Athletic Association championships and he broke a 26-year-old NCAA record with only three interceptions in over 300 attempts and broke seven school records. He was a first team PCAA quarterback, and was named the UPI All West Coast team quarterback along with UNLVs Randall Cunningham, Allen was sixteenth in overall voting for the 1984 Heisman Trophy. He played in the Senior Bowl college All-Star game, Allen was not only an outstanding football player, he was a superior baseball player
Daved Benefield is a former professional American football player who played thirteen seasons in the Canadian Football League for five different teams. He was a backup at linebacker and defensive end for the San Francisco 49ers in 1996, as a youngster growing up in Southern California, he surfed at Newport and Zuma north of Los Angeles. He attended California State University Northridge, where was an All-WFC linebacker, Benefield was signed by Edmonton as a free agent in Nov.1990. The Eskimos released him in July 1991, and he signed with the Los Angeles Wings of the Arena Football League in April 1992 and he was signed as a free agent by the Canadian Football Leagues Ottawa Rough Riders in June 1992. Benefield began his CFL career with the Ottawa Rough Riders as an outside linebacker and he became a starting linebacker in 1992 during his rookie season. In his first CFL game on August 19,1992, Benefield recorded two sacks, two tackles for losses and seven tackles total, earning player-of-the-game honors.
In 1994, he was named a CFL East Division All-Star, with 38 tackles and nine sacks. In March 1995, Benefield signed as an agent with the BC Lions, where Dave Ritchie. The deal was a contract, reportedly for a $10,000 raise over his 1994 salary of $55,000. In 1995, Benefield tied a CFL record with five sacks in a game against the Birmingham Barracudas, in April 1996, Benefield signed with the San Francisco 49ers of the National Football League. He impressed the 49ers early on in games, with excellent coverage on special teams. He was a defensive end on passing downs. In 1997, when Benefield returned to the CFL, there was a war for his services between several teams. He eventually returned to the BC Lions
Douglas Keith Doug Nussmeier is an American football coach and former player. He is the coordinator at Florida under head coach Jim McElwain. Born in Portland, Nussmeier is a 1989 graduate of Lakeridge High School in Lake Oswego and he did not start at quarterback for the Pacers football team until his senior season. Though he followed Pac-10 quarterbacks Erik Wilhelm and Jason Palumbis at Lakeridge and he played college football at Idaho under John L. Smith, and won the 1993 Walter Payton Award, presented annually to the Division I-AA player of the year. That year, Nussmeier threw a school-record 33 touchdown passes, leading the Vandals to an 11-3 record, during his final two seasons at Idaho, the offensive coordinator was Scott Linehan, an NFL offensive coordinator and head coach. Linehan was the Vandals starting quarterback for three seasons, a four-year starter at quarterback, Nussmeier succeeded John Friesz, another Walter Payton Award winner in 1989, Nussmeiers redshirt season. As a fifth-year senior in 1993, Nussmeier had a QB rating of 172.2 - completing 185-of-304 throws for 2,960 yards, Nussmeier still ranks among the NCAA I-AA all-time leaders in passing and total offense.
Nussmeier set Vandal career records for passing yards, TD passes, passing efficiency, completion percentage, Nussmeier earned his bachelors degree in business from the University of Idaho in 1994. Nussmeier was selected by the Saints in the round of the 1994 NFL Draft. He was the fourth quarterback selected, behind first round selections Heath Shuler, Nussmeier was a reserve quarterback in the NFL for five seasons in the mid-1990s, spending four years with the New Orleans Saints and one with the Indianapolis Colts. During that time, he played in only eight regular-season NFL games, in 1998, Nussmeier spent part of training camp with the Denver Broncos, but was released prior to the regular season and picked up by the Colts. He is one of only 32 left-handed quarterbacks to play in the NFL, Nussmeier finished his playing career with the BC Lions of the CFL in 2000, and stayed with the organization as the quarterbacks coach for 2001. 8 Games 82 Attempts 46 Completions 56 and he was the offensive coordinator and quarterbacks coach at Fresno State for a season in 2008, was hired in the same capacity at Washington in Seattle in early 2009.
His annual salary at UW was just under $300,000, on January 18,2012, Nussmeier was announced as the new offensive coordinator and quarterbacks coach for the Alabama Crimson Tide, replacing outgoing coordinator Jim McElwain. Under his guidance, junior quarterback A. J. McCarron set the record for touchdowns in a season with 26. On January 9,2014, Nussmeier was hired by the University of Michigan, on December 23,2014, Nussmeier was hired by the University of Florida. Michigan profile Alabama profile Fresno State profile Idaho Vandals Hall of Fame profile Career statistics and player information from NFL. com • Pro-Football-Reference • Databasefootball. com
A linebacker is a playing position in American football and Canadian football. Linebackers are members of the team, and line up approximately three to five yards behind the line of scrimmage, behind the defensive linemen, and therefore back up the line. Linebackers generally align themselves before the ball is snapped by standing upright in a two point stance, the goal of the linebacker is to provide either extra run protection or extra pass protection based on the particular defensive play being executed. Another key play of the position is blitzing. A blitz occurs when a linebacker acts as a pass rusher running into any exposed gap. When a blitz is called by the defense, it is mainly to sack or hurry the opposing offenses quarterback. Linebackers are often regarded as the most important position in defence, due to their versatility in providing hard hits on running plays or a layer of pass protection. Similar to the safety position, linebackers are required to use their judgment on every snap.
Before the advent of the two platoon system with units for offense and defense, the player who was the teams center on offense was often, though not always. Hence today one usually sees four defensive linemen to the five or more. Most sources claim coach Fielding H. Yost and center Germany Schulz of the University of Michigan invented the position, Schulz was Yosts first linebacker in 1904 when he stood up from his usual position on the line. Yost was horrified at first, but came to see the wisdom in Schulzs innovation, william Dunn of Penn St. was another Western linebacker soon after Schulz. However, there are historical claims tied to the linebacker position. For example, Percy Given of Georgetown is another center with a claim to the title first linebacker, despite Given, most sources have the first linebacker in the South as Frank Juhan of Sewanee. In the East, Ernest Cozens of Penn was one of the first of the centers, archaic term for the position. Walter E. Bachman of Lafayette was said to be the developer of the roving center concept, edgar Garbisch of Army was credited with developing the roving center method of playing defensive football in 1921.
In professional football, Cal Hubbard is credited with pioneering the linebacker position and he starred as a tackle and end, playing off the line in a style similar to that of a modern linebacker. The middle or inside linebacker, sometimes called Mike or Mohr, is referred to as the quarterback of the defense
Northern Arizona University
Governed by the Arizona Board of Regents and accredited by the Higher Learning Commission, the university offers 155 baccalaureate and graduate degree programs. As of fall 2016,30,368 students were enrolled,22,134 at the Flagstaff campus. The average cost of tuition and fees for a full-time, Arizona resident undergraduate student for two semesters is $10,764, and out-of-state undergraduates will pay an estimated $24,144. NAU participates in the Western Undergraduate Exchange Program, which offers lower tuition rates for students from the Western United States, for 2016 –2017, WUE tuition and fees are $15,638. NAU offers Flagstaff undergraduate students the Pledge Program, which guarantees the same rate for four years. According to the university rankings published by the Times Higher Education in 2016. The first graduating class, in 1901, consisted of four women who received credentials to teach in the Arizona Territory, in 1925, the Arizona State Legislature allowed the school, which was now called the Northern Arizona State Teachers College, to grant bachelor of education degrees.
In 1929, the school became Arizona State Teachers College at Flagstaff, in 1929, the Great Depression struck the nation, and the ASTC found new meaning in community outreach. Rather than collapsing, the school endured through the depression, in fact, Grady Gammage, the school president at the time, described higher education as a depression industry that fared well in hard times. Despite financial difficulties, enrollment increased from 321 students to 535 students between 1930 and 1940, and graduate work was introduced in 1937, ASTC was known for its diverse student body and ethnic tolerance. In fact, the first Hopi to receive a degree was Ida Mae Fredericks in 1939. Students came from farms, mining families, the East Coast. During the depression, lots of fraternities and clubs sprang up, reflecting the diversity of background, enrollment dropped sharply at the beginning of World War II, dropping to 161 in 1945. During this time, ASTC became a Navy V-12 program training site, the end of World War II brought increased enrollment as returning veterans returned to continue their education.
The end of the war expanded programs beyond teaching degrees, especially in the fields of art, in 1958, the Forestry Program was introduced. With further growth over the two decades, the Arizona Board of Regents granted Arizona State College university status as Northern Arizona University in 1966. Snow is common in winter, with accumulations most prevalent in January, winter skiing is accessible at Arizona Snowbowl, an alpine ski resort located on the San Francisco Peaks,7 miles northwest of Flagstaff, with an average annual snowfall of 260 inches. NAU offers 91 bachelors degree programs,49 masters degree programs and 11 doctoral degree programs, the university was charged by the Arizona Board of Regents in 2006 to develop innovative ways to provide access and affordability to all Arizona residents
American football positions
In American football, each team has 11 players on the field at one time. The specific role that a player takes on the field is called his position, under the modern rules of American football, teams are allowed unlimited substitutions, that is, teams may change any number of players after any play. This has resulted in the development of three platoons of players, the offense, the defense, and the special teams, within those platoons, various specific positions exist depending on what each players main job is. In American football, the offense is the side in which the players have possession of the ball and it is their job to advance the ball towards the opponents end zone to score points. The backs and receivers are known as skill position players or as eligible receivers. Offensive linemen are not usually eligible to advance the ball past the line of scrimmage during a play, the organization of the offense is strictly mandated by the rules, there must be at least seven players on the line of scrimmage and no more than four players behind it.
The only players eligible to handle the ball during a play are the backs. The remaining players are considered ineligible, and may only block, within these strictures, creative coaches have developed a wide array of offensive formations to take advantage of different player skills and game situations. The following positions are standard in every game, though different teams will use different arrangements of them. The offensive line is responsible for blocking. The offensive line consists of, Center The center is the player who begins the play from scrimmage by snapping the ball to the quarterback. As the name suggests, the center usually plays in the middle of the offensive line, like all offensive linemen, the center has the responsibility to block defensive players. The center often has the responsibility to call out blocking assignments, offensive guard Two guards line up directly on either side of the center. Like all interior linemen, their function is to block on both running and passing plays, in such cases, the guard is referred to as a pulling guard.
Guards are typically shorter builds than tackles but taller than centers, offensive tackle Two tackles play outside of the guards. Their role is primarily to block on both running and passing plays, the area from one tackle to the other is an area of close line play in which blocks from behind, which are prohibited elsewhere on the field, are allowed. For a right-handed quarterback, the tackle is charged with protecting the quarterback from being hit from behind. Like a guard, the tackle may have to pull, on a running play, the six backs and receivers are those that line up outside or behind the offensive line
White Rock, British Columbia
White Rock is a city in British Columbia, Canada. It is a municipality of Metro Vancouver, the governing body of the Greater Vancouver Regional District. It borders Semiahmoo Bay and is surrounded on three sides by South Surrey, to the south lies the Semiahmoo First Nation, which is within the city limits of Surrey. Semiahmoo Bay and the Southern Gulf Islands in the Strait of Georgia are to the south, the boundaries between White Rock and Surrey are Bergstrom Road to the west, North Bluff Road to the north, Stayte Road to the east, and 8th Avenue to the south. The area south of 8 Avenue from Stayte Road westward to where 8 Avenue meets the water is the Semiahmoo Indian Reserve, the Surrey neighbourhoods of Ocean Park and Crescent Beach lie immediately to the northwest. White Rock has a climate, with average daily high temperatures of 23 degrees Celsius in summer and 6 degrees Celsius in winter. White Rock is named for a large white boulder on its beach near the promenade. The 486-ton granite boulder was kept white by shellfish-eating seabirds whose guano covered the rock, however, it is now kept white through monthly applications of white paint by the city parks department, and has been a popular graffiti target for over thirty years.
The pier and promenade are popular destinations, but do not allow dogs and these areas are very busy during the warmer summer months, especially when it comes to line-ups for gelato or fish and chips. The current mayor, Wayne Baldwin, was elected on November 19,2011, the large, white rock figures prominently in narratives of the local Coast Salish peoples. One legend holds that the white marks the landing spot of a stone that was hurled across the Strait of Georgia by a young chief. It was said that he and his bride would move from Vancouver Island to wherever the rock landed to make a home together and it was their descendants who became the Semiahmoo First Nation. The Straits Salish people dominated the region from Boundary Bay in the north to Birch Bay in the south, Semiahmoo First Nation permanent encampments were known to exist between 1791, the first European contact, and the 1850s, the beginnings of European settlement. These were located along the waterfront at the eastern and western limits of the present City of White Rock, the Semiahmoo people constructed forts as lookouts for raiders from the northern first nations, one is located in the Ocean Park area.
The Oregon boundary dispute culminated in the Oregon Treaty of 1846, these issues had been put on hold through a shared occupancy agreement of the Oregon territory by the two nations in the Treaty of 1818. An 1865 survey map calls this route the Telegraph Trail, during the real-estate boom of the 1980s and 90s, the City of Surrey preserved much of the trail, extending it from 20 Avenue to the Nicomekl River. On 148 Street, a specially constructed Semiahmoo Trail pedestrian overpass keeps the trail intact, the modern history of White Rock is directly tied to the railway linking British Columbia to Washington state, which runs along the shore of Semiahmoo Bay to the border. The rail is currently owned by BNSF Railway and runs alongside the promenade at the beach and this was originally the Great Northern line, and it opened up White Rock and Crescent Beach to tourists from Vancouver and New Westminster in the early 1900s