Cloth of gold
Cloth of gold or gold cloth is a fabric woven with a gold-wrapped or spun weft—referred to as "a spirally spun gold strip". In most cases, the core yarn is silk wrapped with a strip of high content gold. In rarer instances, fine linen and wool have been used as the core, it is mentioned on both Roman headstones for women and in the Book of Psalms as a fabric befitting a princess. The Ancient Greek reference to the Golden Fleece is seen by some as a reference to gold cloth. Cloth of gold has been popular for ecclesiastical use for many centuries. Under Henry VII of England, its use was reserved to higher levels of nobility, it is used today by companies such as Charvet for neckwear. Few extant examples have survived in Roman provincial tombs. Producers of cloth of gold include the Byzantine Empire and Medieval Italian weavers in Genoa and Lucca. In the 14th century, cloth of gold made in China was called marramas. A similar cloth of silver was made, it is still made in Europe today. Cloth of gold is not to be confused with various gold embroidery techniques that date to the early Middle Ages, though the type of goldwork thread called "passing" is identical to the weft thread of cloth of gold.
Most modern metallic fabrics made in the West are known as lamé. Cloth of gold is a familiar name applied to the venomous Conus textile species of cone shell. Tilsent is a luxurious silken cloth interwoven with flattened threads of silver. Field of the Cloth of Gold Samite The Roman Textile Industry and Its Influence. A Birthday Tribute to John Peter Wild. Edited by Penelope Walton Rodgers, et al. "Some More Medieval Linen Weaves". Medieval Textiles. March 2002. ISSN 1530-762X
Coutil is woven cloth created for making corsets. It is woven to inhibit penetration of the corset's bones and resist stretching. Coutil has a high cotton content. Cotton has good dimensional stability, or a resistance to stretching, which makes it a good choice for such a stressed garment. Coutil may be made to be satin, or brocade, it is common for coutil to have a herringbone texture, or a similar woven texture
Beta cloth is a type of fireproof silica fiber cloth used in the manufacture of Apollo/Skylab A7L space suits, the Apollo Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment, the McDivitt Purse, in other specialized applications. Beta cloth consists of fine woven silica fiber, similar to fiberglass; the resulting fabric will not burn, will melt only at temperatures exceeding 650 °C. To reduce its tendency to crease or tear when manipulated, to increase durability, the fibers are coated with Teflon. A tight weave of Beta cloth makes it more durable against atomic oxygen exposure, its ability to resist atomic oxygen exposure makes it used as the outer-most layer in multi-layer insulation for space, it was used on the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. It was implemented in NASA space suits after the deadly 1967 Apollo 1 launch pad fire, in which the astronauts' nylon suits burned through. After the fire, NASA demanded any flammable materials were to be removed from both the spacecraft and space suits.
Beta cloth was developed by a Manned Spacecraft Center team led by Frederick S. Dawn and including Matthew I. Radnofsky working with the Owens-Corning and DuPont companies. Where additional wear resistance was needed, external patches of Chromel-R metallic cloth were used. Beta cloth was used as the material for the Skylab shower enclosure; the interior of the Space Shuttle payload bay was completely covered with Beta cloth. This helps protect; some Beta cloth is used on MSL's rover Curiosity. Multi-layer insulation Materials for use in vacuum NASA - Multilayer Insulation Material Guidelines
A canvas is an durable plain-woven fabric used for making sails, marquees and other items for which sturdiness is required, as well as in such fashion objects as handbags, electronic device cases, shoes. It is popularly used by artists as a painting surface stretched across a wooden frame. Modern canvas is made of cotton or linen, along with polyvinyl chloride, although it was made from hemp, it differs from other heavy cotton fabrics, such as denim, in being plain weave rather than twill weave. Canvas comes in two basic types: plain and duck; the threads in duck canvas are more woven. The term duck comes from the Dutch word for doek. In the United States, canvas is classified in two ways: by a graded number system; the numbers run in reverse of the weight so a number 10 canvas is lighter than number 4. The word "canvas" is derived from the Old French canevas. Both may be derivatives of the Vulgar Latin cannapaceus for "made of hemp," originating from the Greek κάνναβις. Canvas has become the most common support medium for oil painting.
It was used from the 14th century in Italy, but only rarely. One of the earliest surviving oils on canvas is a French Madonna with angels from around 1410 in the Gemäldegalerie, Berlin, its use in Saint George and the Dragon by Paolo Uccello in about 1470, Sandro Botticelli's Birth of Venus in the 1480s was still unusual for the period. Large paintings for country houses were more to be on canvas, are less to have survived, it was a good deal cheaper than a panel painting, may sometime indicate a painting regarded as less important. In the Uccello, the armour does not use silver leaf. Another common category of paintings on lighter cloth such as linen was in distemper or glue used for banners to be carried in procession; this is a less durable medium, surviving examples such as Dirk Bouts' Entombment, in distemper on linen are rare, rather faded in appearance. Panel painting remained more common until the 16th century in Italy and the 17th century in Northern Europe. Mantegna and Venetian artists were among those leading the change.
Canvas is stretched across a wooden frame called a stretcher and may be coated with gesso before it is to be used. A traditional and flexible chalk gesso is composed of lead carbonate and linseed oil, applied over a rabbit skin glue ground; as lead-based paint is poisonous, care has to be taken in using it. Various alternative and more flexible canvas primers are commercially available, the most popular being a synthetic latex paint composed of titanium dioxide and calcium carbonate, bound with a thermo-plastic emulsion. Many artists have painted onto unprimed canvas, such as Jackson Pollock, Kenneth Noland, Francis Bacon, Helen Frankenthaler, Dan Christensen, Larry Zox, Ronnie Landfield, Color Field painters, Lyrical Abstractionists and others. Staining acrylic paint into the fabric of cotton duck canvas was more benign and less damaging to the fabric of the canvas than the use of oil paint. In 1970 artist Helen Frankenthaler commented about her use of staining: When I first started doing the stain paintings, I left large areas of canvas unpainted, I think, because the canvas itself acted as forcefully and as positively as paint or line or color.
In other words, the ground was part of the medium, so that instead of thinking of it as background or negative space or an empty spot, that area did not need paint because it had paint next to it. The thing was to decide where to leave it and where to fill it and where to say this doesn't need another line or another pail of colors, its saying it in space. Early canvas was made of a sturdy brownish fabric of considerable strength. Linen is suitable for the use of oil paint. In the early 20th century, cotton canvas referred to as "cotton duck," came into use. Linen is composed of higher quality material, remains popular with many professional artists those who work with oil paint. Cotton duck, which stretches more and has an mechanical weave, offers a more economical alternative; the advent of acrylic paint has increased the popularity and use of cotton duck canvas. Linen and cotton derive from two different plants, the flax plant and the cotton plant, respectively. Gessoed canvases on stretchers are available.
They are available in a variety of weights: light-weight is about 4 oz or 5 oz. They are ready for use straight away. Artists desiring greater control of their painting surface may add a coat or two of their preferred gesso. Professional artists who wish to work on canvas may prepare their own canvas in the traditional manner. One of the most outstanding differences between modern painting techniques and those of the Flemish and Dutch Masters is in the preparation of the canvas. "Modern" techniques take advantage of both the canvas texture as well as those of the paint itself. Renaissance masters took extreme measures to ensure that none of the texture of the canvas came through; this required a painstaking, months-long process of laye
Broadcloth is a dense, plain woven cloth made of wool. The defining characteristic of Broadcloth is not its finished width, but the fact that it was woven much wider and heavily milled in order to shrink it to the required width; the effect of the milling process is to draw the yarns much closer together than could be achieved in the loom and allow the individual fibres of the wool to bind together in a felting process. This results in a dense, blind face cloth with a stiff drape, weather-resistant, hard wearing and capable of taking a cut edge without the need for being hemmed, it was made in several parts of England at the end of the medieval period. The raw material was short staple wool and spun into yarn and woven on a broad loom to produce cloth 1.75 yards wide. It was fulled in a fulling mill; when fulled, the fibres of the cloth would felt together. In the United States, broadcloth can be an alternative name for a specific type of cotton or cotton-blend poplin, first introduced to the States from Britain in the early 1920s, renamed broadcloth for the American market.
Broadcloth was first produced in Flanders throughout the medieval period. After 1400 Leiden in Holland became the most important place for broadcloth industry in Europe. There for the first time the production became industrialised; this means that the production process didn't take place in one single factory anymore but according to a precise task allocation, where in several stages intermediate goods were produced. The entire process was supervised, resulting in a high quality, making Leiden broadcloth popular. In 1417 the Hanseatic League decided. From 1500 competition from other parts of Europe England and Leiden lost its leading role. In Italy Florence was an important center of broadcloth industry. Around 1500, broadcloth was made in a number of districts of England, including Essex and Suffolk in southern East Anglia, the West Country Clothing District, at Worcester, Cranbrook in Kent and some other places; this was the best English cloth, large quantities were exported by the merchants of the Company of Merchant Adventurers of London, principally to Antwerp as white cloth.
It was finished and dyed in Flanders, marketed throughout northern Europe. The cloths might be long; the raw material for broadcloth from Worcester was wool from the Welsh border counties of Herefordshire and Shropshire, known as Lemster wool. That for the West Country came from the Cotswolds. In both cases, the high quality was the result of the comparatively poor pasture, which led the sheep to grow wool with the desired qualities. English exports of broadcloth reached their highest level in the mid 16th century, after which some regions began producing other kinds of cloth. Difficulties were encountered in export markets in the mid-1610s due to currency difficulties in eastern Europe, to the ill-conceived Cockayne Project. Broadcloth production thus declined in the 17th century. Worcester remained a centre for the production of white broadcloth. Other areas, such as Ludlow and parts of the Cotswolds started to produce similar cloth, known as'Worcesters'; the market suffered major setback in the 18th century, when the trade of the Levant Company with Turkey was obstructed by French competition.
From this time, the production of broadcloth lost its importance. Banat Wool broadcloth made in India. Bridgwater - A lighter weight broadcloth made in England and Wales. Castor - Overcoat-weight woolen broadcloth. Cealtar - thick grey broadcloth dunster - broadcloth made in Somerset Georgian cloth haberjet - A coarse wool broadcloth, made in England during the Medieval period, associated with monks. Habit cloth - British-made fine wool broadcloth used for women's riding habits. Lady's cloth - lighter weight broadcloth made in light shades. Poole cloth - A broadcloth with a clear finish, named after the tailoring establishment Henry Poole & Co. suclat - A European-made cotton broadcloth popular in the East Indian market. Superfine - merino broadcloth used for men's tailoring. Tami - Chinese-made broadcloth. Taunton - Originally made in Taunton, available in medium or coarse grade, with a weight of 11oz. Per yard, fixed by law. Tavestock western dozen - Alternative name for tavestock. Since the early 1920s, the American market has used the term broadcloth to describe a plain-woven mercerised fabric woven with a rib and a heavier filling yarn, used for shirt-making, made from cotton or a polyester-and-cotton blend.
This fabric was introduced in the early 1920s as an import from the United Kingdom, where it was called poplin, but it was arbitrarily renamed broadcloth as it was thought that the British name had connotations of heaviness. Another version of this fabric, woven in rayon or polyester-and-rayon, is called fuji. Wool broadcloth with its felted, velvet-like feel, has been a popular material for many years in furniture and luxury car interiors. Ponting, Kenneth G.. The Woollen Industry of South-West England. Bath: A. M. Kelley. ISBN 0-678-07
Hessian, burlap in the US and Canada, or crocus in Jamaica, is a woven fabric made from skin of the jute plant or sisal fibres, which may be combined with other vegetable fibres to make rope and similar products. Gunny is similar in construction. Hessian, a dense woven fabric, has been produced as a coarse fabric, but more it is being used in a refined state known as jute as an eco-friendly material for bags and other products; the name "hessian" is attributed to the historic use of the fabric as part of the uniform of soldiers from the former Landgraviate of Hesse and its successors, including the current German state of Hesse, who were called "Hessians". The origin of the word burlap is unknown, though its earliest known appearance is in the late 17th century, its etymology is speculated to derive from the Middle English borel, the Old French burel and/or the Dutch boeren, in the latter case interfused with boer; the second element is the English word lap, "piece of cloth". Hessian was first exported from India in the early 19th century.
It was traditionally used as backing for linoleum and carpet. In Jamaica and certain parts of the Caribbean, many labourers who used to work on the plantations were not given pleasant materials with which to make clothes; some had access to cotton, spun, woven and sewn into serviceable clothing whilst others had to make do with clothing fashioned from hewn sacking. Labourers used their resourcefulness to recycle discarded sacking and fashion them into garments that although uncomfortable by all accounts provided protection from the heat and dust. A traditional costume of Jamaican Maroons uses fabric similar to this material as a way of drawing an affinity and pay homage to the resourcefulness and creativity of their labourers who gained freedom. For the rest of the population, it was used to make bags for carrying loads of coffee and other items, edible or not. Hessian is used to make gunny sacks, to ship goods like coffee beans and rooibos tea, it is associated spoilage of contents. It is durable enough to withstand rough handling in transit.
Hessian is commonly used to make effective sandbags. Hessian is often used for the transportation of unprocessed dry tobacco; this material is used for much the same reasons. Hessian sacks in the tobacco industry hold up to 200 kg of tobacco, due to hessian's toughness, a hessian sack can have a useful life of up to three years. Hessian is used to wrap the exposed roots of trees and shrubs when transplanting and for erosion control on steep slopes. One major advantage of hessian jute fabric is that, because it is made from natural vegetable fibers, it is biodegradable; this property makes it useful in landscaping and agricultural uses that require incorporating fabric support into outdoor projects. Landscape designs that include tree transplantation rely on hessian jute to ensure that young trees arrive at the planting venue intact and unharmed; this is achieved by wrapping hessian jute fabric around the roots and soil of a tree shortly after digging it from its original location. The breathability of the fabric allows sufficient aeration of the soil, the hessian's moisture-resistant properties prevent excess water from accumulating and allowing the growth of mold, mildew, or other types of rot.
Once planted, young trees may require protection from hessian jute to ward off mice and other rodents that might otherwise eat their bark and compromise their structure. To keep rodents at bay, landscapers wrap swathes of hessian jute around the trunks of young trees of all varieties. In addition to protecting from animals, hessian jute has the capacity to protect trees from excessive sun and wind. By building windbreaks from hessian jute, landscapers can exert some control over the environment in which young trees grow, thus maximizing their chances of growing to maturity so that they can withstand more intense weather conditions. For planting grass, on areas that have steep slopes or high levels of soil erosion, a layer of hessian jute tacked on over grass seeds can prevent seeds from being moved by rain, runoff, or wind. Landscapers can use this fabric for many uses due to its strength, moisture resistance, protective properties; the transportation of agricultural products involves bags made from hessian jute fabric.
Hessian jute bags are used to ship wool and cotton, as well as foodstuffs such as coffee, flour and grains. Hessian jute's ability to allow the contents of bags to breathe makes it excellent for preventing or minimizing rotting due to trapped moisture. In some cases, hessian can be specially treated to avoid specific kinds of rot and decay. Due to its coarse texture, it is not used in modern apparel. However, this roughness gave it a use in a religious context for mortification of the flesh, where individuals may wear an abrasive shirt called a cilice or "hair shirt" and in the wearing of "sackcloth" on Ash Wednesday. Owing to its durability, open weave non-shiny refraction and fuzzy texture, ghillie suits for 3D camouflage are made of hessian, it was a popular material for camouflage scrim on co
Alsace is a cultural and historical region in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland. From 1982 to 2016, Alsace was the smallest administrative région in metropolitan France, consisting of the Bas-Rhin and Haut-Rhin departments. Territorial reform passed by the French legislature in 2014 resulted in the merger of the Alsace administrative region with Champagne-Ardenne and Lorraine to form Grand Est. Alsatian is an Alemannic dialect related to Swabian and Swiss German, although since World War II most Alsatians speak French. Internal and international migration since 1945 has changed the ethnolinguistic composition of Alsace. For more than 300 years, from the Thirty Years' War to World War II, the political status of Alsace was contested between France and various German states in wars and diplomatic conferences; the economic and cultural capital of Alsace, as well as its largest city, is Strasbourg. The city is the seat of bodies; the name "Alsace" can be traced to the Old High German Ali-saz or Elisaz, meaning "foreign domain".
An alternative explanation is from a Germanic Ell-sass, meaning "seated on the Ill", a river in Alsace. In prehistoric times, Alsace was inhabited by nomadic hunters. By 1500 BC, Celts began to settle in Alsace and cultivating the land, it should be noted that Alsace is a plain surrounded by the Vosges mountains and the Black Forest mountains. It creates Foehn winds which, along with natural irrigation, contributes to the fertility of the soil. In a world of agriculture, Alsace has always been a rich region which explains why it suffered so many invasions and annexations in its history. By 58 BC, the Romans had established Alsace as a center of viticulture. To protect this valued industry, the Romans built fortifications and military camps that evolved into various communities which have been inhabited continuously to the present day. While part of the Roman Empire, Alsace was part of Germania Superior. With the decline of the Roman Empire, Alsace became the territory of the Germanic Alemanni; the Alemanni were agricultural people, their Germanic language formed the basis of modern-day dialects spoken along the Upper Rhine.
Clovis and the Franks defeated the Alemanni during the 5th century AD, culminating with the Battle of Tolbiac, Alsace became part of the Kingdom of Austrasia. Under Clovis' Merovingian successors the inhabitants were Christianized. Alsace remained under Frankish control until the Frankish realm, following the Oaths of Strasbourg of 842, was formally dissolved in 843 at the Treaty of Verdun. Alsace formed part of the Middle Francia, ruled by the eldest grandson Lothar I. Lothar died early in 855 and his realm was divided into three parts; the part known as Lotharingia, or Lorraine, was given to Lothar's son. The rest was shared between Louis the German; the Kingdom of Lotharingia was short-lived, becoming the stem duchy of Lorraine in Eastern Francia after the Treaty of Ribemont in 880. Alsace was united with the other Alemanni east of the Rhine into the stem duchy of Swabia. At about this time, the surrounding areas experienced recurring fragmentation and reincorporations among a number of feudal secular and ecclesiastical lordships, a common process in the Holy Roman Empire.
Alsace experienced great prosperity during the 13th centuries under Hohenstaufen emperors. Frederick I set up Alsace as a province to be ruled by ministeriales, a non-noble class of civil servants; the idea was that such men would be more tractable and less to alienate the fief from the crown out of their own greed. The province had a central administration with its seat at Hagenau. Frederick II designated the Bishop of Strasbourg to administer Alsace, but the authority of the bishop was challenged by Count Rudolf of Habsburg, who received his rights from Frederick II's son Conrad IV. Strasbourg began to grow to become the commercially important town in the region. In 1262, after a long struggle with the ruling bishops, its citizens gained the status of free imperial city. A stop on the Paris-Vienna-Orient trade route, as well as a port on the Rhine route linking southern Germany and Switzerland to the Netherlands and Scandinavia, it became the political and economic center of the region. Cities such as Colmar and Hagenau began to grow in economic importance and gained a kind of autonomy within the "Décapole", a federation of ten free towns.
As in much of Europe, the prosperity of Alsace came to an end in the 14th century by a series of harsh winters, bad harvests, the Black Death. These hardships were blamed on Jews, leading to the pogroms of 1336 and 1339. In 1349, Jews of Alsace were accused of poisoning the wells with plague, leading to the massacre of thousands of Jews during the Strasbourg pogrom. Jews were subsequently forbidden to settle in the town. An additional natural disaster was the Rhine rift earthquake of 1356, one of Europe's worst which made ruins of Basel. Prosperity returned to Alsace under Habsburg administration during the Renaissance. Holy Roman Empire central power had begun to decline following years of imperial adventures in Italian lands ceding hegemony in Western Europe to France, which had long since centralized power. France began an aggressive policy of expanding eastward, first to the riv