The Houston Chronicle is the largest daily newspaper in Houston, United States. As of April 2016, it is the third-largest newspaper by Sunday circulation in the United States, behind only the New York Times and Los Angeles Times. With its 1995 buy-out of long-time rival the Houston Post, the Chronicle became Houston's newspaper of record; the Houston Chronicle is the largest daily paper owned and operated by the Hearst Corporation, a held multinational corporate media conglomerate with $10 billion in revenues. The paper employs nearly 2,000 people, including 300 journalists and photographers; the Chronicle has bureaus in Washington, D. C. and Austin. It reports; the publication serves as the "newspaper of record" of the Houston area. Headquartered in the Houston Chronicle Building at 801 Texas Avenue, Downtown Houston, the Houston Chronicle is now located at 4747 Southwest Freeway, it has two websites: houstonchronicle.com. Chron.com is free and has breaking news, traffic, pop culture, events listings, city guides.
Houstonchronicle.com, launched in 2012 and accessible after subscription purchase, contains analysis, reporting and everything found in the daily newspaper. From its inception, the practices and policies of the Houston Chronicle were shaped by strong-willed personalities who were the publishers; the history of the newspaper can be best understood. The Houston Chronicle was founded in 1901 by a former reporter for the now-defunct Houston Post, Marcellus E. Foster. Foster, covering the Spindletop oil boom for the Post, invested in Spindletop and took $30 of the return on that investment — at the time equivalent to a week's wages — and used it to fund the Chronicle; the Chronicle's first edition was published on October 14, 1901 and sold for two cents per copy, at a time when most papers sold for five cents each. At the end of its first month in operation, the Chronicle had a circulation of 4,378 — one tenth of the population of Houston at the time. Within the first year of operation, the paper consolidated the Daily Herald.
In 1908, Foster asked Jesse H. Jones, a local businessman and prominent builder, to construct a new office and plant for the paper, "and offered half-interest in the newspaper as a down payment, with twenty years to pay the remainder. Jones agreed, the resulting Chronicle Building was one of the finest in the South."Under Foster, the paper's circulation grew from about 7,000 in 1901 to 75,000 on weekdays and 85,000 on Sundays by 1926. Foster continued to write columns under the pen name Mefo, drew much attention in the 1920s for his opposition to the Ku Klux Klan, he sold the rest of his interest to Jesse H. Jones on June 1926 and promptly retired. In 1911, City Editor George Kepple started Goodfellows. On a Christmas Eve in 1911, Kepple passed a hat among the Chronicle's reporters to collect money to buy toys for a shoe-shine boy. Goodfellows continues today through donations made by its readers, it has grown into a citywide program that provides needy children between the ages of two and ten with toys during the winter holidays.
In 2003, Goodfellows distributed 250,000 toys to more than 100,000 needy children in the Greater Houston area. In 1926, Jesse H. Jones became the sole owner of the paper, he had approached Foster about selling, Foster had answered, "What will you give me?". Jones described the buyout of Foster as follows: Wanting to be liberal with Foster if I bought him out, since he had created the paper and owned most of the stock, had made a success of it, I thought for a while before answering and asked him how much he owed, he replied,'On real estate and everything about 200,000 dollars.' I said to him that I would give him 300,000 dollars in cash, having in mind that this would pay his debts and give him 100,000 spending money. In addition, I would give him a note for 500,000 secured by a mortgage on the Chronicle Building, the note to be payable at the rate of 35,000 a year for thirty-five years, which I figured was about his expectancy. I would pay him 20,000 dollars a year as editor of the paper and 6,000 dollars a year to continue writing the daily front-page column,'MEFO,' on the condition that either of us could cancel the editorship and/or the MEFO-column contracts on six months notice, that, if I canceled both the column and the editorship, I would give him an additional 6,000 dollars a year for life.
I considered the offer more than the Chronicle was worth at the time. No sooner had I finished stating my proposition than he said,'I will take it,' and the transaction was completed accordingly. In 1937, Jesse H. Jones transferred ownership of the paper to the newly established Houston Endowment Inc. Jones retained the title of publisher until his death in 1956. According to The Handbook of Texas Online, the Chronicle represented conservative political views during the 1950s: "...the Chronicle represented the conservative political interests of the Houston business establishment. As such, it eschewed controversial political topics, such as integration or the impacts of rapid economic growth on life in the city, it did not perform investigative journalism. This resulted in a stodgy newspaper. By 1959, circulation of the rival Houston Post had pulled ahead of the Chronicle."Jones, a lifelong Democrat who organized the Democratic National Convention to be in Houston in 1928, who spent long years in public service first under the Wilson administration, helping to found the Red Cross
Telfair, Sugar Land, Texas
Telfair is a 2,018-acre master planned community located in Sugar Land, Texas. It consists of former property of the Central Prison Unit. In 2002 the State of Texas sold a parcel of land from the Texas Department of Criminal Justice Central Prison Unit to Newland Communities, a developer from San Diego, California; the property was one of the last large tracts within the city limits of Sugar Land, open for development. In February 2005 Newland broke ground on Telfair, a master planned community located on former prison land; the community was named after a square in downtown Georgia. The developer planned to build 4,000 to 4,500 houses, it planned to open the first group of houses in the northern hemisphere Spring of 2006; the development opened in 2006. In 2009 Telfair had a 10% sales increase. At that time new house sales in most areas of Houston had decreased by double digits; as of March 2010, of the 2,800 planned houses, over 1,600 of them had been constructed. In 2010 the Houston Business Journal awarded the development three landmark awards: one for the best residential community, two for transforming a housing facility of the Central Unit into a museum facility.
The Imperial State Farm Cemetery, where inmates from the old prison were buried from 1912 to the 1930s, still remains in the center of a grass field in the northwest section of Telfair. Telfair's central road, University Boulevard, was named Flanagan Road after Imperial Prison Farm warden R. J. "Buck" Flanagan, who held the position for 30 years until his death. The community is located on U. S. Route 59; the main entrance is on University Boulevard, south of Texas State Highway 6. In 2012, Texas Instruments announced that it was relocating its Fort Bend County operations from Stafford to the Telfair area; the construction was completed and the building opened in early 2014. Residents are zoned to the Fort Bend Independent School District. Telfair is zoned to Cornerstone Elementary School, Sartartia Middle School, Clements High School,Portions were zoned to Kempner High School; the community includes Telfair Central Hall, a 9,545-square-foot community center with a design matching the former Central Unit Two Camp building.
The building is near New Territory University Boulevard. The original community plans stated. Newland planned to add a 70-acre lake; the community includes a plot of land earmarked to house a future municipal park, which would take an additional 70 acres. The former Central Unit parcel included a former inmate dormitory, Two Camp, Newland decided to restore the former dormitory building, which had some broken windows and some loose exterior bricks; the company arranged to place a new metal roof on the building. City officials and local historians positively reacted to the decision from Newland. In 2009 the 43,000 square feet Two Camp Building and its surrounding land became the Houston Museum of Natural Science Sugar Land; the subdivision donated the building and land to the City of Sugar Land, the city leases the building to the museum. The museum spent $3 million to help renovate the building. Telfair
Texas Department of Criminal Justice
The Texas Department of Criminal Justice is a department of the government of the U. S. state of Texas. The TDCJ is responsible for statewide criminal justice for adult offenders, including managing offenders in state prisons, state jails, private correctional facilities and certain oversight of community supervision, supervision of offenders released from prison on parole or mandatory supervision; the TDCJ operates the largest prison system in the United States. The department has its headquarters in the BOT Complex in Huntsville and offices at the Price Daniel Sr. Building in downtown Austin. In 1848, the Texas Legislature passed "An Act to Establish a State Penitentiary", which created an oversight board to manage the treatment of convicts and administration of the penitentiaries. Land was acquired in Huntsville and Rusk for facilities; the prison system began as a single institution, located in Huntsville. A second prison facility, Rusk Penitentiary, began receiving convicts in January 1883.
Before the Ruiz v. Estelle court case, the Texas Department of Corrections had 18 units, including 16 for males and two for females. Various administrative changes where the organization of the managing board of the department occurred over the next 100 years. In 1921, George W. Dixon of The Prison Journal published a report on the Texas Prison System facilities, his article stated. Dixon said that the prisons featured corporal punishment such as whipping and isolation. In July and August 1974, a major riot at the Huntsville Walls prison resulted in the murder of two hostages. In 1979, Ruiz v. Estelle found that the conditions of imprisonment within the TDC prison system constituted cruel and unusual punishment in violation of the United States Constitution; the decision led to federal oversight of the system, with a prison construction boom and "sweeping reforms... that fundamentally changed how Texas prisons operated."In 1989, the TDJC and the Board of Criminal Justice were created. The board is composed of nine members appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the senate to six-year, overlapping terms.
This new agency absorbed functions of three state agencies - the Texas Department of Corrections, the Texas Board of Pardons and Paroles, the Texas Adult Probation Commission. In the 1980s, the government of Texas began building more prisons. During that decade, impoverished rural communities viewed the prisons as a boon, as they provided jobs. In 1987, the Texas State Board of Corrections voted to build two new 2,250-inmate maximum-security prisons in Gatesville and Amarillo and several 1,000-inmate medium-security prisons in Liberty County, Marlin and Woodville; the TDC units in Amarillo and Snyder were the first ones located outside of Central Texas and East Texas. James Anthum "Andy" Collins, the executive director of the TDCJ from April 10, 1994, to around December 1995, became a consultant for VitaPro, a company selling a meat substitute, used in Texas prisons. Shirley Southerland, a prisoner at the Hobby Unit, stated that her fellow prisoners discovered that the VitaPro product was intended for consumption by canines.
Collins arranged for VitaPro to be used while he was still the head of the TDCJ. Collins had awarded a $33.7 million contract to the company. Robert Draper of the Texas Monthly accused various TDCJ board members and state officials in the early to mid-1990s of capitalizing on the rapid expansion of Texas prisons – from 1994 to 1996 the number of prisoners doubled and the number of the prison units increased from 65 to 108 – and trying to establish favorable business contracts and/or get prisons named after them. Draper reasoned, "If and other board members didn't care about ethics, why should Andy Collins?" According to a December 2007 survey of prisoners from the U. S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, five TDCJ units, Allred Unit, Clemens Unit, Coffield Unit, Estelle Unit, Mountain View Unit, were among those in the United States with the highest numbers of reported prison rape cases in 2006. In 2007, the TDCJ reported. Michelle Lyons, the TDCJ spokesperson, said, "The actual reports we have are not consistent with the results in the survey, but because it's anonymous, there's no way for us to verify that additional number."In 2008, the TDCJ planned to install cell phone-jamming devices at its units, but encountered resistance from cell phone companies.
In 2014, the Human Rights Clinic of the University of Texas School of Law released a report stating that the temperatures in many TDCJ units are too high over the summer and that at least 14 inmates had been killed by the heat since 2007. In 2013, the TDCJ had signed a deal for a climate-controlled housing system for pig breeding. In response, John Whitmire of the Texas State Senate stated, "the people of Texas don't want air-conditioned prisons, there's a lot of other things on my list above the heat. It's hot in Texas, a lot of Texans who are not in prison don't have air conditioning." That year, a federal judge declared that the TDCJ is making it impossible for Muslim inmates to practice their religion. In 2017, the use of solitary confinement as punishment was ended; the Texas Board of Criminal Justice oversees the TDCJ. The board selects the executive director, who manages the TDCJ; the members of the board are appointed by the Governor of Texas. Dale Wainwright R. Terrell McCombs Eric Gambrell E.
F. "Mano" DeAyala Thomas G. Fordyce Larry Don Miles Patrick O'Daniel Derrelynn Perryman Thomas P. Wingate The department encompasses these major divisions: Correctional Institutions Division Parole Division Community Justice Assistance Division The Co
The Central Unit was a Texas Department of Criminal Justice men's prison in Sugar Land, Texas. The 325.8-acre facility is 2 miles from the central part of the city of Sugar Land on U. S. Highway 90A; the unit first opened in April 1909. The unit had 950 beds for men but related facilities increased capacity at the site. Sugar Land Regional Airport was developed adjacent to this unit, with the runway between two parts of the prison property; the Central Unit was the only state prison within the city limits of Sugar Land which, since 1960, has been developed as a suburban, upscale residential and business city. In August 2011, the TDCJ announced that the Central Unit would be the first prison in Texas to close without being replaced; the state wanted to save money at a time of budget shortfalls. Since most of the former prison plantation land has been redeveloped by Newland Communities as a master-planned community known as Telfair. Newland Communities had bought the land in 2002 from the State of Texas, long planning such development.
Two Camp, a former prison building, has been renovated as the Houston Museum of Natural Science Sugar Land. Other parts of the site are zoned for light industrial use to support the airport. In 1878 the state began to lease convicts as laborers to private companies operating on the Imperial Sugar property; this practice was widespread in Texas and across the South after Reconstruction, when few states had prisons. Many states generated substantial revenues from the fees for convict leasing, they passed what were known as Black Codes, criminalizing behavior they believed associated with freedmen and charging them fees for convictions, for instance, for so-called vagrancy. Because in a cash-poor economy, men couldn't pay the fee, they were required to work off the costs as convict laborers; the states made so much money. Convict leasing was little regulated; this system was explored and documented in Douglas A. Blackmon's Slavery by Another Name: The Re-Enslavement of Black Americans from the Civil War to World War II.
The State of Texas bought the 5,200-acre area in 1908. The Imperial State Prison Farm, one of the first penal institutions owned by the State of Texas, opened in 1909 in the Imperial Sugar plantation, it had 3,700 acres and was the hub of the Texas state correctional agriculture production. In 1930 the facility was renamed as the Central State Prison Farm; the name "Central" originates from the prison's status for many years as the central farming and distribution point of agricultural goods from correctional facilities. Construction of a new unit of the Central Farm, funded by the 41st Texas Legislature, began in late 1930; the $350,000 unit was completed in late 1932. It consisted of 12 acres of land, including a main building with administration and inmate housing, an industrial facilities building with a canner, meatpacking plant, powerhouse; the state intended for Central to become the central intake and rehabilitation prison in the prison system. In the mid-1930s Central had nearly 700 prisoners.
In 1935 Central housed both African American prisoners, who were segregated. In the 1950s the prison had over 1,000 inmates. In 1963, before racial desegregation occurred, the facility housed first offenders and white male prisoners under 25 years of age. Central Unit II housed male African-American second offenders under the age of 25. In 1991 3,700 acres of land was transferred to the Texas Department of Transportation for the construction of Texas State Highway 99 and other highways. By 2007 the state had sold land, surrounding development over the years reduced the prison to 336 acres. In 2000 the prison operated the "Texas Fresh Approach" program, a collaborative developed by the TDCJ, Miller Brewing Co. and the Texas Association of Second Harvest Food Banks. As part of the program, prisoners grew vegetables; the TDCJ officials said. Miller paid for the transportation of vegetables in the "Fighting Hunger in Texas" program. In March 2007 39-year-old David Shane Roberts escaped from the Central Unit.
By 2007 residential development began to surround the prison. In addition, the Central Unit is in land zoned by the county for expansion of the Sugar Land Regional Airport; the airport was considering expansion of its facilities, was seeking a $30 million federal grant to study those possibilities. The City of Sugar Land made moving the facility one of its main priorities for the 2007 state legislative session. John Whitmire, a member of the Texas State Senate, advocated moving the facility to an area in Brazoria County, Texas near the community of Rosharon; the area has several existing TDCJ facilities. Whitmire said that a prison in that location would be less expensive to operate and would allow the state to alleviate a shortage of correction personnel by consolidating staff members. In 2007 TDCJ officials said that discussions to move the Central Unit from Sugar Land to Brazoria County were preliminary. During the same year, Whitmire promoted a bill calling for a study for the feasibility of selling the land of the Central Unit.
The bill awaited the signature of Governor of Texas Rick Perry. As of that year the Texas General Land Office estimated the value of the land to $10.1 million. Hal Croft, the acting deputy director of asset management of the land office, said in a press release "That
National Football League
The National Football League is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided between the National Football Conference and the American Football Conference. The NFL is one of the four major professional sports leagues in North America, the highest professional level of American football in the world; the NFL's 17-week regular season runs from early September to late December, with each team playing 16 games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, six teams from each conference advance to the playoffs, a single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, held in the first Sunday in February, is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC; the NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. The NFL agreed to merge with the American Football League in 1966, the first Super Bowl was held at the end of that season. Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is among the biggest club sporting events in the world and individual Super Bowl games account for many of the most watched television programs in American history, all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U. S. television broadcasts by 2015. The NFL's executive officer is the commissioner; the players in the league belong to the National Football League Players Association. The team with the most NFL championships is the Green Bay Packers with thirteen; the current NFL champions are the New England Patriots, who defeated the Los Angeles Rams in Super Bowl LIII for their sixth Super Bowl championship. On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros, Canton Bulldogs, Cleveland Indians, Dayton Triangles at the Jordan and Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio; this meeting resulted in the formation of the American Professional Football Conference, a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to "raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for players between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules".
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states-Akron, Canton and Dayton from Ohio. The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association; the league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, consisted of 14 teams. The Massillon Tigers from Massillon, Ohio was at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys and the Chicago Cardinals, remain. Although the league did not maintain official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their 8–0–3 record; the first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–0 at Douglas Park. On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play occurred; the following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League. In 1932, the season ended with the Chicago Bears and the Portsmouth Spartans tied for first in the league standings. At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning percentage at the end of the season was declared the champion; this method had been used since the league's creation in 1920, but no situation had been encountered where two teams were tied for first. The league determined that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion; the teams were scheduled to play the playoff game a regular season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–0 and thus won the championship.
Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in 1933, to split into two divisions with a championship game to be played between the division champions. The 1934 season marked the first of 12 seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league; the de facto ban was rescinded in 1946, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar ban in Major League Baseball. The NFL was always the foremost pro
New York Giants
The New York Giants are a professional American football team based in the New York metropolitan area. The Giants compete in the National Football League as a member club of the league's National Football Conference East division; the team plays its home games at MetLife Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey, which it shares with the New York Jets in a unique arrangement. The Giants hold their summer training camp at the Quest Diagnostics Training Center at the Meadowlands Sports Complex; the Giants were one of five teams that joined the NFL in 1925, is the only one of that group still existing, as well as the league's longest-established team in the Northeastern United States. The team ranks third among all NFL franchises with eight NFL championship titles: four in the pre–Super Bowl era and four since the advent of the Super Bowl, along with more championship appearances than any other team, with 19 overall appearances, their championship tally is surpassed only by the Green Bay Packers and Chicago Bears.
Throughout their history, the Giants have featured 28 Hall of Fame players, including NFL Most Valuable Player award winners Mel Hein, Frank Gifford, Y. A. Tittle, Lawrence Taylor. To distinguish themselves from the professional baseball team of the same name, the football team was incorporated as the "New York National League Football Company, Inc." in 1929 and changed to "New York Football Giants, Inc." in 1937. While the baseball team moved to San Francisco after the 1957 season, the football team continues to use "New York Football Giants, Inc." as its legal corporate name, is referred to by fans and sportscasters as the "New York Football Giants". The team has acquired several nicknames, including "Big Blue", the "G-Men", the "Jints", an intentionally mangled contraction seen in the New York Post and New York Daily News, originating from the baseball team when they were based in New York. Additionally, the team as a whole is referred to as the "Big Blue Wrecking Crew" though this moniker and refers to the Giants defensive unit during the 80s and early 90s.
The team's heated rivalry with the Philadelphia Eagles is the oldest of the NFC East rivalries, dating all the way back to 1933, has been called the best rivalry in the NFL in the 21st century. The Giants played their first game as an away game against All New Britain in New Britain, Connecticut, on October 4, 1925, they defeated New Britain 26–0 in front of a crowd of 10,000. The Giants were successful in their first season, finishing with an 8–4 record. In its third season, the team finished with the best record in the league at 11–1–1 and was awarded the NFL title. After a disappointing fourth season owner Mara bought the entire squad of the Detroit Wolverines, principally to acquire star quarterback Benny Friedman, merged the two teams under the Giants name. In 1930, there were still many who questioned the quality of the professional game, claiming the college "amateurs" played with more intensity than professionals. In December 1930, the Giants played a team of Notre Dame All Stars at the Polo Grounds to raise money for the unemployed of New York City.
It was an opportunity to establish the skill and prestige of the pro game. Knute Rockne reassembled his Four Horsemen along with the stars of his 1924 Championship squad and told them to score early defend. Rockne, like much of the public, expected an easy win, but from the beginning it was a one-way contest, with Friedman running for two Giant touchdowns and Hap Moran passing for another. Notre Dame failed to score; when it was all over, Coach Rockne told his team, "That was the greatest football machine I saw. I am glad none of you got hurt." The game raised $100,000 for the homeless, is credited with establishing the legitimacy of the professional game for those who were critical. It was the last game the legendary Rockne coached. In a 14-year span from 1933 to 1947, the Giants qualified to play in the NFL championship game 8 times, winning twice. During this period the Giants were led by Hall of Fame coach Steve Owen, Hall of Fame players Mel Hein, Red Badgro and Tuffy Leemans; the period featured the 1944 Giants, which are ranked as the #1 defensive team in NFL history, "...a awesome unit".
They gave up only 7.5 points per game and shut out five of their 10 opponents, though they lost 14-7 to the Green Bay Packers in the 1944 NFL Championship Game. The famous "Sneakers Game" was played in this era where the Giants defeated the Chicago Bears on an icy field in the 1934 NFL Championship Game, while wearing sneakers for better traction; the Giants played the Detroit Lions to a scoreless tie on November 7, 1943. To this day, no NFL game played since has ended in a scoreless tie; the Giants were successful from the latter half of the 1930s until the United States entry into World War II. They added their third NFL championship in 1938 with a 23–17 win over the Green Bay Packers, they did not win another league title until 1956, the first year the team began playing at Yankee Stadium in the Bronx borough of New York City. Aided by a number of future Pro Football Hall of Fame players such as running back Frank Gifford, linebacker Sam Huff, offensive tackle Roosevelt Brown, as well as all-pro running back Alex Webster.
The Giants' 1956 championship team not only included players who would find their way to the Pro Football Hall of Fame, but a Hall of Fame coaching staff, as well. Head coach J
New England Patriots
The New England Patriots are a professional American football team based in the Greater Boston area. The Patriots compete in the National Football League as a member club of the league's American Football Conference East division; the team plays its home games at Gillette Stadium in the town of Foxborough, located 21 miles southwest of downtown Boston, Massachusetts and 20 miles northeast of downtown Providence, Rhode Island. The Patriots are headquartered at Gillette Stadium. An original member of the American Football League, the Patriots joined the NFL in the 1970 merger of the two leagues; the team changed its name from the original Boston Patriots after relocating to Foxborough in 1971. The Patriots played their home games at Foxboro Stadium from 1971 to 2001 moved to Gillette Stadium at the start of the 2002 season; the Patriots' rivalry with the New York Jets is considered one of the most bitter rivalries in the NFL. Since the arrival of head coach Bill Belichick and quarterback Tom Brady in 2000, the Patriots have since become one of the most successful teams in NFL history, winning 16 AFC East titles in 18 seasons since 2001, without a losing season in that period.
The franchise has since set numerous notable records, including most wins in a ten-year period, an undefeated 16-game regular season in 2007, the longest winning streak consisting of regular season and playoff games in NFL history, the most consecutive division titles won by a team in NFL history. The team owns the record for most Super Bowls reached and won by a head coach–quarterback tandem, most Super Bowl appearances overall, tied with the Pittsburgh Steelers for the most Super Bowl wins, tied with the Denver Broncos for the most Super Bowl losses. On November 16, 1959, Boston business executive Billy Sullivan was awarded the eighth and final franchise of the developing American Football League; the following winter, locals were allowed to submit ideas for the Boston football team's official name. The most popular choice – and the one that Sullivan selected – was the "Boston Patriots," with "Patriots" referring to those colonists of the Thirteen Colonies who rebelled against British control during the American Revolution and in July 1776 declared the United States of America an independent nation.
Thereafter, artist Phil Bissell of The Boston Globe developed the "Pat Patriot" logo. The Patriots struggled for most of their years in the AFL, they never had a regular home stadium. Nickerson Field, Harvard Stadium, Fenway Park, Alumni Stadium all served as home fields during their time in the American Football League, they played in only one AFL championship game, following the 1963 season, in which they lost to the San Diego Chargers 51–10. They did not appear again in an NFL post-season game for another 13 years; when the NFL and AFL merged in 1970, the Patriots were placed in the American Football Conference East division, where they still play today. The following year, the Patriots moved to a new stadium in Foxborough, which would serve as their home for the next 30 years; as a result of the move, they announced they would change their name from the Boston Patriots to the Bay State Patriots. The name was rejected by the NFL and on March 22, 1971, the team announced they would change its geographic name to New England.
During the 1970s, the Patriots had some success, earning a berth to the playoffs in 1976—as a wild card team—and in 1978—as AFC East champions. They lost in the first round both times. In 1985, they returned to the playoffs, made it all the way to Super Bowl XX, which they lost to the Chicago Bears 46–10. Following their Super Bowl loss, they lost in the first round; the team would not make the playoffs again for eight more years. During the 1990 season, the Patriots went 1–15, they changed ownership three times in the ensuing 14 years, being purchased from the Sullivan family first by Victor Kiam in 1988, who sold the team to James Orthwein in 1992. Though Orthwein's period as owner was short and controversial, he did oversee major changes to the team, first with the hiring of former New York Giants coach Bill Parcells in 1993. Orthwein and his marketing team commissioned the NFL to develop a new visual identity and logo, changed their primary colors from the traditional red and blue to blue and silver for the team uniforms.
Orthwein intended to move the team to his native St. Louis, but instead sold the team in 1994 for $175 million to its current owner, Robert Kraft. Since the Patriots have sold out every home game in both Foxboro Stadium and Gillette Stadium. By 2009, the value of the franchise had increased by over $1 billion, to a Forbes magazine estimated value of $1.361 billion, third highest in the NFL only behind the Dallas Cowboys and Washington Redskins. As of July 2018, the Patriots are the sixth most valuable sports franchise in the world according to Forbes magazine with a value of $3.7 billion. Continuing on as head coach under Kraft's ownership, Parcells would bring the Patriots to two playoff appearances, including Super Bowl XXXI, which they lost to the Green Bay Packers by a score of 35–21. Pete Carroll, Parcells's successor, would take the team to the playoffs twice in 1997 and 1998 before being dismissed as head coach after the 1999 season; the Patriots hired current head coach Bill Belichick, who had served as defensive coordinator under Parcells including during Super Bowl XXXI, in 2000.
Their new home field, Gillette Stadium, opened in 2002 to