South Africa the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation, it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status; the remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures and religions, its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, the fourth highest number in the world. Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most coloured and white South Africans.
The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup d'état, regular elections have been held for a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a large role in the country's recent history and politics; the National Party imposed apartheid in 1948. After a long and sometimes violent struggle by the African National Congress and other anti-apartheid activists both inside and outside the country, the repeal of discriminatory laws began in 1990. Since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the country's liberal democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is referred to as the "rainbow nation" to describe the country's multicultural diversity in the wake of apartheid; the World Bank classifies South Africa as an upper-middle-income economy, a newly industrialised country.
Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, the 34th-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa; however and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed and living on less than US$1.25 a day. South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, maintains significant regional influence; the name "South Africa" is derived from the country's geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation, the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, reflecting its origin from the unification of four separate British colonies. Since 1961, the long form name in English has been the "Republic of South Africa". In Dutch, the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika. Since 1994, the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa, while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term "Azania".
South Africa contains human-fossil sites in the world. Archaeologists have recovered extensive fossil remains from a series of caves in Gauteng Province; the area, a UNESCO World Heritage site, has been branded "the Cradle of Humankind". The sites include one of the richest sites for hominin fossils in the world. Other sites include Gondolin Cave Kromdraai, Coopers Cave and Malapa. Raymond Dart identified the first hominin fossil discovered in Africa, the Taung Child in 1924. Further hominin remains have come from the sites of Makapansgat in Limpopo Province and Florisbad in the Free State Province, Border Cave in KwaZulu-Natal Province, Klasies River Mouth in Eastern Cape Province and Pinnacle Point and Die Kelders Cave in Western Cape Province; these finds suggest that various hominid species existed in South Africa from about three million years ago, starting with Australopithecus africanus. There followed species including Australopithecus sediba, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo helmei, Homo naledi and modern humans.
Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for at least 170,000 years. Various researchers have located pebble tools within the Vaal River valley. Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were present south of the Limpopo River by the 4th or 5th century CE, they displaced and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers, the Khoikhoi and San peoples. The Bantu moved south; the earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people; the Xhosa reached the Great Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province. As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations
Bavaria the Free State of Bavaria, is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner. With an area of 70,550.19 square kilometres, Bavaria is the largest German state by land area comprising a fifth of the total land area of Germany. With 13 million inhabitants, it is Germany's second-most-populous state after North Rhine-Westphalia. Bavaria's main cities are Nuremberg; the history of Bavaria includes its earliest settlement by Iron Age Celtic tribes, followed by the conquests of the Roman Empire in the 1st century BC, when the territory was incorporated into the provinces of Raetia and Noricum. It became a stem duchy in the 6th century AD following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, it was incorporated into the Holy Roman Empire, became an independent kingdom, joined the Prussian-led German Empire while retaining its title of kingdom, became a state of the Federal Republic of Germany. The Duchy of Bavaria dates back to the year 555. In the 17th century AD, the Duke of Bavaria became a Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Kingdom of Bavaria existed from 1806 to 1918. In 1946, the Free State of Bavaria re-organised itself on democratic lines after the Second World War. Bavaria has a unique culture because of the state's Catholic majority and conservative traditions. Bavarians have traditionally been proud of their culture, which includes a language, architecture, festivals such as Oktoberfest and elements of Alpine symbolism; the state has the second largest economy among the German states by GDP figures, giving it a status as a rather wealthy German region. Modern Bavaria includes parts of the historical regions of Franconia and Swabia; the Bavarians emerged in a region north of the Alps inhabited by Celts, part of the Roman provinces of Raetia and Noricum. The Bavarians spoke Old High German, unlike other Germanic groups, they did not migrate from elsewhere. Rather, they seem to have coalesced out of other groups left behind by the Roman withdrawal late in the 5th century; these peoples may have included the Celtic Boii, some remaining Romans, Allemanni, Thuringians, Scirians, Heruli.
The name "Bavarian" means "Men of Baia" which may indicate Bohemia, the homeland of the Celtic Boii and of the Marcomanni. They first appear in written sources circa 520. A 17th century Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the diocese was named after an ancient Bohemian king, Boiia, in the 14th century BC. From about 554 to 788, the house of Agilolfing ruled the Duchy of Bavaria, ending with Tassilo III, deposed by Charlemagne. Three early dukes are named in Frankish sources: Garibald I may have been appointed to the office by the Merovingian kings and married the Lombard princess Walderada when the church forbade her to King Chlothar I in 555, their daughter, became Queen of the Lombards in northern Italy and Garibald was forced to flee to her when he fell out with his Frankish overlords. Garibald's successor, Tassilo I, tried unsuccessfully to hold the eastern frontier against the expansion of Slavs and Avars around 600. Tassilo's son Garibald II seems to have achieved a balance of power between 610 and 616.
After Garibald II little is known of the Bavarians until Duke Theodo I, whose reign may have begun as early as 680. From 696 onwards he invited churchmen from the west to organize churches and strengthen Christianity in his duchy, his son, led a decisive Bavarian campaign to intervene in a succession dispute in the Lombard Kingdom in 714, married his sister Guntrud to the Lombard King Liutprand. At Theodo's death the duchy was reunited under his grandson Hugbert. At Hugbert's death the duchy passed from neighboring Alemannia. Odilo issued a law code for Bavaria, completed the process of church organization in partnership with St. Boniface, tried to intervene in Frankish succession disputes by fighting for the claims of the Carolingian Grifo, he was defeated near Augsburg in 743 but continued to rule until his death in 748. Saint Boniface completed the people's conversion to Christianity in the early 8th century. Tassilo III succeeded his father at the age of eight after an unsuccessful attempt by Grifo to rule Bavaria.
He ruled under Frankish oversight but began to function independently from 763 onwards. He was noted for founding new monasteries and for expanding eastwards, fighting Slavs in the eastern Alps and along the River Danube and colonising these lands. After 781, his cousin Charlemagne began to pressure Tassilo to submit and deposed him in 788; the deposition was not legitimate. Dissenters attempted a coup against Charlemagne at Tassilo's old capital of Regensburg in 792, led by his own son Pépin the Hunchback; the king had to drag Tassilo out of imprisonment to formally renounce his rights and titles at the Assembly of Frankfurt in 794. This is the last appearance of Tassilo in the sources, he died a monk; as all of his family were forced into monasteries, this was the end of the Agilolfing dynasty. For the next 400 years numerous families held the duchy for more than three generations. With the revolt of duke Henry the Quarrelsome in 976, Bavaria lost large territories in the south and
South African National Census of 2011
The South African National Census of 2011 is the 3rd comprehensive census performed by Statistics South Africa. The 2011 census was the first census to include geo-referencing for every individual dwelling in South Africa; the development of an overall strategy began in April 2003 for a planned national census in 2006 to meet the United Nations global directive for a census every five years. After an application to the government, it was postponed to 2011 to improve strategies to reduce undercounting in gated communities and rural areas. In February 2007 a large-scale Community Survey was conducted in all provinces, it was based on a random sample. The main objective was to provide data of geography at district and municipal levels, build a logistics capacity for 2011 and primary data for population projections; the results were released in October 2007 with the caution that figures must be read with a "certain interval of confidence". With lessons from the National Census in 2001 and Community Survey in 2007, a "team cells" approach was developed.
This strategy was adopted because of a skills-shortage, using experts from the United States and United Kingdom to conduct on-the-job training for temporary Census staff. The programme was divided into a three-level hierarchy of sub-projects as follows: Head office with the main function of providing support to the lower levels. Provincial offices were responsible for coordination of all activities at their associated district and satellite offices. District/Satellite offices implemented the fieldwork operations throughout the country. During October 2010 a "dress rehearsal" was held, it tested all processed and refined the process to ensure a successful enumeration. There were a large number of non-response cases; this suggested. The pre-enumeration phase involved over 7000 temporary staff, who concurrently demarcated enumeration areas, evaluated questionnaires and developed satellite office logistics; the demarcation process involved dividing the country into "small pockets" of land, called enumeration areas based on administrative boundaries and population density.
The data used included satellite images, address data, gated community blueprints, sectional titles and sub-place spatial boundaries. The objective of the project was to identity and describe 50% of dwelling structures in South Africa that have no address, predominantly in the former bantustans, it was utilised for the first time in the 2011 National Census. The geography division produced a list of 103,576 enumeration areas, a 25.68% increase of the 80,000 areas used in the 2001 Census. These areas were classified into ten types: Formal residential, Informal residential, Traditional residential, Farm and recreation, Collective living quarters, Small holding and Commercial; the Verification Project only audited 28.96% of enumeration areas between November 2010 and July 2011. This resulted in some large areas to be verified during enumeration fieldwork, in some cases the area was split by identifiable features on the ground and earmarked for extra fieldworkers; the development of the 2011 questionnaire focused on accuracy, relevance and coherence.
There was a review of data points used in the 2001 Census and part of the review involved aligning the new questionnaire with best practises outlined by the United Nations Principles and Recommendations for Population and Housing Censuses. During 2009, a series of "behind-the-glass" test interviews were conducted with various Living Standard Measurement and language groups in South Africa; this research provided insight into the willingness of the respondent to answer "sensitive" questions, such as income, mortality, fertility and migration. The final questionnaires were printed predominantly in the English and Isizulu, with translation guides for the remaining official languages, split into three forms: Questionnaire A was designed for all people living in a households, including within institution grounds such as staff residences. Questionnaire B was for those in collective living quarters. Questionnaire C was for the population in transit on Census night, including the homeless; the recruitment process for permanent and temporary staff was held between early-2007 and May 2011, it involved Capacity Building Training Projects, targeted recruitment, employment agencies and a nationwide advertising campaign through multiple channels.
A projected 181,426 staff members were required for the Census, the phase ended with 169,225 recruited out 350,000 potential candidates - leaving a 6.96% shortfall. The largest gaps were in the Fieldwork Coordinators, Fieldwork Supervisors and Fieldworkers positions, as the Census was designed to be community based and some areas were without potential Fieldworkers; the logistics of Fieldworker payment was managed by Recruitment, Administration, Payment and Reconciliation committee, who aimed to deliver payment a week after completion of work. Stats SA indicated that they would be recruiting 156,000 individuals for the Census 2011 operation including 120,000 fieldworkers, 30,000 supervisors and 6,000 census fieldwork coordinators. Census night was the night between 9 and 10 October 2011. 20 million questionnaires were distributed during the 21-day enumeration phase from 10 to 31 October 2011 and a two-week "mop-up exercise" following up on households missed during the enumeration phase. "The processing of about 15 million questionnaires commenced in Janua
Kempten is the largest town of Allgäu, in Swabia, Germany. The population was about 68,000 in 2016; the area was settled by Celts, but was taken over by the Romans, who called the town Cambodunum. Kempten is the oldest urban settlement in Germany; the Greek geographer Strabo mentions in 50 BC a town of the Celtic Estiones named Kambodunon. This is considered the oldest written reference of any German city. So far no archaeological evidence could be found that this Celtic settlement existed. In 15 BC Roman troops led by Nero Claudius Drusus and his brother Tiberius conquered and destroyed an existing Celtic settlement; the settlement was named Cambodunum. In the following years the city was rebuilt on a classical Roman city plan with baths and temples. In wood, the city was rebuilt in stone after a devastating fire that destroyed the entire city in the year 69 AD; the city served as provincial capital of Raetia during the first century before Augsburg took over this role. Extensive archaeological excavations at the end of the 19th century and again during the 1950s at what were the outskirts of Kempten unearthed the extensive structural foundations.
The city was again destroyed in 233 AD by a Suebic tribe. The original site of Cambodunum was abandoned and the settlement moved to a strategically safer location on the Burghalde hill overlooking the river Iller. In the middle of the 5th century the last Roman troops had left the area and the city was taken over by the Alemanni. After the Romans abandoned the settlement, it was moved from the hill down to the plains located next to the river Iller. In written sources, the town appears as Cambidano. Being still predominantly Alemannic, the town once more was destroyed by the Franks in 683 as a consequence of the city's support of an uprising against the Frankish kingdom. Around 700 a monastery — Kempten Abbey — was built, the first in the Allgäu region, founded by two Benedictine monks from the Abbey of Saint Gall, Magnus von Füssen and Theodor. Audogar was the first abbot of the new Benedictine monastery. Through the financial and lobbyist support of Charlemagne’s wife Hildegard, an Allemannic princess, the monastery managed to become one of the most privileged of the Frankish Empire.
After several ravages by the Magyars, Ulrich of Augsburg, bishop of Augsburg and abbot of Kempten, began the rebuilding of the monastery and the city in 941. In 1213, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II declared the abbots members of the Reichstag and granted the abbot the right to bear the title of Duke; however in 1289, King Rudolf I of Germany granted special privileges to the urban settlement in the river valley, making it the Free Imperial City of Kempten. In 1525 the last property rights of the abbots in the Imperial City were sold in the so-called "Great Purchase", marking the start of the co-existence of two independent cities bearing the same name next to each other. More conflict arose after the Imperial City converted to Protestantism in direct opposition to the Catholic monastery in 1527. During the turmoil of the Thirty Years' War, both cities were destroyed by the imperial forces and the Swedish troops respectively. In 1652 Roman Giel of Gielsberg, the Abbot of Kempten, commissioned the architects Michael Beer and Johann Serro from Graubünden to build St. Lorenz Basilica as a new church to serve the parish and monastery, including a representative residence for the Duke-Abbots.
This is acknowledged as the first large church built in Germany after the end of the Thirty Years' War. During the Napoleonic Wars the Duke-Abbey and Imperial City came under Bavarian rule. In 1819, the two rival cities were united into a single communal entity; the city was the location of a subcamp of the Dachau concentration camp during World War II. Claude Honoré Desiré Dornier born in Kempten im Allgäu was a German aircraft engineer and founder of Dornier GmbH, his legacy remains in the few aircraft named after him, including the Dornier Do 18 and the 12-engine Dornier Do X flying boat, for decades the world's largest and most powerful airplane. The St. Lorenz Basilica The St. Mang Church The Burghalde, a ruin; the Duke-Abbots' Residence The Archaeological Park Cambodunum The City Hall and Square The Erasmuskapelle Kempten is well connected with the region through the A 7 autobahn. Bundesstraßen B 12, B 19 and B 309 intersect in Kempten; the city is on the Allgäu Railway, opened as part of the Ludwig South-North Railway in 1852, Kempten station boasts good InterCity and EuroCity rail connections.
The city bus system is operated by Kemptener Verkehrsbetriebe. The Kempten University of Applied Sciences started in the winter semester of 1978–79 with 89 students and since expanded and now accommodates more than 2800 students in eight degree courses: Business Administration Computer Science Electrical Engineering Industrial Engineering – Electronic and Information Technology Industrial Engineering – Mechanical Engineering with Distribution Management or Information Technology Mechanical Engineering Social Management Tourism and Hospitality ManagementThere are three college preparatory schools, called Gymnasium, offering secondary education to the entire region of the Allgäu. Daniel Abt, German racing driver Carl von Linde, German scientist and inventor in cooling technology Heide Schmidt, Austrian politician Ignaz Kiechle, member of Bundestag 1969-1994, Minister for Food, A
South African Republic
The South African Republic referred to as the Transvaal Republic, was an independent and internationally recognised country in Southern Africa from 1852 to 1902. The country defeated the British in what is referred to as the First Boer War and remained independent until the end of the Second Boer War on 31 May 1902, when it was forced to surrender to the British. After the war the territory of the ZAR became the Transvaal Colony; the land area, once the ZAR now comprises all or most of the provinces of Gauteng, Limpopo and North West in the northeastern portion of modern-day Republic of South Africa. Constitutionally the name of the country was the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek; the ZAR was commonly referred to as Transvaal in reference to the area over the Vaal River, including by the British and European press. The British objected to the use of the name Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek. After the end of the First Boer War, the ZAR became a British Suzerain and in the Pretoria Convention of 3 August 1881, the British insisted on the use of the name Transvaal over Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek.
This convention was renegotiated in the London Convention dated 27 February 1884, a subsequent treaty between Britain and the ZAR, Britain acquiesced and the ZAR reverted to the use of the previous name. The name of the South African Republic was of such political significance that on 1 September 1900, the British declared by special proclamation that the name of the country be changed from Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek to the Transvaal; this proclamation was issued during the British occupation of the region in the Second Boer War and while the ZAR was still nominally an independent country. On 31 May 1902, the Treaty of Vereeniging was signed with the government of the South African Republic, the Orange Free State government, the British government, ending the war, converted the ZAR into the Transvaal Colony. Following the establishment of the Union of South Africa in 1910, the Transvaal Colony became Transvaal Province; the name Transvaal was changed in 1994, when the South African government broke up the province into four provinces and renamed the core region to Gauteng.
In paleolithic times, between 2.2 and 3.3 million years ago, hominids lived within the geographic area of the ZAR. The earliest hominid bones, between 2.2 and 3.3 million years old, were discovered at Sterkfontein in 1994. In 1938 Paranthropus robustus bones were found at Kromdraai, during 1947 several more examples of Australopithecus africanus were uncovered in Sterkfontein; the South African Republic came into existence on 17 January 1852, when the United Kingdom signed the Sand River Convention treaty with about 40,000 Boer people, recognising their independence in the region to the north of the Vaal River. The first president of the ZAR was Marthinus Wessel Pretorius, elected in 1857, son of Boer leader Andries Pretorius, who commanded the Boers to victory at the Battle of Blood River; the capital was established at Potchefstroom and moved to Pretoria. The parliament had 24 members; the South African Republic was forcefully annexed by Britain in 1877, during the British' attempt to consolidate the states of southern Africa under British rule.
Long-standing Boer resentment turned into full-blown rebellion in the Transvaal, the First Boer War broke out in 1880. The conflict ended as soon as it began with a decisive Boer victory at Battle of Majuba Hill; the ZAR became independent on the 27 February 1884, when the London Convention was signed. The country independently entered into various agreements with other foreign countries after that date. On 3 November 1884 the country signed a Postal convention with the government of the Cape Colony and similarly with the Orange Free State. On the November 1859, the independent Republics of Lijdenburg and Utrecht merged with the ZAR. On 9 May 1887, burghers from the territories of Stellaland and Goosen were granted rights to the ZAR franchise. On 25 July 1895 the burghers that took part in the battle at Zoutpansberg, were granted citizenship of the ZAR; the constitution of the South African Republic has been referred to as interesting for its time. It contained provisions for the division between the political leadership and office bearers in government administration.
The legal system had adopted a jury system. Laws were enforced by the South African Republic Police which were divided into Mounted Police and Foot Police. On 10 April 1902, the Magistrates Court powers were extended to increase the civil ceiling amounts and to expand criminal jurisdiction to include all criminal cases not punishable by death or banishment. Established was a Municipal Government, Witwatersrand District court and the High Court of Transvaal; the State and Church were not separated in the constitution of the ZAR, citizens of the ZAR had to be members of the Dutch Reformed Church. In 1858 these clauses were altered in the constitution to allow for the Volksraad to approve other Dutch Christian churches; the Reformed Church was approved by the Volksraad in 1858, which had the effect of allowing Paul Kruger, of the to remain a citizen of the ZAR. The Bible itself was often used to interpret the intention of legal documents; the Bible was used to interpret a prisoner exchange agreement, reached in terms of the Sand River Convention, between a commando of the ZAR, led by Paul Kruger and a Commando of the Orange Free State.
President Jacobus Nicolaas Boshoff had issued a death sentence over two ZAR
The Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging, meaning Afrikaner Resistance Movement known by its abbreviation AWB, is a South African neo-Nazi separatist political and paramilitary organisation described as a white supremacist group. Since its founding in 1973 by Eugène Terre'Blanche and six other far-right Afrikaners, it has been dedicated to secessionist Afrikaner nationalism and the creation of an independent Boer-Afrikaner republic or "Volkstaat/Boerestaat" in part of South Africa. During bilateral negotiations to end apartheid in the early 1990s, the organization terrorized and killed black South Africans; as of 2016, it is reported that the organization has around 5,000 members, uses social media for recruitment. On 7 July 1973 Eugène Terre'Blanche, a former police officer, called a meeting of several men in Heidelberg, Gauteng, in the then-Transvaal Province of South Africa, he was disillusioned by what he thought were Prime Minister B. J. Vorster's "liberal views" of racial issues in the white-minority country, after a period in which black majorities had ascended to power in many former colonies.
Terre'Blanche worried about what he characterized as communist influences in South African society. He decided to form a group with six other like-minded persons, which they named the Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging, to promote Afrikaner nationalism, his associates elected him as head of the group, a position he held until he was killed on his farm in April 2010. Their objective was to establish an independent Boerestaat for Boer-Afrikaner people only, it was to be independent of apartheid South Africa. The AWB was formed to try to regain the ground. During the 1970s and 1980s, the AWB attracted several thousand white South Africans as members, they opposed the reform of apartheid laws during the 1980s, harassing liberal politicians and holding large political rallies. Terre'Blanche used forceful personality to win converts, he railed against the lifting of many so-called "petty apartheid" laws, such as the law banning interracial sex and marriage, mixing of the races, as well as the government providing limited political rights to Indians and Coloureds.
During the State of Emergency, AWB violence and murders of unarmed non-whites were reported. The AWB opposed the then-banned African National Congress, which worked to achieve political rights for the indigenous native South Saharan Africans; the ruling National Party considered the AWB to be little more than a fringe group. The group operated unhindered until 1986, when white police officers took the unprecedented step of using tear gas against the AWB when they disrupted a National Party rally. In 1988, the organisation was estimated to have had support amongst 5 to 7 percent of the white South African population. In the Nick Broomfield documentary film, His Big White Self, he claimed the organisation reached a peak of half a million supporters in its heyday. During the negotiations that led to South Africa's first multiracial elections, the AWB engaged in violence and murder. During the Battle of Ventersdorp in August 1991, the AWB confronted police in front of the town hall where President F. W. de Klerk was speaking, "a number of people were killed or injured" in the conflict.
In the negotiations, the AWB stormed the Kempton Park World Trade Centre where the negotiations were taking place, breaking through the glass front of the building with an armoured car. The police guarding the centre failed to prevent the invasion; the invaders took over the main conference hall, threatening delegates and painting slogans on the walls, but left again after a short period. Six AWB members were sentenced to death for the murder of four black people at a fake roadblock they set up to terrorize black travellers. In 1988, the AWB was beset by scandal when claims that Terre'Blanche had had an affair with journalist Jani Allan surfaced. In July 1989, Cornelius Lottering, a member of a breakaway AWB group Orde van die Dood, attempted to assassinate Allan by placing a bomb outside her Sandton apartment. Nick Broomfield's 1991 documentary The Leader, His Driver and the Driver's Wife claimed that Terre'Blanche had sex with Allan, a claim she denied; this led to Allan taking libel proceedings against the documentary broadcaster Channel 4 in 1992 in the London High Court.
During the trial, several transcripts of their alleged unconventional sexual positions appeared in the South African and British press. Terre'Blanche submitted a sworn statement to the London court denying that he had had an affair with Allan. Although the judge found that Channel 4's allegations had not defamed Allan, he did not rule on whether or not there had been an affair. AWB members provided training to members of the Zulu Inkatha Freedom Party to help them defend themselves against the ANC and fight for a Zulu homeland. In 1994, before the advent of majority rule, the AWB gained international notoriety in its attempt to defend the dictatorial government of Lucas Mangope in the homeland of Bophuthatswana; the AWB, along with a contingent of about 90 Afrikaner Volksfront militiamen, entered the capital Mmabatho on 10 and 11 March. The black policemen and soldiers of the Bophuthatswana Defence Force who were out in force to support president Mangope
Germiston is a small city in the East Rand region of Gauteng, South Africa, administratively forming part of the City of Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality since the latter's establishment in 2000. It functions as the municipal seat of Ekurhuleni, hosting the municipal administration, it was established in the early days of the gold rush when two prospectors, John Jack from the farm of Germiston near Glasgow and August Simmer from Vacha in Germany, struck paydirt on the farm of Elandsfontein. In August 1887, the pair were on their way to the Eastern Transvaal when they outspanned on the farm Elandsfontein and decided to stay and buy the land. Both men made fortunes and the town sprang up 2 km from the Simmer and Jack mine named after Jack's fathers farm. In 1921 the world's largest gold refinery, the Rand Refinery, was established at Germiston. Seventy percent of the western world's gold passes through this refinery. Although gold mining wound down in Germiston, to the point that by the end of the 20th century it was no longer a mining centre, the Rand Refinery remains as busy as ever.
The city has a number of historic buildings. Among these are the St Andrew's Presbyterian Church, built in 1905, St Boniface Church designed by Sir Herbert Baker, built in 1910; the church houses the historic 1910 English Romantic Norman and Beard Organ. The Alexander Hotel was partly designed by Baker, using his traditional stone appearance; this building has been renovated and now houses a well-known law firm. The builder of the hotel, Alexander Stuart, some of whose descendants still live in Germiston, died when the RMS Lusitania was torpedoed in the First World War on 7 May 1915; the hotel thus remains a memorial to his pioneer work in the city over a hundred years ago. According to the 2001 census, the population of Germiston consisted of 139,719 people living in 49,062 households, its land area was 129 square kilometres. Of this population, 49.8% described themselves as "White", 46.8% as "Black African", 1.9% as "Coloured", 1.5% as "Indian or Asian". No language was predominant, with the breakdown of first languages being as follows: South African Airways moved its head office from Durban to Rand Airport in Germiston on 1 July 1935.
It moved the offices first to Johannesburg to Kempton Park. The city is an industrial centre with steel manufacture and distribution being the largest industries, it has large railway workshops, a large glassworks, engineering companies, gas distribution firms, many other heavy and light industries. Victoria Lake is better known today as Germiston Lake, the famous Sailing and Rowing Club retains the name of the Victoria Lake Club; the club is home to some of the best canoeists and rowing crews in the country, including the twenty-time South African School Champions, St Benedict's College. The lake is popular at weekends for water-skiing and regattas; the lake grounds have been re-landscaped and the braai areas and shelters rebuilt. The WesBank Raceway motorsports facility was located in the city, but it was sold to industrial estate developers in November 2007; the Raceway was the Gosforth Park Race Club, one of the major horse racing facilities in Gauteng. Germiston Stadium, home stadium of Moroka Swallows FC is located in the city.
This is the home ground for the Germiston Simmer Rugby Club and has a tartan track for athletics. Municipal By 1931, the Germiston municipality had assumed a pseudo-heraldic coat of arms, depicting buck in the veld, a scene showing mineshafts, a railway train in a landscape, a half-tented ox-wagon in a landscape, the quarters separated by a red cross; the motto was Salus populi suprema lex. Municipal A proper coat of arms was granted by the College of Arms in August 1935, it was registered with the Transvaal Provincial Administration in August 1963 and at the Bureau of Heraldry in February 1968. The arms were three bezants; the crest was a rising falcon. Germiston is well connected to five mayor freeways or motorways that service the Greater Johannesburg region; these include to the west of Germiston, the M2 motorway that connects the southern Johannesburg CBD, the N3 Eastern Bypass, the N12 South. On the southern side, the N17 and N3 and in the north, the N12 East and the R24 service the city.
Being a mining and industrial city, Germiston is serviced by passenger rail and the CBD has several stations, the main one being Germiston Station. The industrial areas are service by rail spurs and stations and the Transnet has a large depot north of the CBD in Keswick Road. Germiston is the location of Rand Airport, at one time one of the busiest in Africa and the southern hemisphere. Today it caters for light aircraft and flying schools, but is home to the South African Airways Museum; as a result of this, two of the earlier Boeing 747 Jumbo aircraft used by SAA now reside there on permanent display. Germiston is served by a public state hospital. Other private hospitals include Life Roseacres Hospital in Primrose. There are a number of schools in the city; the oldest high school in