Leland Stanford Junior University is a private research university in Stanford, California. Stanford is known for its academic strength, proximity to Silicon Valley, ranking as one of the world's top universities; the university was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford in memory of their only child, Leland Stanford Jr. who had died of typhoid fever at age 15 the previous year. Stanford was a U. S. Senator and former Governor of California who made his fortune as a railroad tycoon; the school admitted its first students on October 1, 1891, as a coeducational and non-denominational institution. Stanford University struggled financially after the death of Leland Stanford in 1893 and again after much of the campus was damaged by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Following World War II, Provost Frederick Terman supported faculty and graduates' entrepreneurialism to build self-sufficient local industry in what would be known as Silicon Valley; the university is one of the top fundraising institutions in the country, becoming the first school to raise more than a billion dollars in a year.
The university is organized around three traditional schools consisting of 40 academic departments at the undergraduate and graduate level and four professional schools that focus on graduate programs in Law, Medicine and Business. Stanford's undergraduate program is the most selective in the United States by acceptance rate. Students compete in 36 varsity sports, the university is one of two private institutions in the Division I FBS Pac-12 Conference, it has gained the most for a university. Stanford athletes have won 512 individual championships, Stanford has won the NACDA Directors' Cup for 24 consecutive years, beginning in 1994–1995. In addition, Stanford students and alumni have won 270 Olympic medals including 139 gold medals; as of October 2018, 83 Nobel laureates, 27 Turing Award laureates, 8 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with Stanford as students, faculty or staff. In addition, Stanford University is noted for its entrepreneurship and is one of the most successful universities in attracting funding for start-ups.
Stanford alumni have founded a large number of companies, which combined produce more than $2.7 trillion in annual revenue and have created 5.4 million jobs as of 2011 equivalent to the 10th largest economy in the world. Stanford is the alma mater of 30 living billionaires and 17 astronauts, is one of the leading producers of members of the United States Congress. Stanford University was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford, dedicated to Leland Stanford Jr, their only child; the institution opened in 1891 on Stanford's previous Palo Alto farm. Despite being impacted by earthquakes in both 1906 and 1989, the campus was rebuilt each time. In 1919, The Hoover Institution on War and Peace was started by Herbert Hoover to preserve artifacts related to World War I; the Stanford Medical Center, completed in 1959, is a teaching hospital with over 800 beds. The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, established in 1962, performs research in particle physics. Jane and Leland Stanford modeled their university after the great eastern universities, most Cornell University and Harvard University.
Stanford opened being called the "Cornell of the West" in 1891 due to faculty being former Cornell affiliates including its first president, David Starr Jordan. Both Cornell and Stanford were among the first to have higher education be accessible and open to women as well as to men. Cornell is credited as one of the first American universities to adopt this radical departure from traditional education, Stanford became an early adopter as well. Most of Stanford University is on one of the largest in the United States, it is located on the San Francisco Peninsula, in the northwest part of the Santa Clara Valley 37 miles southeast of San Francisco and 20 miles northwest of San Jose. In 2008, 60% of this land remained undeveloped. Stanford's main campus includes a census-designated place within unincorporated Santa Clara County, although some of the university land is within the city limits of Palo Alto; the campus includes much land in unincorporated San Mateo County, as well as in the city limits of Menlo Park and Portola Valley.
The academic central campus is adjacent to Palo Alto, bounded by El Camino Real, Stanford Avenue, Junipero Serra Boulevard, Sand Hill Road. The United States Postal Service has assigned it two ZIP Codes: 94305 for campus mail and 94309 for P. O. box mail. It lies within area code 650. Stanford operates or intends to operate in various locations outside of its central campus. On the founding grant: Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve is a 1,200-acre natural reserve south of the central campus owned by the university and used by wildlife biologists for research. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is a facility west of the central campus operated by the university for the Department of Energy, it contains the longest linear particle accelerator in the world, 2 miles on 426 acres of land. Golf course and a seasonal lake: The university has its own golf course and a seasonal lake, both home to the vulnerable California tiger salamander; as of 2012 Lake Laguni
The Storyteller (sculpture)
The Storyteller known as the Ken Kesey Memorial, is an outdoor bronze sculpture by Pete Helzer, installed at Kesey Square in Eugene, Oregon, in the United States. Unveiled in 2003, it depicts American novelist and countercultural figure Ken Kesey reading to his three grandchildren, Kate Smith, Caleb Kesey and Jordan Smith. Plaques on the base of the sculpture contain excerpts from Kesey's novels One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest and Sometimes a Great Notion. According to Art Daily, the estimated cost of US$120,000 was covered by a variety of sources, "including Phil Knight, Paul Newman, Michael Douglas, Mason Williams, Miloš Forman, Phil Lesh, Bob Weir, Tom Robbins, Larry McMurtry, Jean Auel, Tom Wolfe, Ed McClanahan, Kenny Moore, Sterling Lord, Dale Wasserman, Rolling Stone magazine, Viking Penguin, Rich Brooks, Dave Frohnmayer, Brian Booth, the Chambers Foundation, Bill Walton". In October 2016, the Eugene City Council began considering a proposal from a local development group to buy the square, remove the sculpture, replace the open space with apartments.
Kesey Square, in downtown Eugene, is viewed as "valuable open space by some and as an eyesore by others". Some downtown merchants have complained about nuisance behavior of "travelers", transients who gather at the plaza, using drugs or alcohol, harassing customers. A local merchant who owns property adjacent to the square submitted a second proposal, an update of his 1995 proposal that the Council had rejected; that proposal is to remove brick walls around the square, building a brewery and kitchen incubator, but leaving the sculpture intact. A supporter of the "Save Kesey Square" Facebook page expressed the sentiment, "Public space creates and increases consciousness about what we can create and what we can imagine."According to The Register-Guard, "The city is considering three options for the space: its sale or lease for private redevelopment. List of public art in Eugene, Oregon A Parade of Animals, Salem Rosa Parks, Eugene
Narrative Magazine is an American online literary magazine, published since 2003. The magazine has its headquarters in San Francisco. Narrative was founded in 2003 by author Carol Edgarian, it is a nonprofit dedicated to advancing the literary arts in the digital age. Its online library of writing by established writers, such as T. C. Boyle, Joyce Carol Oates, Tobias Wolff, Robert Olen Butler, James Salter, Ann Packer, Chris Abani, Ann Beattie and Jayne Anne Phillips, younger and emerging writers, such as Anthony Marra, Emily Raboteau, Nate Haken, Edan Lepucki, Skip Horack, Josh Weil, Will Boast is available for free; the Narrative Prize, awarded annually for the best short story, novel excerpt, poem, or work of literary nonfiction published by a new or emerging writer, has been given to the following: Maud Newton, "When the Flock Changed," 2009 Winner. In addition to fiction, creative non-fiction, poetry, Narrative publishes features on craft and other topics related to a writer's professional life.
It was the first literary magazine available for the Kindle. List of literary magazines Official site Narrative Magazine archives
The Vietnam War known as the Second Indochina War, in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America or the American War, was an undeclared war in Vietnam and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union and other communist allies; the war is considered a Cold War-era proxy war from some US perspectives. It lasted some 19 years with direct U. S. involvement ending in 1973 following the Paris Peace Accords, included the Laotian Civil War and the Cambodian Civil War, resulting in all three countries becoming communist states in 1975. American military advisors began arriving in what was French Indochina in 1950 to support the French in the First Indochina War against the communist-led Viet Minh. Most of the funding for the French war effort was provided by the U. S. After the French quit Indochina in 1954, the US assumed financial and military responsibility for the South Vietnamese state.
The Việt Cộng known as Front national de libération du Sud-Viêt Nam or NLF, a South Vietnamese communist common front aided by the North, initiated a guerrilla war against the South Vietnamese government in 1959. U. S. involvement escalated in 1960, continued in 1961 under President John F. Kennedy, with troop levels surging under the MAAG program from just under a thousand in 1959 to 16,000 in 1963. By 1964, there were 23,000 U. S. troops in Vietnam, but this escalated further following the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident, in which a U. S. destroyer was alleged to have clashed with North Vietnamese fast attack craft. In response, the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave President Lyndon B. Johnson broad authorization to increase U. S. military presence, deploying ground combat units for the first time and increasing troop levels to 184,000. Past this point, the People's Army of Vietnam known as the North Vietnamese Army engaged in more conventional warfare with US and South Vietnamese forces; every year onward there was significant build-up of US forces despite little progress, with Robert McNamara, one of the principal architects of the war, beginning to express doubts of victory by the end of 1966.
U. S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces and airstrikes. The U. S. conducted a large-scale strategic bombing campaign against North Vietnam. The Tet Offensive of 1968, proved to be the turning point of the war; the Tet Offensive showed that the end of US involvement was not in sight, increasing domestic skepticism of the war. The unconventional and conventional capabilities of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam increased following a period of neglect and became modeled on heavy firepower-focused doctrines like US forces. Operations crossed international borders. S. forces. Gradual withdrawal of U. S. ground forces began as part of "Vietnamization", which aimed to end American involvement in the war while transferring the task of fighting the communists to the South Vietnamese themselves and began the task of modernizing their armed forces. Direct U. S. military involvement ended on 15 August 1973 as a result of the Case–Church Amendment passed by the U.
S. Congress; the capture of Saigon by the NVA in April 1975 marked the end of the war, North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year. The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities. Estimates of the number of Vietnamese soldiers and civilians killed vary from 966,000 to 3.8 million. Some 275,000–310,000 Cambodians, 20,000–62,000 Laotians, 58,220 U. S. service members died in the conflict, a further 1,626 remain missing in action. The Sino-Soviet split re-emerged following the lull during the Vietnam War and confllict between North Vietnam and its Cambodian allies in the Royal Government of the National Union of Kampuchea, the newly-formed Democratic Kampuchea begun immediately in a series of border raids by the Khmer Rouge and erupted into the Cambodian–Vietnamese War, with Chinese forces directly intervening in the Sino-Vietnamese War; the end of the war and resumption of the Third Indochina War would precipitate the Vietnamese boat people and the bigger Indochina refugee crisis, which saw an estimated 250,000 people perish at sea.
Within the US the war gave rise to what was referred to as Vietnam Syndrome, a public aversion to American overseas military involvements, which together with Watergate contributed to the crisis of confidence that affected America throughout the 1970s. Various names have been applied to the conflict. Vietnam War is the most used name in English, it has been called the Second Indochina War and the Vietnam Conflict. As there have been several conflicts in Indochina, this particular conflict is known by the names of its primary protagonists to distinguish it from others. In Vietnamese, the war is known as Kháng chiến chống Mỹ, but less formally as'Cuộc chiến tranh Mỹ', it is called Chiến tranh Việt Nam. The primary military organizations involved in the war were as follows: One side consisted of th
One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (film)
One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest is a 1975 American comedy-drama film directed by Miloš Forman, based on the 1962 novel One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest by Ken Kesey. The film stars Jack Nicholson as Randle McMurphy, a new patient at a mental institution, features a supporting cast of Louise Fletcher, William Redfield, Will Sampson, Sydney Lassick, Brad Dourif, Christopher Lloyd in his film debut. Filming began in January 1975 and lasted three months, taking place on location in Salem and the surrounding area, as well as on the Oregon coast; the producers decided to shoot the film in the Oregon State Hospital, an actual mental hospital, as this was the setting of the novel. Considered by some to be one of the greatest films made, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest is No. 33 on the American Film Institute's 100 Years... 100 Movies list. The film was the second to win all five major Academy Awards following It Happened One Night in 1934, an accomplishment not repeated until 1991 with The Silence of the Lambs.
It won numerous Golden Globe and BAFTA Awards. In 1993, the film was deemed "culturally or aesthetically significant" by the United States Library of Congress, selected for preservation in the National Film Registry. In 1963 Oregon, recidivist criminal Randle McMurphy is moved to a mental institution after serving a short sentence on a prison farm for statutory rape of a 15-year-old. Though not mentally ill, McMurphy hopes to avoid hard labor and serve the rest of his sentence in a relaxed environment. Upon arriving at the hospital, he finds the ward run by Nurse Ratched, a steely passive-aggressive tyrant who intimidates her patients in order to keep them in line; the other patients include anxious. Ratched soon sees McMurphy’s lively, rebellious presence as a threat to her authority, she confiscates the patients’ cigarettes and rations them, suspends their card-playing privileges. During his time in the ward, McMurphy gets into a battle of wits with Ratched, he steals a hospital bus, escaping with several patients to go on a fishing trip, encouraging his friends to become more self-confident.
McMurphy learns his sentence may become indefinite and he makes plans to escape, exhorting Chief to throw a hydrotherapy console through a window. It is revealed that McMurphy and Taber are the only non-chronic patients sentenced to staying at the institution, as the rest are self-committed and could voluntarily check-out at any time, but are too afraid to do so. McMurphy and Cheswick get into a fight with the orderlies after the latter becomes agitated over his confiscated cigarettes. Ratched sends them to the "shock shop", where McMurphy discovers Chief can speak despite feigning being deaf and mute to avoid engaging with anyone. After being subjected to electroconvulsive therapy, McMurphy returns to the ward pretending to have brain damage, although he reveals the treatment has charged him up more. McMurphy and Chief make plans to escape, but decide to throw a secret Christmas party for their friends after Ratched leaves for the night. McMurphy sneaks two women and Rose, into the ward, bribes the night guard.
After a night of partying, McMurphy and Chief prepare to escape. Not ready to leave the hospital, he refuses. Billy asks for a "date" with McMurphy arranges for him to have sex with her. Ratched arrives in the morning to find the ward in disarray and most of the patients passed out drunk, she discovers Billy and Candy together, Ratched threatens to inform his mother about his escapade. Billy is overwhelmed with fear. Miss Ratched has him placed in and the doctor’s office to wait for the doctor to arrive, where he commits suicide; the enraged McMurphy chokes Ratched, before being knocked out by an orderly. Ratched comes back with a neck brace and a scratchy voice, Harding now leads the now-unsuspended card-playing. Rumors spread that McMurphy has escaped in order to avoid being taken "upstairs"; that night, Chief sees McMurphy being returned to his bed. He discovers that McMurphy has lobotomy scars on his forehead, in an act of mercy, smothers his friend with a pillow. Chief throws the hydrotherapy cart through the window and escapes into the night, cheered on by Taber.
Actor Kirk Douglas—who had originated the role of McMurphy in the 1963–64 Broadway stage version of the Ken Kesey novel—had purchased the film rights to the story, tried for a decade to bring it to the big screen, but was unable to find a studio willing to make it with him. He gave the rights to his son Michael Douglas, who succeeded in getting the film produced—but the elder Douglas, by nearly 60, was considered too old for the McMurphy role, which went to 38-year-old Jack Nicholson. Douglas brought in Saul Zaentz as co-producer; the film's first screenwriter, Lawrence Hauben, introduced Douglas to the work of Miloš Forman, whose 1967 Czechoslovak film The Firemen's Ball had the sort of qualities they were looking for. Forman flew to California and went through the script page by page and outlined what he would do, in contrast with other directors, approached who were less than forthcoming. Forman wrote in 2012: "To me, was not just literature, but real life, the life I
Psychedelia is the subculture, originating in the 1960s, of people who use psychedelic drugs such as LSD, mescaline and psilocybin. The term is used to describe a style of psychedelic artwork and psychedelic music. Psychedelic art and music try to recreate or reflect the experience of altered consciousness. Psychedelic art uses distorted and surreal visuals, bright colors and full spectrums and animation to evoke and convey to a viewer or listener the artist's experience while using such drugs, or to enhance the experience of a user of these drugs. Psychedelic music uses distorted electric guitar, Indian music elements such as the sitar, electronic effects, sound effects and reverberation, elaborate studio effects, such as playing tapes backwards or panning the music from one side to another; the term "psychedelic" is derived from the Ancient Greek words psychē and dēloun, translating to "soul-revealing". A psychedelic experience is characterized by the striking perception of aspects of one's mind unknown, or by the creative exuberance of the mind liberated from its ostensibly ordinary fetters.
Psychedelic states are an array of experiences including changes of perception such as hallucinations, altered states of awareness or focused consciousness, variation in thought patterns, trance or hypnotic states, mystical states, other mind alterations. These processes can lead some people to experience changes in mental operation defining their self-identity different enough from their previous normal state that it can excite feelings of newly formed understanding such as revelation, enlightenment and psychosis. Psychedelic states may be elicited by various techniques, such as meditation, sensory stimulation or deprivation, most by the use of psychedelic substances; when these psychoactive substances are used for religious, shamanic, or spiritual purposes, they are termed entheogens. The term was first coined as a noun in 1956 by psychiatrist Humphry Osmond as an alternative descriptor for hallucinogenic drugs in the context of psychedelic psychotherapy. Seeking a name for the experience induced by LSD, Osmond contacted Aldous Huxley, a personal acquaintance and advocate for the therapeutic use of the substance.
Huxley coined the term "phanerothyme," from the Greek terms for "manifest" and "spirit". In a letter to Osmond, he wrote: To make this mundane world sublime, Take half a gram of phanerothyme To which Osmond responded: To fathom Hell or soar angelic, Just take a pinch of psychedelic It was on this term that Osmond settled, because it was "clear and uncontaminated by other associations." This mongrel spelling of the word'psychedelic' was loathed by American ethnobotanist Richard Evans Schultes, but championed by Timothy Leary, who thought it sounded better. Due to the expanded use of the term "psychedelic" in pop culture and a perceived incorrect verbal formulation, Carl A. P. Ruck, Jeremy Bigwood, Danny Staples, Jonathan Ott, R. Gordon Wasson proposed the term "entheogen" to describe the religious or spiritual experience produced by such substances. From the second half of the 1950s, Beat Generation writers like William Burroughs, Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg wrote about and took drugs, including cannabis and Benzedrine, raising awareness and helping to popularise their use.
In the same period Lysergic acid diethylamide, better known as LSD, or "acid", began to be used in the US and UK as an experimental treatment promoted as a potential cure for mental illness. In the early 1960s the use of LSD and other hallucinogens was advocated by proponents of the new "consciousness expansion", such as Timothy Leary, Alan Watts, Aldous Huxley and Arthur Koestler, their writings profoundly influenced the thinking of the new generation of youth. There had long been a culture of drug use among jazz and blues musicians, use of drugs had begun to grow among folk and rock musicians, who began to include drug references in their songs. By the mid-1960s, the psychedelic life-style had developed in California, an entire subculture developed; this was true in San Francisco, due in part to the first major underground LSD factory, established there by Owsley Stanley. There was an emerging music scene of folk clubs, coffee houses and independent radio stations catering to a population of students at nearby Berkeley, to free thinkers that had gravitated to the city.
From 1964, the Merry Pranksters, a loose group that developed around novelist Ken Kesey, sponsored the Acid Tests, a series of events based around the taking of LSD, accompanied by light shows, film projection and discordant, improvised music known as the psychedelic symphony. The Pranksters helped popularize LSD use through their road trips across America in a psychedelically-decorated school bus, which involved distributing the drug and meeting with major figures of the beat movement, through publications about their activities such as Tom Wolfe's The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test. Leary was a well-known proponent of the use of psychedelics. However, both advanced different opinions on the broad use of psychedelics by state and civil society. Leary promulgated the idea of such substances as a panacea, while Huxley suggested that only the cultural and intellectual elite should partake of entheogens systematically. In the 1960s the use of psychedelic drugs became widespread in modern Western culture in the United States and Britain.
The movement is cre
Miami University is a public research university in Oxford, United States. The university was founded in 1809, although classes were not held until 1824. Miami University is the second-oldest university in Ohio and the 10th oldest public university in the United States; the school's system comprises the main campus in Oxford, as well as regional campuses in Hamilton and West Chester. Miami maintains an international boarding campus, the Dolibois European Center in Differdange, Luxembourg; the Carnegie Foundation classifies Miami University as a research university with a high research activity. It is affiliated with the University System of Ohio. Miami University is well known for its liberal arts education. In its 2017 edition, U. S. News & World Report ranked the university 79th among national universities and the 30th top public university in the United States. Additionally, Miami University is ranked 2nd best national university for undergraduate teaching. Miami is one of the original eight Public Ivy schools, a group of publicly funded universities considered as providing a quality of education comparable to those of the Ivy League.
Miami University has a long tradition of Greek life. Today, Miami University hosts over 50 fraternity and sorority chapters, one-third of the undergraduate student population are members of the Greek community. Miami is renowned for its campus' beauty, having been called "The most beautiful campus that there was" by Pulitzer Prize-winning poet Robert Frost. Additionally, Forbes ranked the city of Oxford first on its 2016 list of the best college towns in the United States. Miami's athletic teams compete in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I and are collectively known as the Miami RedHawks, they compete in the Mid-American Conference in all varsity sports except ice hockey, which competes in the National Collegiate Hockey Conference. The foundations for Miami University were first laid by an Act of Congress signed by President George Washington, stating an academy should be Northwest of the Ohio River in the Miami Valley; the land was within the Symmes Purchase. Congress granted one township to be in the District of Cincinnati to the Ohio General Assembly for the purposes of building a college, two days after Ohio was granted statehood in 1803.
The Ohio Legislature appointed three surveyors in August of the same year to search for a suitable township, they selected a township off of Four Mile Creek. The Legislature passed "An Act to Establish the Miami University" on February 2, 1809, the state created a board of trustees; the township granted to the university was known as the "College Township," and was renamed Oxford, Ohio, in 1810. The University temporarily halted construction due to the War of 1812. Cincinnati tried—and failed—to move Miami to the city in 1822 and to divert its income to a Cincinnati college. Miami created a grammar school in 1818 to teach frontier youth, but it was disbanded after five years. Robert Hamilton Bishop, a Presbyterian minister and professor of history, was appointed to be the first President of Miami University in 1824; the first day of classes at Miami was on November 1, 1824. At its opening, there were two faculty members in addition to Bishop; the curriculum included Greek, Algebra and Roman history.
An "English Scientific Department" was started in 1825, which studied modern languages, applied mathematics, political economy as training for more practical professions. It offered a certificate upon completion of coursework, not a diploma. Miami students purchased a printing press, in 1827 published their first periodical, The Literary Focus, it promptly failed. The Miami Student, founded in 1867, traces its foundation back to the Literary Register and claims to be the oldest college newspaper in the United States. A theological department and a farmer's college were formed in 1829. William Holmes McGuffey joined the faculty in 1826, began his work on the McGuffey Readers while in Oxford. By 1834 the faculty had grown to seven professors and enrollment was at 234 students. Eleven students were expelled including one for firing a pistol at another student. McGuffey resigned and became the President of the Cincinnati College, where he urged parents not to send their children to Miami. Alpha Delta Phi opened its chapter at Miami in 1833, making it the first fraternity chapter West of the Allegheny Mountains.
In 1839, Beta Theta Pi was created. In 1839 Old Miami reached its enrollment peak, with 250 students from 13 states. President Bishop resigned in 1840 due to escalating problems in the University, although he remained as a professor through 1844, he was replaced as President by George Junkin, former President of Lafayette College.