A fumble in American and Canadian football occurs when a player who has possession and control of the ball loses it before being downed, scoring, or going out of bounds. By rule, it is any act other than passing, punting, or successful handing that results in loss of player possession. A fumble may be forced by a defensive player who either grabs or punches the ball or butts the ball with his helmet. A fumbled ball may be advanced by either team, it is one of three events that can cause a turnover, where possession of the ball can change during play. Under American rules a fumble may be confused with a muff. A muff occurs where a player drops a ball that he does not have possession of, such as while attempting to catch a lateral pass or improperly fielding a kicking play such as a punt. Ball security is the ability of a player to maintain control over the football during play and thus avoid a fumble. Thus, losing possession of the ball via a fumble includes not only dropping the ball before being downed.
If the ball is fumbled the defensive team may recover the ball and advance it to their opponents' goal. The same is true for the offense, but when the offense recovers the ball it tries to down it. In American football the offense cannot advance the ball if it recovers its own fumble on fourth down, or in the last two minutes of a half, unless the ball is recovered by the fumbler. However, if the offense fumbles the ball, the defense recovers and fumbles back to the offense, they would get a first down since possession had formally changed over the course of the play though the ball had never been blown dead. In American football, there is no separate signal to indicate a fumble recovery. If the offense recovers its own fumble, the official will indicate the recovery by a hand signal showing the next down. If the defense recovers the fumble, the official will indicate with a "first down" signal in the direction the recovering team is driving the ball; some officials have erroneously used a "first down" signal when the offense recovers its own fumble and the recovery did not result in a first down.
This is not the same thing as when a forward pass is not caught. In this latter case, it is an incomplete pass. However, if the receiver catches the ball, but drops it after gaining control of the ball, considered a fumble. Any number of fumbles can be committed during a play, including fumbles by the team on defense. Most famously, Dallas Cowboys defender Leon Lett fumbled during Super Bowl XXVII while celebrating during his own fumble return. A sometimes controversial rule is referred to as "the ground cannot cause a fumble". If a player is tackled and loses control of the ball at or after the time he makes contact with the ground, the player is treated as down and the ball is not in play. However, in the NFL and CFL, if a ball carrier falls without an opponent contacting him, the ground can indeed cause a fumble; this is because in those leagues the ball carrier is not "down" unless an opponent first makes contact, or the runner is out of bounds. If a player fumbles in most other leagues, as soon as the knee or elbow touches the ground, the ball carrier is considered down.
It is possible for the ground to cause a fumble in college football if the ball hits the ground before any part of the ball carrier's body touches the ground. An example was the fumble by Arkansas quarterback Clint Stoerner vs. Tennessee in 1998; the effects of fumbles vary when the ball goes out of bounds without being recovered: A fumble going out-of-bounds between the end zones is retained by the last team with possession. If the ball was moving backwards with regard to the recovering team, it is spotted where it went out of bounds. If the ball was moving forwards, it is spotted. A fumble going out-of-bounds in the endzone being attacked results in the defending team assuming possession via touchback if the offensive team forced the ball into the endzone. If the defensive team forced the ball into the endzone it is a safety for the offense. A fumble going out-of-bounds in the endzone being defended is ruled a safety if the offensive team forced the ball into the endzone. A fumble going out-of-bounds in the endzone being defended is ruled a touchback if the defensive team forced the ball into the endzone.
The ball is turned over to the defensive team. In all cases, a fumble recovered by an out-of-bounds player is considered an out-of-bounds fumble if the ball never leaves the field of play. In addition, a punted or place-kicked ball that touches any part of a player on the receiving team, whether or not the player gains control, is considered to be live and is treated like a fumble. Lateral passes that are caught by a member of the opposing team are recorded as fumbles as opposed to interceptions. Since footballs tend to bounce in unpredictable ways on artificial turf, attempting to recover and advance a fumbled ball is risky for those with good manual coord
2005 Seattle Seahawks season
The 2005 Seattle Seahawks season was the franchise's 30th season in the National Football League, the 4th playing their home games at Qwest Field and the seventh season under head coach Mike Holmgren. They were the NFC representative in a game they lost to the Pittsburgh Steelers; the Seahawks compiled a 13–3 record in the regular season winning the NFC West and earning the NFC top seed, thus clinching home field advantage in the NFC playoffs for the first time in franchise history. There, they beat the Washington Redskins and Carolina Panthers to win the George Halas Trophy, advance to their first Super Bowl. Combining the regular season and postseason, the Seahawks finished with a perfect 10–0 record at Qwest Field; the 2005 team was considered the best team in club history until the Super Bowl XLVIII championship. The 2005 season was the team's 30th anniversary season in the National Football League; the Seahawks touted Pro Bowlers on offense, boasted season MVP, running back Shaun Alexander, who would break Priest Holmes's previous single-season rushing touchdown record, with 28 TDs.
Alexander led the league in rushing yards for the second consecutive year, which in turn helped the Seahawks lead the league in scoring. The offense was led by 7th-year veteran quarterback Matt Hasselbeck, who compiled a career-high and NFC leading 98.2 passer rating, while completing 65.5% of his passes, earning his second trip to the Pro Bowl. Walter Jones and Steve Hutchinson anchored the offensive line at left tackle and guard and Mack Strong blocked and rushed from the backfield at fullback. Although Seattle's strength was attributed to their offense, they were strong on the defensive side of the ball as well; the Seahawks compiled an NFL-leading 50 Quarterback sacks, with defensive end Bryce Fisher leading the franchise with nine, while defensive tackle Rocky Bernard added 8.5 and veteran defensive end Grant Wistrom recorded four. Despite starting two rookies at linebacker for most of the year, the Seattle linebacking corps played well, led by Pro Bowler Lofa Tatupu, who topped the team with 104 tackles and added four sacks, three interceptions, one fumble recovery.
In the secondary, Michael Boulware led the team with four interceptions and tallied two sacks and one fumble recovery, however Seattle suffered injuries throughout the year, notably to free safety Ken Hamlin. A bright spot in relief, second-year cornerback Jordan Babineaux played well as he appeared in all sixteen games for Seattle, intercepting three passes and making 61 tackles. For the season, the Seahawks defense ranked 7th in points allowed, surrendering just 271 total, 181 fewer than the Seahawks offense scored; the period between the disappointing 2004 season and the start of the 2005 season was marked by major changes for the Seahawks, starting with the front office. Team owner Paul Allen fired eight-year incumbent General Manager Bob Whitsitt on January 14, the same day that Vice President of Football Operations Ted Thompson was hired away by the Green Bay Packers to be their general manager. Rumors had been floating that Whitsitt's relationship with coach Mike Holmgren was strained and Holmgren admitted that he had thought about leaving the team after a 2004 season, draining.
At the time of Whitsitt's firing the Seahawks salary cap situation was in extreme flux with 16 unsigned free agents on the roster including their three biggest stars Matt Hasselbeck, Shaun Alexander and Walter Jones. On February 3 Mike Reinfeldt, pushed out of the Seahawks organization by Whitsitt, was hired back as a consultant to try to sort out the mess. Reinfeldt was able to sign Jones and Hasselbeck to long-term deals and put the Franchise Tag on Alexander, setting the stage for the rest of the off-season. After a careful executive search the Seahawks settled on regarded personnel man Tim Ruskell as the new President of Football Operations on February 23, 2005; as a part of his roster overhaul, Ruskell subsequently released or neglected to re-sign six players who were starters on an underperforming defense during the 2004 season. Over the rest of the offseason and into training camp Ruskell signed a raft of free agents to replace departed players on both sides of the ball, emphasizing character and work ethic in his evaluations.
In the first round of the 2005 NFL Draft the Seahawks traded down from pick 23 to pick 26 to select center Chris Spencer from the University of Mississippi and acquire an extra fourth-round pick. They gave up two fourth-round picks to trade up into the second round and select USC linebacker Lofa Tatupu, who would start every game of the 2005 season and go to the Pro Bowl as a rookie. Starters in bold. Denotes players that were selected for the 2006 Pro Bowl; the Seahawks had seven players selected, tying a franchise record set in 1984 Denotes players selected as replacement players for the 2006 Pro Bowl. C Robbie Tobeck and rookie MLB Lofa Tatupu were added to the Roster after injuries to Chicago's Brian Urlacher and Olin Kreutz. Shaun Alexander, Bert Bell Award and NFL MVP. Divisional matchups have the NFC West playing the AFC South. Bold indicates division opponents. Source: 2005 NFL season results The Seahawks got off to a rocky start on their 2005 campaign but it would end with their first Super Bowl appearance.
When the St. Louis Rams lost on December 4, 2005, the Seahawks clinched their second straight NFC West title after playing only 11 games. At the end of the regular season, the Seahawks' use of the 12th man was challenged by Texas A&M University, who holds a trademark of the phrase; the dispute
In American football and Canadian football, a sack occurs when the quarterback is tackled behind the line of scrimmage before he can throw a forward pass, when the quarterback is tackled behind the line of scrimmage in the "pocket" and his intent is unclear, or when a passer runs out of bounds behind the line of scrimmage due to defensive pressure. This occurs if the opposing team's defensive line, linebackers or defensive backs are able to apply pass pressure to get past blocking players of the offensive team, or if the quarterback is unable to find a back to hand the ball off to or an available eligible receiver to catch the ball, allowing the defense a longer opportunity to tackle the quarterback. Performing a sack is advantageous for the defending team as the offense loses a down, the line of scrimmage retreats several yards. Better for the defense is a sack causing the quarterback to fumble the ball at or behind the line of scrimmage. A quarterback, pressured but avoids a sack can still be adversely affected by being forced to hurry.
In the National Football League, it is possible to record a sack for zero yards. The QB must pass the statistical line of scrimmage to avoid the sack. If a passer is sacked in his own end zone, the result is a safety and the defending team is awarded two points, unless the football is fumbled and either recovered in the end zone by the defense for a touchdown or recovered by either team outside the end zone. To be considered a sack the quarterback must intend to throw a forward pass. If the play is designed for the quarterback to rush the ball, any loss is subtracted from the quarterback's rushing total. If the quarterback's intent is not obvious, statisticians use certain criteria, such as the offensive line blocking scheme, to decide. Unique situations where a loss reduces a quarterback's rushing total are "kneel downs". A player will receive credit for half of a sack when multiple players contribute to the sacking of a quarterback if more than two players contributed. In the NFL yards lost on the play are added as negative yardage to the team's passing totals.
NCAA continues to subtract sack yardage from individual rushing totals. The term "sack" was first popularized by Hall of Fame defensive end Deacon Jones in the 1960s, who felt that a sack devastated the offense in the same way that a city was devastated when it was sacked. According to former NFL coach Marv Levy, it was Washington Redskins coach George Allen who coined the term when referring to Dallas Cowboys quarterback Craig Morton. Allen purportedly stated before a game, "Before we play those Dallas Cowboys, we’re going to take that Morton salt and pour him into a sack." Prior to "sack", the term "dump" was used, the NFL's statistical office recorded all sacks under "dumping the passer". The NFL only began to keep track of times passers lost yardage in 1961 and no credit was given to the defensive player responsible until 1982. Researcher John Turney of the Pro Football Researchers Association estimated that Jones recorded 173½ sacks in his career. Controversial NFL rule changes made for the 2018 season prohibit tacklers landing on the quarterback after making a sack, with the punishment being a roughing the passer penalty.
Of all forms of defensive pressure against the opposition's passer, sacks provide the most immediate impact by ending the offensive play. However, quarterbacks sometimes avoid a sack by throwing an incomplete pass or risking an interception. According to Football Outsiders, a quarterback hurry is the most common form of pass pressure. In the 2009 NFL season, there were 1,106 sacks and 3,268 hurries, a hurried quarterback averaged fewer yards per pass play compared to the average pass play; these records are from 1982 onwards, the year the NFL started recording sacks. NFL single-season sacks: 22.5, Michael Strahan, 2001 NFL career sacks: 200, Bruce Smith, 1985–2003 NFL single-game sacks: 7, Derrick Thomas, November 11, 1990 vs. Seattle Seahawks NFL sacks, rookie season: 14.5, Jevon Kearse, 1999 NFL seasons with 20 or more sacks: 2, J. J. Watt, 2012 & 2014 NFL most consecutive games recording a sack: 69, Tampa Bay, 1999–2003 NFL career sacks taken: 525, Brett Favre, 1991–2010 NFL single-season sacks taken: 76, David Carr, 2002 NFL game sacks taken: 12, Warren Moon, September 29, 1985 and Donovan McNabb, September 30, 2007 NFL Super Bowl most sacks in a single game, 12 Carolina vs. Denver, 50 NFL Super Bowl most sacks by a player in a single game, 3Reggie White – Green Bay vs.
New England, XXXI Darnell Dockett – Arizona vs. Pittsburgh, XLIII Kony Ealy – Carolina vs. Denver, 50 Grady Jarrett – Atlanta vs. New England, LINFL Super Bowl most sacks, career 4.5, Charles Haley – 5 games San Francisco XXIII, XXIV, Dallas XXVII, XXVIII, XXX List of National Football League annual sacks leaders List of National Football League career sacks leaders The Blind Side: Evolution of a Game – non-fiction book by Michael Lewis Sack Story, an article describing the controversy over the sack record Pro-football-reference.com enumeration of career sack leaders
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. The brain is located in the head close to the sensory organs for senses such as vision; the brain is the most complex organ in a vertebrate's body. In a human, the cerebral cortex contains 14–16 billion neurons, the estimated number of neurons in the cerebellum is 55–70 billion; each neuron is connected by synapses to several thousand other neurons. These neurons communicate with one another by means of long protoplasmic fibers called axons, which carry trains of signal pulses called action potentials to distant parts of the brain or body targeting specific recipient cells. Physiologically, the function of the brain is to exert centralized control over the other organs of the body; the brain acts on the rest of the body both by generating patterns of muscle activity and by driving the secretion of chemicals called hormones. This centralized control allows coordinated responses to changes in the environment.
Some basic types of responsiveness such as reflexes can be mediated by the spinal cord or peripheral ganglia, but sophisticated purposeful control of behavior based on complex sensory input requires the information integrating capabilities of a centralized brain. The operations of individual brain cells are now understood in considerable detail but the way they cooperate in ensembles of millions is yet to be solved. Recent models in modern neuroscience treat the brain as a biological computer different in mechanism from an electronic computer, but similar in the sense that it acquires information from the surrounding world, stores it, processes it in a variety of ways; this article compares the properties of brains across the entire range of animal species, with the greatest attention to vertebrates. It deals with the human brain insofar; the ways in which the human brain differs from other brains are covered in the human brain article. Several topics that might be covered here are instead covered there because much more can be said about them in a human context.
The most important is brain disease and the effects of brain damage, that are covered in the human brain article. The shape and size of the brain varies between species, identifying common features is difficult. There are a number of principles of brain architecture that apply across a wide range of species; some aspects of brain structure are common to the entire range of animal species. The simplest way to gain information about brain anatomy is by visual inspection, but many more sophisticated techniques have been developed. Brain tissue in its natural state is too soft to work with, but it can be hardened by immersion in alcohol or other fixatives, sliced apart for examination of the interior. Visually, the interior of the brain consists of areas of so-called grey matter, with a dark color, separated by areas of white matter, with a lighter color. Further information can be gained by staining slices of brain tissue with a variety of chemicals that bring out areas where specific types of molecules are present in high concentrations.
It is possible to examine the microstructure of brain tissue using a microscope, to trace the pattern of connections from one brain area to another. The brains of all species are composed of two broad classes of cells: neurons and glial cells. Glial cells come in several types, perform a number of critical functions, including structural support, metabolic support and guidance of development. Neurons, are considered the most important cells in the brain; the property that makes neurons unique is their ability to send signals to specific target cells over long distances. They send these signals by means of an axon, a thin protoplasmic fiber that extends from the cell body and projects with numerous branches, to other areas, sometimes nearby, sometimes in distant parts of the brain or body; the length of an axon can be extraordinary: for example, if a pyramidal cell of the cerebral cortex were magnified so that its cell body became the size of a human body, its axon magnified, would become a cable a few centimeters in diameter, extending more than a kilometer.
These axons transmit signals in the form of electrochemical pulses called action potentials, which last less than a thousandth of a second and travel along the axon at speeds of 1–100 meters per second. Some neurons emit action potentials at rates of 10–100 per second in irregular patterns. Axons transmit signals to other neurons by means of specialized junctions called synapses. A single axon may make as many as several thousand synaptic connections with other cells; when an action potential, traveling along an axon, arrives at a synapse, it causes a chemical called a neurotransmitter to be released. The neurotransmitter binds to receptor molecules in the membrane of the target cell. Synapses are the key functional elements of the brain; the essential function of the brain is cell-to-cell communication, synapses are the points at which communication occurs. The human brain has been estimated to contain 100 trillion synapses; the functions of these synapses are diverse: some are excitatory.
2006 NFL season
The 2006 NFL season was the 87th regular season of the National Football League. Regular season play was held from September 7 to December 31, 2006; the NFL title was won by the Indianapolis Colts, when they defeated the Chicago Bears 29–17 in Super Bowl XLI at Dolphin Stadium at Miami Gardens, Florida on February 4. End zone celebrations became more restricted. Players can not do any act in which they are on the ground. Players may still spike, or, dunk it over the goal posts. Dancing in the end zone is permitted as long as it is not a prolonged or group celebration; the Lambeau Leap, though, is still legal. Defenders were prohibited from hitting a passer in the knee or below unless they are blocked into him; this rule was enacted in response to the previous season's injuries to Cincinnati Bengals quarterback Carson Palmer, Pittsburgh Steelers' Ben Roethlisberger, Tampa Bay Buccaneers' Brian Griese. Down-by-contact calls could now be reviewed by instant replay to determine if a player fumbled the ball before he was down, who recovered it.
These plays could not be reversed once officials blew the whistle. The "horse-collar tackle" rule enacted during the previous 2005 season was expanded. Players are now prohibited from tackling a ball carrier from the rear by tugging inside his jersey, it was only illegal if the tackler's hand got inside the player's shoulder pads. To reduce injuries, defensive players cannot line up directly over the long snapper during field goal and extra point attempts; the 2006 season marked the debut of new officiating uniforms which are supposed to be more comfortable for officials to wear in extreme weather over the old polyester uniforms. The uniforms were designed by Reebok using a proprietary material technology to keep officials both warm and dry during the winter months of the season. On the shirt, the position and number are removed from the front pocket and the lettering and numbers on the back side were black-on-white and are smaller print and the sleeve shows the uniform number. Officials wore full-length black pants with white stripe during the winter months to stay warm, criticized by media.
This was the first major design overhaul since 1979, when the position name was added to the shirt, but abbreviated in 1982. Bernie Kukar and Tom White retired. Jerome Boger and Gene Steratore were promoted to referee. For the first time since Super Bowl IV at the conclusion of the 1969 season, the official NFL game ball was known as "The Duke" in honor of Wellington Mara, whose family owns the New York Giants. Son John is the current CEO of the team; the NFL first used "The Duke" ball in honor of Mara in 1941 after then-Chicago Bears owner George Halas and then-Giants owner Tim Mara made a deal with Wilson Sporting Goods to become the league's official supplier of game balls, a relationship that continued into its sixty-fifth year in 2006.“The Duke” ball was discontinued after the 1970 AFL-NFL Merger, the merged league began using a different standardized ball made by Wilson. The only other time that "The Duke" ball name was used was during the two "Thanksgiving Classic" games in 2004. One side of the new 2006 "Duke" football featured the NFL shield logo in gold, the words "The Duke", the NFL commissioner’s signature.
The obverse side has a small NFL logo above the needle bladder hole, the conference names between the hole, the words "National Football League" in gold. As per the custom, specially branded balls were used for the first week of the 2006 season as well as for the Thanksgiving Day, conference championships, Super Bowl XLI and Pro Bowl games. Through week 11 of the season, all NFL games had been sold out, for the 24th time, all blackout restrictions had been lifted; the streak was ended by the Jacksonville at Buffalo game in Week 12. This was the first season that NBC held the rights to televise Sunday Night Football, becoming the beneficiaries by negotiating the new flexible-scheduling system. ESPN became the new home of Monday Night Football, replacing sister network American Broadcasting Company, who chose to opt out of broadcasting league games. Meanwhile, CBS and Fox renewed their television contracts to the American Football Conference and the National Football Conference packages, respectively.
This was the first season that the NFL used a “flexible-scheduling” for the last few weeks of the season, allowing the league flexibility in selecting games to air on Sunday night, in order to feature the current hottest, streaking teams. This was implemented to prevent games featuring losing teams from airing during primetime late in the season, while at the same time allowing NBC to rake in more money off of the higher ratings from surprise, playoff-potential teams that more fans would enjoy watching. Under the flexible-scheduling system, all Sunday games in the affected weeks tentatively had the start times of 1 p.m. ET/10 a.m. PT, except those played in the Pacific or Mountain time zones, which will have a tentative start time of 4 p.m. ET/1 p.m. PT. On the Tuesday 12 days before the games, the league moved one game to the primetime slot, one or more 1 p.m. slotted games to the 4 p.m. slots. During the last week of the season, the league could re-schedule games as late as six days before the contests so that all of the television networks will be able to broadcast a game that has playoff implications.
Starting September 18, fans were able to download highlights of their teams' games through Apple's iTunes Store. Each video costs US$1.99 each but fans have the chance of buying a "Follow Your
Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting and fielding. The game proceeds when a player on the fielding team, called the pitcher, throws a ball which a player on the batting team tries to hit with a bat; the objectives of the offensive team are to hit the ball into the field of play, to run the bases—having its runners advance counter-clockwise around four bases to score what are called "runs". The objective of the defensive team is to prevent batters from becoming runners, to prevent runners' advance around the bases. A run is scored when a runner advances around the bases in order and touches home plate; the team that scores the most runs by the end of the game is the winner. The first objective of the batting team is to have a player reach first base safely. A player on the batting team who reaches first base without being called "out" can attempt to advance to subsequent bases as a runner, either or during teammates' turns batting; the fielding team tries to prevent runs by getting batters or runners "out", which forces them out of the field of play.
Both the pitcher and fielders have methods of getting the batting team's players out. The opposing teams switch forth between batting and fielding. One turn batting for each team constitutes an inning. A game is composed of nine innings, the team with the greater number of runs at the end of the game wins. If scores are tied at the end of nine innings, extra innings are played. Baseball has no game clock. Baseball evolved from older bat-and-ball games being played in England by the mid-18th century; this game was brought by immigrants to North America. By the late 19th century, baseball was recognized as the national sport of the United States. Baseball is popular in North America and parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, East Asia in Japan and South Korea. In the United States and Canada, professional Major League Baseball teams are divided into the National League and American League, each with three divisions: East and Central; the MLB champion is determined by playoffs. The top level of play is split in Japan between the Central and Pacific Leagues and in Cuba between the West League and East League.
The World Baseball Classic, organized by the World Baseball Softball Confederation, is the major international competition of the sport and attracts the top national teams from around the world. A baseball game is played between two teams, each composed of nine players, that take turns playing offense and defense. A pair of turns, one at bat and one in the field, by each team constitutes an inning. A game consists of nine innings. One team—customarily the visiting team—bats in the top, or first half, of every inning; the other team -- customarily the home team -- bats in second half, of every inning. The goal of the game is to score more points than the other team; the players on the team at bat attempt to score runs by circling or completing a tour of the four bases set at the corners of the square-shaped baseball diamond. A player bats at home plate and must proceed counterclockwise to first base, second base, third base, back home to score a run; the team in the field attempts to prevent runs from scoring and record outs, which remove opposing players from offensive action until their turn in their team's batting order comes up again.
When three outs are recorded, the teams switch roles for the next half-inning. If the score of the game is tied after nine innings, extra innings are played to resolve the contest. Many amateur games unorganized ones, involve different numbers of players and innings; the game is played on a field whose primary boundaries, the foul lines, extend forward from home plate at 45-degree angles. The 90-degree area within the foul lines is referred to as fair territory; the part of the field enclosed by the bases and several yards beyond them is the infield. In the middle of the infield is a raised pitcher's mound, with a rectangular rubber plate at its center; the outer boundary of the outfield is demarcated by a raised fence, which may be of any material and height. The fair territory between home plate and the outfield boundary is baseball's field of play, though significant events can take place in foul territory, as well. There are three basic tools of baseball: the ball, the bat, the glove or mitt: The baseball is about the size of an adult's fist, around 9 inches in circumference.
It wound in yarn and covered in white cowhide, with red stitching. The bat is a hitting tool, traditionally made of a solid piece of wood. Other materials are now used for nonprofessional games, it is a hard round stick, about 2.5 inches in diameter at the hitting end, tapering to a narrower handle and culminating in a knob. Bats used by adults are around 34 inches long, not longer than 42 inches; the glove or mitt is a fielding tool, made of padded leather with webbing between the fingers. As an aid in catching and holding onto the ball, it takes various shapes to meet the specific needs of differ
In ball-playing competitive team sports, an interception or pick is a move by a player involving a pass of the ball—whether by foot or hand, depending on the rules of the sport—in which the ball is intended for a player of the same team but caught by a player of the opposing team, who thereby gains possession of the ball for their team. It is seen in football, including American and Canadian football, as well as association football, rugby league, rugby union, Australian rules football and Gaelic football, as well as any sport by which a loose object is passed between players toward a goal. In basketball, a pick is called a steal. In American or Canadian football, an interception occurs when a forward pass is caught by a player of the opposing defensive team; this leads to an immediate change of possession during the play: the defender who caught the ball attempts to move the ball as far towards the opposing end zone as possible. Following the stoppage of play, if the interceptor retained possession of the ball, his team takes over possession at the spot where he was downed.
Because possession is a critical component in these sports, a successful interception can be a dramatic reversal of the teams' fortunes. Interceptions are predominantly made by the secondary or the linebackers, who are closest to the quarterback's intended targets, the wide receivers, running backs, tight ends. Less a defensive lineman may get an interception from a tipped ball, a near sack, a shovel pass, or a screen pass, but are more to force a fumble than get an interception; as soon as a pass is intercepted, everyone on the defense acts as blockers, helping the person with the interception get as much yardage as possible and a touchdown. If the interception occurs on an extra point attempt, rather than an ordinary play from scrimmage, a potential return of the interception to the other end zone is sometimes called a "pick two" as it would be a defensive two point conversion rather than a touchdown. For example, on December 4, 2016, the Kansas City Chiefs strong safety Eric Berry scored the game winning points via a pick two in a 29–28 victory over the Atlanta Falcons.
Berry achieved an ordinary pick six earlier in the same game. If the intercepting team can run out the clock, the intercepting player may down the ball and not attempt to gain any yardage; this eliminates the chance of a fumble. There are player safety implications: when the ball is turned over, the play is now and unexpectedly moving in the opposite direction. All of the players on offense are susceptible to unexpected blocks if not attempting to stop the ball carrier. Additionally, offensive players the quarterback, are inexperienced tacklers and are at risk of injuring themselves while tackling the ball carrier. Only the interception of a forward pass is recorded statistically as an interception, for both the passer and the intercepting player. If a receiver fails to catch the ball and bobbles or tips it before it is intercepted if his action was responsible for the interception, it is always recorded as an interception thrown by the passer; the interception of a lateral pass is recorded as a fumble by the passer.
James Johnson was named the Outstanding Player of the 95th Grey Cup on November 25, 2007, after intercepting a record three passes, including one for a 30-yard touchdown. His defensive efforts helped lead the Saskatchewan Roughriders to a 23–19 victory over their CFL Prairie rival Winnipeg Blue Bombers; this was the first time since 1994 that a defensive player was awarded the Grey Cup's top individual title. His most notable interception of the game was when he intercepted Ryan Dinwiddie's final pass and secured Saskatchewan's victory. Lester Hayes of the Oakland Raiders was one of the National Football League's leaders at interceptions in the late 1970s and early 1980s, he was known for covering his chest and forearms with a copious amount of the adhesive Stickum to help him hold on to the ball. After the NFL outlawed the use of such foreign substances in 1981, Hayes' success rate at interceptions dropped below average though that could be due to his reputation as a "shutdown cornerback", which discouraged opposing teams from throwing to his side of the field.
He continued to use the substance, which he called "pick juice", by having it applied in smaller amounts to his wrists. Paul Krause holds the record for most career interceptions, with 81, is tied for third place for most interceptions by an NFL rookie in his first season, with 12, he played his first three years in the NFL from 1964 to 1967 with the Washington Redskins but was traded to the Minnesota Vikings, where he spent most of his career. Krause appeared in four Super Bowls with the Vikings, he was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1998. Rod Woodson played 16 seasons with Pittsburgh, San Francisco and Oakland, holds the NFL record for most interception returns for touchdown in an NFL career with 12, he holds the NFL record for most total defensive TD returns in a career with 13. Woodson, third on the NFL all-time career interception list with 71, was inducted into the Hall of Fame in 2009. Former New Orleans Saints safety Darren Sharper, most notable for playing 8 seasons with the Green Bay Packers and the Minnesota Vikings from 2005 to 2008, has a career total of 63 interceptions, has returned 11 of those for touchdowns.
Sharper holds th