Jarry Park is an urban park in the Villeray neighbourhood of Montreal. From 1969 to 1976, the former Jarry Park Stadium was the home of the Montreal Expos, Canada's first Major League Baseball team, it hosted a Mass by Pope John Paul II. There is now a hall dedicated to him in District Police Station 31. Facilities include softball and soccer fields, a skate park and basketball courts, a public pool and an artificial lake. In addition, there is a monument called "Paix des enfants", consisting of violent toys fused together; the park is bordered by Gary-Carter Street to the south, Rue Jarry to the north, Boulevard Saint-Laurent to the east, the Canadian Pacific rail tracks to the west. The park was named in honour of a member of Montreal's City Council. On 24 June 1965, Jarry Park hosted the great show on Saint John Baptiste Day, the French-Canadian annual celebration day. Since 1977 it is now called Quebec's National Holiday; that year, Jarry Park was chosen to present the most important event of the celebrations.
40,000 people came to hear some of Québec's most acclaimed singers. Jarry Park Coalition des amis du parc Jarry
The American League of Professional Baseball Clubs, or the American League, is one of two leagues that make up Major League Baseball in the United States and Canada. It developed from the Western League, a minor league based in the Great Lakes states, which aspired to major league status, it is sometimes called the Junior Circuit because it claimed Major League status for the 1901 season, 25 years after the formation of the National League. At the end of every season, the American League champion plays in the World Series against the National League champion. Through 2018, American League teams have won 66 of the 114 World Series played since 1903, with 27 of those coming from the New York Yankees alone; the New York Yankees have won 40 American League titles, the most in the league's history, followed by the Philadelphia/Kansas City/Oakland Athletics and the Boston Red Sox. A minor league known as the Western League which existed 1885 to 1899, with teams in Great Lakes states, the newly organized Western League developed into a rival major league after the previous American Association disbanded after ten seasons as a competitor to the older National League of Professional Baseball Clubs, founded in 1876.
In its early history of the late 1880s, the minor Western League struggled until 1894, when Ban Johnson became the president of the league. Johnson led the Western League into elevation as claiming major league status and soon became the president of the newly renamed American League of Professional Baseball Clubs in 1901; the American League was founded in Milwaukee, Wisconsin at the former Republican Hotel by five Irishmen. George Herman Ruth, noted as one of the most prolific hitters in Major League Baseball history, spent the majority of his career in the American League with the Boston Red Sox and the New York Yankees; the American League has one notable difference versus the rival National League, in that in modern times since 1973 it has had the designated hitter rule. Under the rule, a team may use a batter in its lineup, not in the field defensively, replacing the pitcher in the batting order, compared to the old rule that made it mandatory for the pitcher to bat. In the last two decades, the season schedule has allowed occasional interleague play.
Until the late 1970s, league umpires working behind home plate wore large, balloon-style chest protectors worn outside the shirt or coat, while their brethren in the National League wore chest protectors inside the shirt or coat. In 1977, new umpires had to wear the inside chest protector, although those on staff wearing the outside protector could continue to do so. Most umpires made the switch to the inside protector, led by Don Denkinger in 1975 and Jim Evans the next year, although several did not, including Bill Haller, Lou DiMuro, George Maloney, Jerry Neudecker, who became the last MLB umpire to use the outside protector in 1985. In 1994, the league, along with the National League, reorganized again, into three divisions and added a third round to the playoffs in the form of the American League Division Series, with the best second-place team advancing to the playoffs as a wild-card team, in addition to the three divisional champions. In 1998, the newly franchised Tampa Bay Devil Rays joined the league, the Arizona Diamondbacks joined the National League: i.e. each league each added a fifteenth team.
An odd number of teams per league meant that at least one team in each league would have to be idle on any given day, or alternatively that odd team out would have had to play an interleague game against its counterpart in the other league. The initial plan was to have three five-team divisions per league with inter league play year-round—possibly as many as 30 interleague games per team each year. For various reasons, it soon seemed more practical to have an number of teams in both leagues; the Milwaukee Brewers agreed moving from the AL Central to the NL Central. At the same time, the Detroit Tigers were moved from the AL East to the AL Central, making room for the Devil Rays in the East. Following the move of the Houston Astros, in the NL for 51 years since beginning as an expansion team in 1962, to the American League in 2013, both leagues now consist of 15 teams, a far cry from their original 8 for the first half-century of the 20th century. For the first 96 years, American League teams faced their National League counterparts only in exhibition games or in the World Series.
Beginning in 1997, interleague games have been played during the regular season and count in the standings. As part of the agreement instituting interleague play, the designated-hitter rule is used only in games where the American League team is the home team. There were eight charter teams in 1901, the league's first year as a major league, the next year the original Milwaukee Brewers moved to St. Louis to become the St. Louis Browns; these franchises constituted the league for 52 seasons, until the Browns moved to Baltimore and took up the name Baltimore Orioles. All eight original franchises remain in the American League, although only four remain in the original cities; the eight original teams and their counterparts in the "Classic Eight" were: original Baltimore Orioles (went b
Arthur Henry Howe Jr. is a former Major League Baseball infielder, coach and manager. He played for the Pittsburgh Pirates, Houston Astros, St. Louis Cardinals. Howe managed the Astros, Oakland Athletics, New York Mets, compiling a career record of 1,129 wins and 1,137 losses. Howe was born in Pennsylvania, he attended the University of Wyoming on a college football scholarship, but played baseball after injuries ended his football career. And signed his first playing contract at age 24, with the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1971, he came to the major leagues as a part-time player with Pittsburgh in 1974–75, before a trade to the Astros for infielder Tommy Helms on January 6, 1976. He played all four infield positions as a third baseman and second baseman, for Houston from 1976–82. In only playing in 125 games in 1977 and alternating between 2B, SS and 3B, Howe only committed 8 errors. On May 7, 1980, he suffered a fractured jaw. In May 1981 he won the Player of the Month Award, the only Astros third baseman to win it until it was won by Alex Bregman in June 2018.
After missing the entire 1983 season with an injury, he finished his playing career with the St. Louis Cardinals; the right-handed hitter appeared in 891 games over all or parts of 11 seasons, compiling a lifetime batting average of.260 with 43 home runs. In 1986, Howe began his coaching career as an aide to Bobby Valentine with the Texas Rangers. After three seasons, he was hired by his old team, the Astros, as manager for 1989, succeeding Hal Lanier. Howe enjoyed a successful first season in Houston, but the team was rebuilding with young players such as Jeff Bagwell and Craig Biggio, suffered losing years in 1990–91. In 1992 and 1993 the Astros improved to.500 and a winning record, but Howe was fired in favor of Terry Collins at the close of the'93 campaign. During the 1994–95 Dominican Winter League season, Howe led the Azucareros del Este to their first championship. After a year as a Major League scout for the Los Angeles Dodgers, spending 1995 as bench coach for the Colorado Rockies, Howe was selected to replace the high-profile Tony La Russa as manager of the Athletics for 1996.
The A's suffered through three losing seasons under Howe before, in 1999, they returned to contention. In 2000, 2001 and 2002, the A's won 91, 102 and 103 games and made the American League playoffs in each season, but they did not win a playoff series, Howe and general manager Billy Beane grew estranged. At the end of 2002, despite a seven-year mark of 600–533, Howe was released from his Oakland contract to become the paid manager of the New York Mets. Oscar-winning actor Philip Seymour Hoffman portrayed Howe in the film Moneyball, which dramatized Billy Beane's tactics of using sabermetrics to select players. Howe stated that he was unhappy with his portrayal in both the film and the Michael Lewis book it was based on, in which Howe was portrayed as a stubborn traditionalist who refused to follow Beane's plans and a figurehead who acquiesced while Beane ran the A's from the clubhouse, he said. Howe's two years in New York proved unsuccessful; the Mets won only 42 percent of their games, the front office went through three general managers, attendance at Shea Stadium fell.
In September 2004, word of Howe's impending firing was leaked to the media two weeks before the season ended, but he was allowed to finish the year. The general manager of the club, Omar Minaya, replaced Howe with Willie Randolph, bench coach for the New York Yankees. On October 16, 2006, Howe was hired as the third base coach and an infield instructor by the Philadelphia Phillies. After the Texas Rangers hired Ron Washington – a former coach under Howe in Oakland – as their new manager, the Phillies gave Howe permission to speak with the Rangers about any openings in the organization. On November 7, 2006, Howe was hired by the Rangers as Washington's bench coach, he served two years in that role but his contract was not renewed at the end of the Rangers' disappointing 2008 season. As of September 18, 2015 Howe is married to Betty, they have five grandchildren. List of Major League Baseball managers by wins Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or The Baseball Cube Baseball-Reference.com – career managing record and playing statistics
1992 Major League Baseball season
The 1992 Major League Baseball season saw the Toronto Blue Jays defeat the Atlanta Braves in the World Series, becoming the first team outside the United States to win the World Series. A resurgence in pitching dominance occur during this season. On average, one out of every seven games pitched. Two teams pitched at least 20 shutouts each. In the National League, no team hit more than 138 home runs and no team scored 700 runs; the San Francisco Giants were shut out the most in the Majors. The effect was similar in the American League. In 1991, two AL teams had scored at least 800 runs and three had collected 1,500 hits. In 1992, no team scored only one reached 1,500 hits; the California Angels were shut out 15 times, the most in the AL. Baseball Hall of Fame Rollie Fingers Bill McGowan Hal Newhouser Tom Seaver Rolaids Relief Man of the Year Award Dennis Eckersley, Oakland Athletics Lee Smith, St. Louis Cardinals World Series: Toronto Blue Jays over Atlanta Braves. January 7 – Pitchers Tom Seaver and Rollie Fingers are elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame by the Baseball Writers' Association of America.
Seaver finishes with a record 98.8% of the votes cast. Pete Rose, ineligible because of his ban from baseball, receives 41 write–in votes. January 31 – The Pittsburgh Pirates sign outfielder Barry Bonds to a one-year contract worth $4.7 million, the largest-ever one-year deal. February 20 – The Simpsons episode Homer at the Bat airs on the Fox Network, featuring guest appearances by Roger Clemens, Wade Boggs, Ken Griffey, Jr. Steve Sax, Ozzie Smith, José Canseco, Don Mattingly, Darryl Strawberry, Mike Scioscia. March 2 – Chicago Cubs second baseman Ryne Sandberg becomes the highest-paid player in major league history when he agrees to a four-year contract extension worth $28.4 million. March 17 – Pitcher Hal Newhouser and umpire Bill McGowan are elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame by the Veterans Committee. March 30 – In one of the biggest cross-town trades in Chicago baseball history, the Chicago Cubs trade George Bell to the Chicago White Sox, while the Sox send Sammy Sosa to the Cubs. April 6 – A crowd of 44,568 sees the Baltimore Orioles defeat the Cleveland Indians 2–0 in the first game at Oriole Park at Camden Yards.
Rick Sutcliffe hurls the shutout for Baltimore. May 17 – The Minnesota Twins trade regarded pitching prospect Denny Neagle to the Pittsburgh Pirates for pitcher John Smiley. July 7 – Andy Van Slyke of the Pittsburgh Pirates becomes the first outfielder in nearly 18 years to record an unassisted double play, in the Pirates' 5–3 win over the Houston Astros. Van Slyke races in from center field to catch a fly ball continues in to double up Ken Caminiti, running from second base on the play. July 14 – The American League pounds out a record 19 hits in defeating the National League by a score of 13–6 in the All-Star Game, it is the AL's fifth straight win. Seattle Mariners outfielder Ken Griffey, Jr. who hit a single, a double and a home run, is named the MVP, 12 years after his father Ken Sr. won the same honor. August 28 – The Milwaukee Brewers lash 31 hits in a 22–2 drubbing of the Toronto Blue Jays, setting a record for the most hits by a team in a single nine-inning game. Darryl Hamilton leads the way for the Brewers, going 4-for-7 with 5 RBI.
September 7 – After receiving an 18–9 no-confidence vote from the owners, Commissioner Fay Vincent is forced to resign. Vincent is soon replaced by Milwaukee Brewers president Bud Selig on what is meant to be an interim basis. September 9 – Robin Yount becomes the 17th player to reach 3,000 hits in the Milwaukee Brewers' 5–4 loss to the Cleveland Indians. Yount singles to right center off Cleveland's José Mesa in the seventh inning. September 20 – Philadelphia Phillies second baseman Mickey Morandini completes the first unassisted triple play in the National League in 65 years against their in-state rivals, the Pittsburgh Pirates. In the bottom of the sixth inning, Morandini snares Jeff King's line drive, steps on second to double off Andy Van Slyke, tags Barry Bonds out before he can return to first, it is the ninth unassisted triple play since 1901, but only the second to be pulled off by a second baseman. September 23 – Bip Roberts of the Cincinnati Reds hits safely in his tenth consecutive at-bat.
He ends his streak in the game against the Los Angeles Dodgers. September 26 – Bill Pecota becomes the first position player for the New York Mets to pitch in a game, giving up a home run in the 8th inning as the Pittsburgh Pirates defeat the Mets 19-2. September 27 – The Pittsburgh Pirates seal their third consecutive National League East championship with a 4–2 victory over the New York Mets. September 28 – The idle Oakland Athletics clinch their fourth American League West crown in five years when the second-place Minnesota Twins fall to the Chicago White Sox 9–4. September 29 – The Atlanta Braves wrap up the National League West with a 6–0 shutout of the San Francisco Giants. September 30 – George Brett of the Kansas City Royals collects his 3,000th hit, an infield single off Tim Fortugno in the seventh inning of a 4–0 Royals victory over the California Angels. October 3 – The Toronto Blue Jays clinch their second straight American League East title with a 3–1 win o
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
In baseball, a number of coaches assist in the smooth functioning of a team. They are assistants to the manager, who determines the lineup and decides how to substitute players during the game. Beyond the manager, more than a half dozen coaches may assist the manager in running the team. Baseball coaches are analogous to assistant coaches in other sports, as the baseball manager is to the head coach. Baseball is unique in that the manager and coaches all wear numbered uniforms similar to those of the players. Notable exceptions to this were Baseball Hall of Fame manager Connie Mack, who always wore a black suit during his 50 years at the helm of the Philadelphia Athletics, Burt Shotton, manager of the Brooklyn Dodgers in the late 1940s, who wore a Dodger 200 cap and a team jacket over street clothes in the dugout. After the widespread adoption of numbered uniforms in the early 1930s, Joe McCarthy, another Hall of Fame manager, wore a full uniform but no number on his back for the remainder of his career.
Coincidentally, all three men retired during or after the same season — 1950. Full-time coaches in professional baseball date to 1909, when John McGraw of the New York Giants engaged Arlie Latham and Wilbert Robinson as coaches. By the 1920s, most Major League teams had two full-time coaches, although the manager doubled as third-base coach and specialists such as pitching coaches were rare. After World War II, most MLB teams listed between three and five coaches on their roster, as managers ran their teams from the dugout full-time, appointed pitching and bullpen coaches to assist them and the baseline coaches. Batting and bench coaches came into vogue during later; because of the proliferation of uniformed coaches in the modern game, by the late 2000s Major League Baseball had restricted the number of uniformed staff to six coaches and one manager during the course of a game. Beginning with the 2013 season, clubs are permitted to employ a seventh uniformed coach, designated the assistant hitting coach, at their own discretion.
The first bench coach in baseball was George Huff, who took that helm for the Illinois Fighting Illini baseball in 1905. More the bench coach is a team's second-in-command; the bench coach serves as an in-game advisor to the manager, offering situational advice, bouncing ideas back and forth in order to assist the manager in making game decisions. If the manager is ejected, suspended, or unable to attend a game for any reason, the bench coach assumes the position of acting manager. If the manager is fired or resigns during the season, it is the bench coach who gets promoted to interim manager; the bench coach's responsibilities include helping to set up the day's practice and stretching routines before a game, as well as coordinating spring training routines and practices. A pitching coach trains teams' pitchers, he advises the manager on the condition of pitchers and their arms, serves as an in-game coach for the pitcher on the mound. When a manager makes a visit to the mound, he is doing so to make a pitching change or to discuss situational defense.
However, to talk about mechanics or how to pitch to a particular batter, the pitching coach is the one who will visit the mound. The pitching coach is a former pitcher. One exception is Dave Duncan, the former pitching coach of the St. Louis Cardinals, a catcher. Prior to the early 1950s, pitching coaches were former catchers; the bullpen coach is similar to a pitching coach, but works with relief pitchers in the bullpen. He does not make mound visits, however, as he stays in the bullpen the entire game, working with relievers who are warming up to enter the game; the bullpen coach is either a former pitcher or catcher. A hitting coach, as the name suggests, works with a team's players to improve their hitting techniques and form, he monitors players' swings during the game and over the course of the season, advising them when necessary between at-bats on adjustments to make. He oversees their performance during practices, cage sessions, pre-game batting practice. With the advent of technology, hitting coaches are utilizing video to analyze their hitters along with scouting the opposing pitchers.
Video has allowed hitting coaches to illustrate problem areas in the swing, making the adjustment period quicker for the player being analyzed. This process is called video analysis. Two on-field coaches are present. Stationed in designated coaches' boxes near first and third base, they are appropriately named base coaches—individually, first base coach and third base coach, they assist in the direction of baserunners, help prevent pickoffs, relay signals sent from the manager in the dugout to runners and batters. While the first base coach is responsible for the batter as to whether he stops at first base or not or for a runner on first, the third base coach carries more responsibility, his duties include holding or sending runners rounding second and third bases, as well as having to make critical, split-second decisions about whether to try to score a runner on a hit, accounting for the arm strength of the opposing team's fielder and the speed and position of his baserunner. The bench coach, third base coach, first base coach are assigned additional responsibility for assisting players in specific areas defense.
Common designations include outfield instructor, infield instructor, catching instructor, baserunning instructor. When a coaching staff is assembled, the selection of the first base coach is m
The Oakland Athletics referred to as the A's, are an American professional baseball team based in Oakland, California. They compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the American League West division; the team plays its home games at the Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum. They have won nine World Series championships, tied for the third-most of all current MLB teams; the 2018 season was the club's 50th while based in Oakland. One of the American League's eight charter franchises, the team was founded in Philadelphia in 1901 as the Philadelphia Athletics, they won three World Series championships from 1910 to 1913 and back-to-back titles in 1929 and 1930. The team's owner and manager for its first 50 years was Connie Mack and Hall of Fame players included Chief Bender, Frank "Home Run" Baker, Jimmie Foxx, Lefty Grove; the team left Philadelphia for Kansas City in 1955 and became the Kansas City Athletics before moving to Oakland in 1968. They won three consecutive World Championships between 1972 and 1974, led by players including Vida Blue, Catfish Hunter, Reggie Jackson, ace reliever Rollie Fingers, colorful owner Charlie O. Finley.
After being sold by Finley to Walter A. Haas Jr. the team won three consecutive pennants and the 1989 World Series behind the "Bash Brothers", Jose Canseco and Mark McGwire, as well as Hall of Famers Dennis Eckersley, Rickey Henderson and manager Tony La Russa. From 1901 to 2018, the Athletics' overall win–loss record is 8,931–9,387; the history of the Athletics Major League Baseball franchise spans the period from 1901 to the present day, having begun in Philadelphia before moving to Kansas City in 1955 and to its current home in Oakland, California, in 1968. The A's made their Bay Area debut on Wednesday, April 17, 1968, with a 4-1 loss to the Baltimore Orioles at the Coliseum, in front of an opening-night crowd of 50,164; the Athletics' name originated in the term "Athletic Club" for local gentlemen's clubs—dates to 1860 when an amateur team, the Athletic of Philadelphia, was formed. The team turned professional through 1875, becoming a charter member of the National League in 1876, but were expelled from the N.
L. after one season. A version of the Athletics played in the American Association from 1882 to 1891. After New York Giants manager John McGraw told reporters that Philadelphia manufacturer Benjamin Shibe, who owned the controlling interest in the new team, had a "white elephant on his hands", team manager Connie Mack defiantly adopted the white elephant as the team mascot, presented McGraw with a stuffed toy elephant at the start of the 1905 World Series. McGraw and Mack had known each other for years, McGraw accepted it graciously. By 1909, the A's were wearing an elephant logo on their sweaters, in 1918 it turned up on the regular uniform jersey for the first time. In 1963, when the A's were located in Kansas City, then-owner Charlie Finley changed the team mascot from an elephant to a mule, the state animal of Missouri; this is rumored to have been done by Finley in order to appeal to fans from the region who were predominantly Democrats at the time. Since 1988, the Athletics' 21st season in Oakland, an illustration of an elephant has adorned the left sleeve of the A's home and road uniforms.
Beginning in the mid 1980s, the on-field costumed incarnation of the A's elephant mascot went by the name Harry Elephante. In 1997, he took Stomper. Through the seasons, the Athletics' uniforms have paid homage to their amateur forebears to some extent; until 1954, when the uniforms had "Athletics" spelled out in script across the front, the team's name never appeared on either home or road uniforms. Furthermore, neither "Philadelphia" nor the letter "P" appeared on the uniform or cap; the typical Philadelphia uniform had only a script "A" on the left front, the cap had the same "A" on it. In the early days of the American League, the standings listed the club as "Athletic" rather than "Philadelphia", in keeping with the old tradition; the city name came to be used for the team, as with the other major league clubs. After buying the team in 1960, owner Charles O. Finley introduced new road uniforms with "Kansas City" printed on them, as well as an interlocking "KC" on the cap. Upon moving to Oakland, the "A" cap emblem was restored, although in 1970 an "apostrophe-s" was added to the cap and uniform emblem to reflect the fact that Finley was in the process of changing the team's name to the "A's".
While in Kansas City, Finley changed the team's colors from their traditional red and blue to what he termed "Kelly Green, Wedding Gown White and Fort Knox Gold". It was here that he began experimenting with dramatic uniforms to match these bright colors, such as gold sleeveless tops with green undershirts and gold pants; the innovative uniforms only increased after the team's move to Oakland, which came at the time of the introduction of polyester pullover uniforms. During their dynasty years in the 1970s, the A's had dozens of uniform combinations with jerseys and pants in all three team colors, in fact did not wear the traditional gray on the road, instead wearing green or gold, which helped to contribute to their nickname of "The Swingin' A's". After the team's sale to the Haas family, the team changed its primary color to a more subdued forest green and began a move back to more traditional uniforms; the team wears home uniforms with "Athletics" spelled out in script writing and road uniforms wit