North Toronto Collegiate Institute
North Toronto Collegiate Institute is a non-semestered, public high school institution for over 1,200 students located in Toronto, Canada. The School is governed by the Toronto District School Board. From its founding until 1998, it was overseen by the Toronto Board of Education; the school is located in Toronto in the Yonge and Eglinton neighbourhood. The majority of students come from the surrounding Chaplin estates, Lytton Park, Mount Pleasant, Davisville Village, Bayview Avenue, Moore Park, Lawrence Park, Broadway Avenue and St. Clair Avenue areas; the closest TTC subway station is Eglinton station. The motto is "Labor Omnia Vincit" all. North Toronto celebrated its 100th anniversary in May 2012. North Toronto High School was founded in 1910 and was traditionally housed in the North Toronto Town Hall; the original two-storey school building had five rooms, was completed in 1912. The school was renovated to include a third storey and became the north side of the old building, once the south section was built.
Other additions included the 1956 math wing, swimming pool and auditorium, as well as the science wing in 1966-1967. In 2002, the North Toronto Collegiate Institute was one of the oldest buildings in the TDSB, was in need of major repair. A planning process was undertaken to build a new school. Due to a lack of available capital funding at the school board, a decision was taken in 2003 to seek private investment to augment funding committed by the TDSB. Subsequently, Tridel, a large Canadian condominium development corporation, bought 0.7 acres of land from the TDSB for $23 million. Ground breaking occurred November 21, 2007, a year after the project had been slated for completion. During construction the school remained open to students because the new building was built on the location of the old sports field; the old building was demolished. Architectural aspects of the old building were preserved in the new building's courtyard. Tridel built 24 and 27 stories high; the new school was opened in September 2010, the condominiums and the school's new field October 2011.
The new building, which cost an estimated $52 million, features a roof garden, underground parking lot, school-wide Wi-Fi. North Toronto's Student Government is responsible for Student Advocacy, Semi-Formal Dances, Charity Week, School Assemblies and Club Funding. Students run a "Charity Week" to raise money for a charitable foundation selected annually by all students. Money is raised through student-organized events; the School provides many sport teams. The North Toronto Boy's Varsity Hockey team won the TDSSA championship in 2012, for the first time since 1952; the North Toronto Women's Field Hockey team won the TDSSA championship in 2005, 2006 & 2008. In the 2010/11, the North Toronto Junior Girls Basketball Team won the City of Toronto Championship; the TDSB Tier 2 Senior Boys' Rugby league team has won the last two championships after undefeated seasons. In the 2012/2013 season, The North Toronto Women's Varsity Field Hockey A Team won the Tier 1 conference championships, moved onto the City Championships.
On Tuesday, March 6, 2012, the North Toronto Varsity Boys Hockey Team won the TDSSAA City Championship and qualified for OFSAA in Peterborough, Ontario. This was North Toronto's first Varsity Hockey Championship since 1952 and first OFSAA appearance; the School provides students with special interest club opportunities. North Toronto has two newspapers, the school sponsored Graffiti and the student published Red and Grey known as the RAG. Graffiti is produced by volunteers, while students studying in the writer's craft class constitute the RAG's staff. Graffiti was featured in the Toronto Star in May 2009. June, 2010. North Toronto C. I. is well known for its music programs. The music program supports several musical ensembles; the ensembles participate in various musical events and competitions, including the Kiwanis Music Festival, the Ontario Vocal Festival and the Contemporary Music Showcase. Twice a year, the school puts on major concerts. Students taking a music class are allowed to participate in or try out for any of these musical ensembles, provided they participate in the musical ensemble associated with their music class.
North Toronto's Junior Strings Orchestra placed first in their division with a Platinum mark in the 2012 Kiwanis Music Festival. North Toronto's Symphony Orchestra placed first in their division with a Gold mark in the 2012 Kiwanis Music Festival, they won the provincial level Kiwanis in their division in 2017. North Toronto's Choral Ensemble and Chamber Choir placed well in the 2011 Kiwanis Music Festival; the Chamber Choir, ranked as one of the top high school choirs, participated in the provincials. North Toronto is the only high school in the GTA with a performance marching band; the band practices weekly before school from September to November to prepare for its annual appearance in the Toronto and Markham Santa Claus Parades. The 2009-2010 North Toronto C. I. Music Bowlathon brought in over $10,000 in donations to support the School's music programs; the School gives out yearly awards to recognize the best students in sports, music and citizenship. Some notable awards include: Sifton Trophy for Young Men Kerr Trophy for Young Women R.
R. H. Page Valedictory Prize Governor General's Academic Medal Sakhawalkar-Bhatt Citizenship Award John Taylor Award Senator Keith Davey AwardIn its first year in a Gold LEED
A scientist is someone who conducts scientific research to advance knowledge in an area of interest. In classical antiquity, there was no real ancient analog of a modern scientist. Instead, philosophers engaged in the philosophical study of nature called natural philosophy, a precursor of natural science, it was not until the 19th century that the term scientist came into regular use after it was coined by the theologian and historian of science William Whewell in 1833. The term'scientist' was first coined by him for Mary Somerville because the term "man of science", more custom at that time, was inappropriate here. In modern times, many scientists have advanced degrees in an area of science and pursue careers in various sectors of the economy such as academia, industry and nonprofit environments; the roles of "scientists", their predecessors before the emergence of modern scientific disciplines, have evolved over time. Scientists of different eras have had different places in society, the social norms, ethical values, epistemic virtues associated with scientists—and expected of them—have changed over time as well.
Accordingly, many different historical figures can be identified as early scientists, depending on which characteristics of modern science are taken to be essential. Some historians point to the Scientific Revolution that began in 16th century as the period when science in a recognizably modern form developed, it wasn't until the 19th century that sufficient socioeconomic changes occurred for scientists to emerge as a major profession. Knowledge about nature in classical antiquity was pursued by many kinds of scholars. Greek contributions to science—including works of geometry and mathematical astronomy, early accounts of biological processes and catalogs of plants and animals, theories of knowledge and learning—were produced by philosophers and physicians, as well as practitioners of various trades; these roles, their associations with scientific knowledge, spread with the Roman Empire and, with the spread of Christianity, became linked to religious institutions in most of European countries.
Astrology and astronomy became an important area of knowledge, the role of astronomer/astrologer developed with the support of political and religious patronage. By the time of the medieval university system, knowledge was divided into the trivium—philosophy, including natural philosophy—and the quadrivium—mathematics, including astronomy. Hence, the medieval analogs of scientists were either philosophers or mathematicians. Knowledge of plants and animals was broadly the province of physicians. Science in medieval Islam generated some new modes of developing natural knowledge, although still within the bounds of existing social roles such as philosopher and mathematician. Many proto-scientists from the Islamic Golden Age are considered polymaths, in part because of the lack of anything corresponding to modern scientific disciplines. Many of these early polymaths were religious priests and theologians: for example, Alhazen and al-Biruni were mutakallimiin. During the Italian Renaissance scientists like Leonardo Da Vinci, Galileo Galilei and Gerolamo Cardano have been considered as the most recognizable polymaths.
During the Renaissance, Italians made substantial contributions in science. Leonardo Da Vinci made significant discoveries in anatomy; the Father of modern Science,Galileo Galilei, made key improvements on the thermometer and telescope which allowed him to observe and describe the solar system. Descartes was not only a pioneer of analytic geometry but formulated a theory of mechanics and advanced ideas about the origins of animal movement and perception. Vision interested the physicists Young and Helmholtz, who studied optics and music. Newton extended Descartes' mathematics by inventing calculus, he investigated light and optics. Fourier founded a new branch of mathematics — infinite, periodic series — studied heat flow and infrared radiation, discovered the greenhouse effect. Girolamo Cardano, Blaise Pascal Pierre de Fermat, Von Neumann, Khinchin and Wiener, all mathematicians, made major contributions to science and probability theory, including the ideas behind computers, some of the foundations of statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics.
Many mathematically inclined scientists, including Galileo, were musicians. There are many compelling stories in medicine and biology, such as the development of ideas about the circulation of blood from Galen to Harvey. During the age of Enlightenment, Luigi Galvani, the pioneer of the bioelectromagnetics, discovered the animal electricity, he discovered that a charge applied to the spinal cord of a frog could generate muscular spasms throughout its body. Charges could make frog legs jump if the legs were no longer attached to a frog. While cutting a frog leg, Galvani's steel scalpel touched a brass hook, holding the leg in place; the leg twitched. Further experiments confirmed this effect, Galvani was convinced that he was seeing the effects of what he called animal electricity, the life force within the muscles of the frog. At the University of Pavia, Galvani's colleague Alessandro Volta was able to reproduce the results, but was sceptical o
The Anik satellites are a series of geostationary communications satellites launched by Telesat Canada for television in Canada, from 1972 through 2013. Some of the satellites in the series remain operational in orbit, while others have been retired and are derelict; the naming of the satellite was determined by a national contest, was won by Julie-Frances Czapla of St. Leonard, Quebec. In Inuktitut, Anik means "little brother"; the Anik A satellites were the world's first national domestic satellites. The Anik A fleet of satellites gave CBC the ability to reach the Canadian North for the first time; each of the satellites was equipped with 12 C-band transponders, thus had the capacity for 12 colour television channels. It was launched on December 15, 1978, was the successor to the Anik A series and Hermes experimental satellite. Most of the transponders were devoted to CBC Television—East and West feed, CBC Parliamentary Television Network, CITV-TV Edmonton, CHCH Hamilton, TVOntario. CNCP Telecommunications used Anik B as a relay for its services.
The Globe and Mail used Anik B to transmit copy to printing plants across Canada. The Anik C satellite series was three times more powerful than the Anik A series, they each had sixteen Ku band transponders. Anik C-3 was used to distribute Canada's first pay television networks -- First Choice, Superchannel, C-Channel, Star Channel, AIM Pay-TV since February 1983. Anik C-3 transponder lineup: 02 - Atlantic Satellite Network 03 - Assiniboia Downs Racing Network 06 - Super Écran TV Payante 10 - Radio-Quebec 14 - La Sette 2 15 - Knowledge 16 - La Sette 1 17 - Access Alberta 18 - TFO 19 - Premier Choix/TVEC TV Payante 20 - TVOntario 23 - Superchannel 24 - TVOntario-Legislature Channel 25 - CHSC Canadian Home Shopping Club 27 - Knowledge Network 30 - First Choice 32 - CHSC Canadian Home Shopping Club Anik D1 & D2 series C-Band satellites were launched in 1982 and 1984, they were based on the Hughes 376 design. Anik E1 & E2 were launched in the early 1990s to replace Anik D1 & D2. Unlike the cylinder-shaped spin-stabilised satellites of the D-series, these were cubical, 3-axis satellites using momentum wheels for attitude stabilisation.
Anik E2 experienced an anomaly during deployment of its C-band antenna, deployed after several corrective maneuvers. On Thursday, January 20, 1994, Anik E1 and E2 suffered problems due to solar activity. E1 failed first at 12:50 EST. After a few hours, Telesat managed to restore normal functions on E1 at 20:15 EST. At 21:00 EST, both the primary and redundant E2 momentum wheels failed, thus eliminating the gyroscope effect that helps keep the satellite pointed towards Earth; the exact problem lay with the circuitry having to do with the stabilizing momentum wheel. E2 was not restored to service for five months. Telesat restored E2 by constructing special earth stations at each end of the country to monitor the satellite's position, designed specialised software to use a combination of its control jets and magnetic torquing coils to finely position the satellite. Though a small amount of extra stationkeeping fuel was needed for pitch control, the efficiencies from using the magnetic coils for roll-yaw adjustment compensated for fuel usage that would have been used in those axes, so there was an insignificant overall effect on fuel use throughout the life of the satellite.
The Anik E2 satellite continued to provide full service for 14 years. On March 26, 1996, another catastrophic failure occurred. A critical diode on Anik E1's solar panel shorted out, causing a permanent loss of half the satellite's power. Anik F1 is a Canadian geosynchronous communications satellite, launched on November 21, 2000, by an Ariane 4 rocket from the European Space Agency Guiana Space Centre at Kourou. At the moment of its launch it was the most powerful communications satellite built, it has an advanced xenon Ion thruster propulsion system and its communication "footprint" covers Central America as well as North America. It was launched by a Canadian communications company; the primary customers are the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Shaw Direct, CHUM Limited and Canadian Satellite Communications Inc. Manufacturer: Telesat Canada Satellite Type: Boeing Satellite Systems bus model 702 Mass: 4710 kg at launch and 3015 kg in orbit Dimensions: 40.4 m long and 9.0 m wide with the solar panels and antennas deployed.
DC power: 17.5 kW Expected lifetime: 15 years Transponders: 84 C band and Ku band Launch vehicle: Ariane 4The solar panels of Anik F1 degraded more than expected, a replacement Anik F1R was launched in 2005, with Anik F1 switching to serving only South America. Anik F1R carries a GPS/WAAS payload. At 5,900 kilograms, it is more than ten times the size of Anik A2 and is one of the largest, most powerful communications satellites built. Anik F2 is a Boeing 702-series satellite, designed to support and enhance current North American voice and broadcast services with its C- and Ku-band technologies, it is the fifteenth satellite to be launched by Telesat. With its use of Ka band technology, low-cost two-way satellite delivery will be available for wireless broadband Intern
The semicircular canals or semicircular ducts are three semicircular, interconnected tubes located in the innermost part of each ear, the inner ear. The three canals are the horizontal and posterior semicircular canals; the semicircular canals are a component of the bony labyrinth that are at right angles from each other. At one end of each of the semicircular canals is a dilated sac called an osseous ampulla, more than twice the diameter of the canal; each ampulla contains an ampulla crest, the crista ampullaris which consists of a thick gelatinous cap called a cupula and many hair cells. The superior and posterior semicircular canals are oriented vertically at right angles to each other; the lateral semicircular canal is about a 30-degree angle from the horizontal plane. The orientations of the canals cause a different canal to be stimulated by movement of the head in different planes, more than one canal is stimulated at once if the movement is off those planes; the horizontal canal detects angular acceleration of the head when the head is turned and the superior and posterior canals detect vertical head movements when the head is moved up or down.
When the head changes position, the endolymph in the canals lags behind due to inertia and this acts on the cupula which bends the cilia of the hair cells. The stimulation of the hair cells sends the message to the brain; the ampullae open into the vestibule by five orifices, one of the apertures being common to two of the canals. Among species of mammals, the size of the semicircular canals is correlated with their type of locomotion. Species that are agile and have fast, jerky locomotion have larger canals relative to their body size than those that move more cautiously; the lateral or horizontal canal is the shortest of the three canals. Movement of fluid within this canal corresponds to rotation of the head around a vertical axis, or in other words rotation in the transverse plane; this occurs, for example, when you turn your head to the left and right- hand sides before crossing a road It measures from 12 to 15 mm. and its arch is directed horizontally backward and laterally. Its ampullated end corresponds to the upper and lateral angle of the vestibule, just above the oval window, where it opens close to the ampullated end of the superior canal.
The lateral canal of one ear is nearly in the same plane as that of the other. The superior or anterior semicircular canal is a part of the vestibular system and detects rotations of the head in around the lateral axis, or in other words rotation in the sagittal plane; this occurs, for example. It is 15 to 20 mm in length, is vertical in direction, is placed transversely to the long axis of the petrous part of the temporal bone, on the anterior surface of which its arch forms a round projection, it describes about two-thirds of a circle. Its lateral extremity is ampullated, opens into the upper part of the vestibule; the posterior semicircular canal is a part of the vestibular system that detects rotation of the head around the left-right axis, or in other words rotation in the coronal plane. This occurs, for example, when you move your head to touch your shoulders, or when doing a cartwheel, it is directed superiorly, as per its nomenclature, posteriorly, nearly parallel to the posterior surface of the petrous bone.
The vestibular aqueduct is medial to it. The posterior canal is part of the bony labyrinth and is used by the vestibular system to detect rotations of the head in the coronal plane, it is the longest of the three canals, measuring from 18 to 22 mm. Its lower or ampullated end opens into the lower and back part of the vestibule, its upper into the crus commune. Findings from a 2009 study demonstrated a critical late role for BMP 2b in the morphogenesis of semicircular canals in the zebrafish inner ear, it is suspected that the role of bmp2 in semicircular canal duct outgrowth is to be conserved between different vertebrate species. The semicircular ducts provide sensory input for experiences of rotary movements, they are oriented along the pitch and yaw axes. Each canal contains motion sensors within the fluids. At the base of each canal, the bony region of the canal is enlarged which opens into the utricle and has a dilated sac at one end called the osseous ampullae. Within the ampulla is a mound of hair cells and supporting cells called crista ampullaris.
These hair cells have many cytoplasmic projections on the apical surface called stereocilia which are embedded in a gelatinous structure called the cupula. As the head rotates the duct moves but the endolymph lags behind owing to inertia; this bends the stereocilia within. The bending of these stereocilia alters an electric signal, transmitted to the brain. Within 10 seconds of achieving constant motion, the endolymph catches up with the movement of the duct and the cupula is no longer affected, stopping the sensation of acceleration; the specific gravity of the cupula is comparable to that of the surrounding endolymph. The cupula is not displaced by gravity, unlike the otolithic membranes of the utricle and saccule; as with macular hair cells, hair cells of the crista ampullaris will depolarise when the stereocilia deflect towards the kinocilium. Deflection in
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with elements and compounds composed of atoms and ions: their composition, properties and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other substances. In the scope of its subject, chemistry occupies an intermediate position between physics and biology, it is sometimes called the central science because it provides a foundation for understanding both basic and applied scientific disciplines at a fundamental level. For example, chemistry explains aspects of plant chemistry, the formation of igneous rocks, how atmospheric ozone is formed and how environmental pollutants are degraded, the properties of the soil on the moon, how medications work, how to collect DNA evidence at a crime scene. Chemistry addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. There are four types of chemical bonds: covalent bonds, in which compounds share one or more electron; the word chemistry comes from alchemy, which referred to an earlier set of practices that encompassed elements of chemistry, philosophy, astronomy and medicine.
It is seen as linked to the quest to turn lead or another common starting material into gold, though in ancient times the study encompassed many of the questions of modern chemistry being defined as the study of the composition of waters, growth, disembodying, drawing the spirits from bodies and bonding the spirits within bodies by the early 4th century Greek-Egyptian alchemist Zosimos. An alchemist was called a'chemist' in popular speech, the suffix "-ry" was added to this to describe the art of the chemist as "chemistry"; the modern word alchemy in turn is derived from the Arabic word al-kīmīā. In origin, the term is borrowed from the Greek χημία or χημεία; this may have Egyptian origins since al-kīmīā is derived from the Greek χημία, in turn derived from the word Kemet, the ancient name of Egypt in the Egyptian language. Alternately, al-kīmīā may derive from χημεία, meaning "cast together"; the current model of atomic structure is the quantum mechanical model. Traditional chemistry starts with the study of elementary particles, molecules, metals and other aggregates of matter.
This matter can be studied in isolation or in combination. The interactions and transformations that are studied in chemistry are the result of interactions between atoms, leading to rearrangements of the chemical bonds which hold atoms together; such behaviors are studied in a chemistry laboratory. The chemistry laboratory stereotypically uses various forms of laboratory glassware; however glassware is not central to chemistry, a great deal of experimental chemistry is done without it. A chemical reaction is a transformation of some substances into one or more different substances; the basis of such a chemical transformation is the rearrangement of electrons in the chemical bonds between atoms. It can be symbolically depicted through a chemical equation, which involves atoms as subjects; the number of atoms on the left and the right in the equation for a chemical transformation is equal. The type of chemical reactions a substance may undergo and the energy changes that may accompany it are constrained by certain basic rules, known as chemical laws.
Energy and entropy considerations are invariably important in all chemical studies. Chemical substances are classified in terms of their structure, phase, as well as their chemical compositions, they can be analyzed using the tools of e.g. spectroscopy and chromatography. Scientists engaged in chemical research are known as chemists. Most chemists specialize in one or more sub-disciplines. Several concepts are essential for the study of chemistry; the particles that make up matter have rest mass as well – not all particles have rest mass, such as the photon. Matter can be a mixture of substances; the atom is the basic unit of chemistry. It consists of a dense core called the atomic nucleus surrounded by a space occupied by an electron cloud; the nucleus is made up of positively charged protons and uncharged neutrons, while the electron cloud consists of negatively charged electrons which orbit the nucleus. In a neutral atom, the negatively charged electrons balance out the positive charge of the protons.
The nucleus is dense. The atom is the smallest entity that can be envisaged to retain the chemical properties of the element, such as electronegativity, ionization potential, preferred oxidation state, coordination number, preferred types of bonds to form. A chemical element is a pure substance, composed of a single type of atom, characterized by its particular number of protons in the nuclei of its atoms, known as the atomic number and represented by the symbol Z; the mass number is the sum of the number of neutrons in a nucleus. Although all the nuclei of all atoms belonging to one element will have the same
Badminton is a racquet sport played using racquets to hit a shuttlecock across a net. Although it may be played with larger teams, the most common forms of the game are "singles" and "doubles". Badminton is played as a casual outdoor activity in a yard or on a beach. Points are scored by striking the shuttlecock with the racquet and landing it within the opposing side's half of the court; each side may only strike the shuttlecock. Play ends once the shuttlecock has struck the floor or if a fault has been called by the umpire, service judge, or the opposing side; the shuttlecock is a feathered or plastic projectile which flies differently from the balls used in many other sports. In particular, the feathers create much higher drag, causing the shuttlecock to decelerate more rapidly. Shuttlecocks have a high top speed compared to the balls in other racquet sports; the flight of the shuttlecock gives the sport its distinctive nature. The game developed in British India from the earlier game of shuttlecock.
European play came to be dominated by Denmark but the game has become popular in Asia, with recent competitions dominated by China. Since 1992, badminton has been a Summer Olympic sport with four events: men's singles, women's singles, men's doubles, women's doubles, with mixed doubles added four years later. At high levels of play, the sport demands excellent fitness: players require aerobic stamina, strength and precision, it is a technical sport, requiring good motor coordination and the development of sophisticated racquet movements. Games employing shuttlecocks have been played for centuries across Eurasia, but the modern game of badminton developed in the mid-19th century among the British as a variant of the earlier game of battledore and shuttlecock, its exact origin remains obscure. The name derives from the Duke of Beaufort's Badminton House in Gloucestershire, but why or when remains unclear; as early as 1860, a London toy dealer named Isaac Spratt published a booklet entitled Badminton Battledore – A New Game, but no copy is known to have survived.
An 1863 article in The Cornhill Magazine describes badminton as "battledore and shuttlecock played with sides, across a string suspended some five feet from the ground". The game may have developed among expatriate officers in British India, where it was popular by the 1870s. Ball badminton, a form of the game played with a wool ball instead of a shuttlecock, was being played in Thanjavur as early as the 1850s and was at first played interchangeably with badminton by the British, the woollen ball being preferred in windy or wet weather. Early on, the game was known as Poona or Poonah after the garrison town of Pune, where it was popular and where the first rules for the game were drawn up in 1873. By 1875, officers returning home had started a badminton club in Folkestone; the sport was played with sides ranging from 1 to 4 players, but it was established that games between two or four competitors worked the best. The shuttlecocks were coated with India rubber and, in outdoor play, sometimes weighted with lead.
Although the depth of the net was of no consequence, it was preferred that it should reach the ground. The sport was played under the Pune rules until 1887, when J. H. E. Hart of the Bath Badminton Club drew up revised regulations. In 1890, Hart and Bagnel Wild again revised the rules; the Badminton Association of England published these rules in 1893 and launched the sport at a house called "Dunbar" in Portsmouth on 13 September. The BAE started the first badminton competition, the All England Open Badminton Championships for gentlemen's doubles, ladies' doubles, mixed doubles, in 1899. Singles competitions were added in 1900 and an England–Ireland championship match appeared in 1904. England, Wales, Denmark, Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand were the founding members of the International Badminton Federation in 1934, now known as the Badminton World Federation. India joined as an affiliate in 1936; the BWF now governs international badminton. Although initiated in England, competitive men's badminton has traditionally been dominated in Europe by Denmark.
Worldwide, Asian nations have become dominant in international competition. China, India, Indonesia and South Korea are the nations which have produced world-class players in the past few decades, with China being the greatest force in men's and women's competition recently; the game has become a popular backyard sport in the United States. The following information is a simplified summary of badminton rules based on the BWF Statutes publication, Laws of Badminton; the court is divided into halves by a net. Courts are marked for both singles and doubles play, although badminton rules permit a court to be marked for singles only; the doubles court is wider than the singles court. The exception, which causes confusion to newer players, is that the doubles court has a shorter serve-length dimension; the full width of the court is 6.1 metres, in singles this width is reduced to 5.18 metres. The full length of the court is 13.4 metres. The service courts are marked by a centre line dividing the width of the court, by a short service line at a distance of 1.98 metres from the net, by the outer side and back boundaries.
In doubles, the service court is marked by a long service line, 0.76 metres from the back boundary. T
Roberta Bondar is Canada's first female astronaut and the first neurologist in space. Following more than a decade as NASA's head of space medicine, Bondar became a consultant and speaker in the business and medical communities. Bondar has received many honours including the Order of Canada, the Order of Ontario, the NASA Space Medal, over 22 honorary degrees and induction into the Canadian Medical Hall of Fame. Bondar was born in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, on December 4, 1945, her father is of Ukrainian descent and her mother is of English descent. As a child, Bondar enjoyed science, she loved the annual science fairs at her classes, her father built a lab in the basement where she conducted experiments. Bondar graduated from Sir James Dunn High School in Sault Ste. Marie, holds a Bachelor of Science in zoology and agriculture from the University of Guelph, a Master of Science in experimental pathology from the University of Western Ontario, a Doctor of Philosophy in neuroscience from the University of Toronto, a Doctor of Medicine from McMaster University.
In 1981, Bondar became a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada in neurology. Bondar has certification in sky diving and parachuting. A celebrated landscape photographer, Bondar studied professional nature photography at the Brooks Institute of Photography, Santa Barbara, California. Bondar was one of the six original Canadian astronauts selected in 1983, she began astronaut training in 1984, in 1992 was designated Payload Specialist for the first International Microgravity Laboratory Mission. Bondar flew on the NASA Space Shuttle Discovery during Mission STS-42, January 22–30, 1992, during which she performed experiments in the Spacelab. After her astronaut career, Bondar led an international team of researchers at NASA for more than a decade, examining data obtained from astronauts on space missions to better understand the mechanisms underlying the body's ability to recover from exposure to space, she pursued her interests in photography, with emphasis on natural environments.
She is the author of four photo essay books featuring her photography of the Earth, including Passionate Vision, which covered Canada's national parks. Bondar has been a consultant and speaker to diverse organizations, drawing on her expertise as an astronaut, scientific researcher, author, environment interpreter, team leader. Respected for her expertise and commentary, Bondar has been a guest of television and radio networks throughout the U. S. and Canada. She is featured in the IMAX movie Destiny in Space, has co-anchored the Discovery Channel's coverage of space shuttle launches. Bondar served two terms as the Chancellor of Trent University, from 2003 to 2009. In 2009, Bondar registered The Roberta Bondar Foundation as a not-for-profit charity; the foundation centers on environmental awareness. On June 28, 2011, it was announced that Bondar would receive a star on Canada's Walk of Fame and would be inducted on October 1 at Elgin Theatre in Toronto, she was the first astronaut to receive the honour.
In her hometown of Sault Ste. Marie, the Roberta Bondar Park pavilion bears her name, as does the marina beside the park and the Ontario government building at 70 Foster Drive. Bondar has been honoured with a marker on Sault Ste. Marie's Walk of Fame. In 1996, the Dr. Roberta Bondar Public School was opened in Ajax and Roberta Bondar Public School was opened in Ottawa. In 2005, another public school named Roberta Bondar Public School opened in Ontario. There are Dr. Roberta Bondar Elementary Schools in Abbotsford, British Columbia, Calgary, a Dr. Roberta Bondar Public School in Maple, Ontario In 2009, Concordia University awarded Bondar the prestigious Loyola Medal. In 2017, the Royal Canadian Mint released a limited edition 25th anniversary $25 coin entitled "A View of Canada from Space"; the unveiling of this honour was done in her hometown of Sault Ste. Marie at Sault College on November 1, 2016. In 2018, Thebacha and Wood Buffalo Astronomical Society renamed its observatory the Dr Roberta Bondar Northern Observatory.
Smith Shearer, Benjamin F Shearer. Notable women in the life sciences: a biographical dictionary. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. CSA biography Dr. Bondar's home page Video: Dr. Roberta Bondar on patriotism following the Olympics & her favourite technology