Autopolis is an international racing circuit located near Kamitsue village in Ōita Prefecture, Japan. Opened in 1990, it hosts a range of domestic and international motorsport events throughout the year. Although the track meets a high standard in terms of its facilities, it has never hosted a Formula One race. Due to the circuit ending up in financial difficulties, it has changed hands several times but still operates to this day; the circuit, located within Aso Kujiyu National Park, was built at a cost of $500 million by the wealthy real-estate developer and investment banker Tomonori Tsurumaki who made headlines in 1989, when during a Paris auction, he bid a Pablo Picasso painting Les Noces de Pierrette for $51.3 million from his Tokyo hotel room. Following his successful bid, he announced that his painting was to hang at the art gallery of the auto racing resort, under development at the time; the circuit was designed by Yoshitoshi Sakurai, the project leader of the Honda F1 team during the 1960s.
Tsurumaki ordered 30 Buick powered US built single seater race cars called "Sabre Cars" for a race to take place on his circuit's grand opening, on November 1990 consisting of a mixture of invited US CART drivers such as Stan Fox, Johnny Rutherford, Dick Simon and Tony Bettenhausen, against local Japanese drivers. After the grand opening, Tsurumaki planned on a series with the cars, known as Formula Crane 45. A few races were run with only a handful of cars competing; the only major international race held at Autopolis was the 1991 World Sportscar Championship season final race, the 1991 430km of Autopolis, won by Michael Schumacher and Karl Wendlinger in a Mercedes-Benz C291 fielded by Sauber. To promote the venue's intention to host a Formula One race, it sponsored the Benetton Formula One team in 1990 and 1991; the cars featured prominent Autopolis logos. Visitors criticized the track for being too remote to the hotels which required a several hours bus ride and felt that it was unsuitable for an F1 race.
By hopes were fading, Tsurumaki turned up at the 1992 Portuguese Grand Prix. Whilst staying in Estoril, $250,000 of cash and jewels was stolen from his hotel room. Tsurumaki invested in race horse A. P. Indy and paintings of renowned painters such as Picasso, Van Gogh, Chagall and Magritte before his company, Nippon Tri-Trust collapsed, leading to his bankruptcy in 1993; the circuit plus the paintings and contents ended up in the hands of Hazama, responsible for the construction of the race track. TI Circuit Aida would host a second Japanese race in Formula One calendar in 1994, but suffered from the same location-related criticism and was removed at the end of the following season. By 1995, the company offered the site for sale at 10% of its build cost which consisted of three hotels, swimming pools and an artificial ski slope; the paintings by remained in a bank vault waiting to be sold. Autopolis was purchased by Kawasaki in 2005; the circuit holds events for the Super GT as well as Super Formula, MFJ Superbike and Super Taikyu.
In March 2019, the circuit was featured in the video game Gran Turismo Sport through a game update. The circuit is located in an upland area of the island which means the air is thin with low atmospheric pressure, similar to Autódromo Hermanos Rodríguez in Mexico City, it has an elevation change of over 50 metres with the first section downhill and the latter part of the course runs uphill. Official website in Japanese Circuit map and full history at RacingCircuits.info Article about the origins of the Autopolis circuit Circuits' Map Satellite picture by Google Maps
Dunlop is a brand of tyres owned by various companies around the world. Founded by pneumatic tyre pioneer John Boyd Dunlop in Birmingham, England in 1889, it is owned and operated by Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company in North America, Europe and New Zealand. In India, the brand is owned by Dunlop India Ltd.. In Asia and Latin America by Sumitomo Rubber Industries. In 1985, Dunlop Rubber Company was acquired by BTR plc, Sumitomo acquired the rights to manufacture and market Dunlop branded road tyres. Sumitomo did not acquire any Dunlop company. In 1997 Sumitomo gained agreement to use the Dunlop name in its corporate name, changed the name of its UK subsidiary to Dunlop Tyres Ltd. In 1999, Sumitomo and Goodyear began a joint venture by which Sumitomo continued to manufacture all Japanese-made tyres under the Dunlop name, while Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company bought 75% of the European and North American tyre businesses of Sumitomo; the company has extensive manufacturing operations throughout the world.
With the closure of the Washington plant in 2006, Goodyear Dunlop ceased mainstream car and lorry tyre production in the UK. In 2016, it was announced that Sumitomo Rubber Industries would commence the second phase of its $131 Million investment for the upgrade and expansion of its Dunlop tire manufacturing plant at Ladysmith, in South Africa; until May 2014, Goodyear Dunlop occupied a compact part of the site with their British main office. In the UK, the company operates as a sales organisation, importing tyres from manufacturing plants around the world, including China and Poland; the Goodyear Dunlop joint venture is managed from sites in Luxembourg and Brussels, which report to Goodyear in Akron, United States. Fort Dunlop was a motorsport manufacturing operation located in a corner of the original Dunlop factory in Erdington, established in 1891 until May 2014; this factory produced specialised vintage and touring car tyres, produced about 300,000 specialised racing tyres per year. On 30 May 2014, the Birmingham factory ceased tyre production, ending Dunlop tyre production in the UK.
Dunlop Dunlop Rubber Tompkins, Eric. The History of the Pneumatic Tyre. Dunlop Archive Project. ISBN 0-903214-14-8
Tōuge is a Japanese word meaning "pass". It refers to a mountain pass or any of the narrow, winding roads that can be found in and around the mountains of Japan and other geographically similar areas. In order to decrease the incline of mountain roads, thereby making them easier for commercial trucks to pass, engineers place a series of S bends in steep roads that provide access to and from high mountain elevations; these passes have become popular with street racers and motorsport enthusiasts, because they provide a challenging – albeit dangerous – course. Tōge racing's notoriety outside Japan may be attributed to entertainment media such as Ridge Racer and Initial D. Race Driver: Grid features tōge. There is a touge event in which the driver must race twice, once up and once down the mountain, there is "Midnight Touge," which takes place during the night and only features one race, either up or down the mountain. Best Motoring International first featured the Touge Showdown in Best Motoring International Vol. 2 New M3 Takes on JDM Super Sports released in 2001.
This is arguably the first time the word touge was used in US media and not translated as "mountain pass" or another English word. The 2006 racing game Need for Speed: Carbon has touge races known as Canyon Duels, that use the cat-and-mouse/sudden death format of touge racing on fictional mountain routes, such as Deadfall Junction and Eternity Pass. Touge has become popular on the racing sim game "Assetto Corsa" with some fans of the Initial D series creating touge teams to do "battle" in similar ways as portrayed in the anime and manga
The Nissan 180SX is a fastback automobile, produced by Nissan Motors between 1988 and 1998. It is based on the S13 chassis from the Nissan S platform with the variants receiving an R designation, was sold in Japan paired with the CA18 motor in the early models. Outside Japan it was re-badged as the 200SX and in the US market as the Nissan 240SX paired with the single overhead cam KA24E motor and with the dual-overhead model KA24DE; the 180SX was built and sold by Nissan as a sister model to the Nissan Silvia from model year 1989 through 1998, but sold at two different Japanese Nissan dealerships. The Silvia was sold at Nissan Prince Store, the 180SX was sold at Nissan Bluebird Store locations. In Japan, the 180SX replaced the Gazelle; the S13 Silvia was discontinued in 1993, but the 180SX was successful enough to convince Nissan to keep it in the market for the full length of the next generation Silvia. The 180SX differed from the S13 Silvia in that it featured pop-up headlamps and a liftgate with different body work at the rear of the vehicle.
Specifications and equipment were similar. The name 180SX was in reference to the 1.8 liter displacement CA18DET engine used in the chassis. In 1991, the engine was upgraded to a 2.0 liter model, offered in two forms: the turbocharged SR20DET variant and the aspirated SR20DE engine, introduced in 1996. Although the new engine was of larger displacement, the 180SX nomenclature remained. 180SX was a trim level of the S110 Silvia in Europe. The badges for this model read "Silvia 180SX", so this car is not properly a 180SX by model, but a version of the Silvia instead. Other discrepancies from this standard were distributed to Micronesia and South Pacific islands, including LHD cars with 180SX badges and non-retractable headlamps. Like the Japanese 180SX SR20DET discrepancy, European, as well as South African models of the S13 chassis were called 200SX though equipped with the CA18DET engine. In North America, It was sold as the Nissan 240SX Fastback with the KA24DE engine and various other trim differences.
In Europe the car was sold as a 200SX and only featured the CA18DET engine producing 169 PS through the rear wheels, taking it to 100 km/h in 7.5 seconds and onto 220 km/h. The car had a facelift in 1991 with new smoother bumpers, limited slip differential, larger brakes; this 200sx was sold between 1994 until the change to the 200SX S14 version. The 180SX came in three major iterations: first was released in 1989, the second from 1991 to 1995, the third that ended production in December 1998. S13 The first iteration of the 180SX came in two versions called Type I and Type II. Nissan's HICAS II four wheel steering system was optional only on the Type II 180SX. All versions had the CA18DET engine with 175 hp; the 5-speed manual and 4-speed automatic transmissions were available in all types. The second iteration 180SX was released in January 1991 and included several major changes from the first model; this included the SR20DET engine with 202 hp. Although the engine was larger than the previous CA18DET engine the'180SX' nomenclature remained.
The brakes were enlarged and limited slip differential added. The front bumper and parts of the interior were redesigned. Type I and Type II were once again offered with only trim differences separating the two; the 15-inch alloy wheels changed in design from the first model. Nissan's Super HICAS four wheel steering was an option on all models as were 5-speed manual and 4-speed automatic transmissions; the second iteration was facelifted in January 1992. Although the car remained visually and mechanically unchanged, an additional trim level called Type III was added. Electronic climate control and CD audio were added as options. An additional facelift was performed in 1994, the trim levels were renamed to Type R and Type X, with Type X being the higher of the two. Overall the car remained unchanged however. A final facelift to the middle model occurred in May 1995 with the addition of a driver's side airbag and a change of alloy wheels amongst other minor details; the final iteration was released in August 1996.
It had tail lights, 15-inch wheels and interior. The mechanical and safety package received minor changes, such as the addition of a driver's side airbag, seat belt pre-tensioners, some changes in the wiring and ECU. Three levels of 180SX were offered: Type X, Type S and Type R, with the Type S being the first 180SX to be offered without a turbocharged engine; the Type X and Type R both shared the same 205ps engine and overall mechanical package however the Type R lacked many of the cosmetic additions of the Type X such as the front lip, rear spoiler, side skirts, rear valence and 15-inch alloy wheels. The Type S was powered by a aspirated SR20DE engine with 140ps, but was similar in mechanical and cosmetic details to the top of the range Type X; the Type S however did not have the option of Nissan's Super HICAS four-wheel steering system like the turbocharged models did. The Type X and Type R ceased production in October 1997 however the Type S and an additional aspirated model called the Type G continued production until December 1998 when all 180SX production ceased.
The RS13U 200SX is a fastback 3 door hatch with a body shell like the Japanese market 180SX. The notchback coupe version was never offered in the European market - though a number of Japanese Silvia have been imported privately. Like its predecessor the Nissan Silvia S12 in the European market it used pop-up headlights; the RS13U 200SX was made until December 1993 but
Odaiba today is a large artificial island in Tokyo Bay, across the Rainbow Bridge from central Tokyo. Daiba were built in this area for defensive purposes in the 1850s; the original Odaiba opened in 1860 as a port and shipyard in the city today known as Yokosuka, site of the joint Japanese-US fleet HQ. Reclaimed land offshore Shinagawa was expanded during the late 20th century as a seaport district, has developed since the 1990s as a major commercial and leisure area. Odaiba, along with Minato Mirai 21 in Yokohama, is among a few manmade seashores in Tokyo Bay where the waterfront is accessible, not blocked by industry and harbor areas. For artificial sand beaches in the bay, Sea Park in Kanazawa-ku is suitable for swimming, Odaiba has one, there are two in Kasai Rinkai Park area looking over to the Tokyo Disneyland. Daiba formally refers to one district of the island development in Minato Ward. Shintaro Ishihara used Odaiba to refer to the entire Tokyo Waterfront Secondary City Center which includes the Ariake and Aomi districts of Kōtō Ward and the Higashi-Yashio district of Shinagawa Ward.
The name for Odaiba comes from a series of six island fortresses constructed in 1853 by Egawa Hidetatsu for the Tokugawa shogunate in order to protect Edo from attack by sea, the primary threat being Commodore Matthew Perry's Black Ships which had arrived in the same year. Daiba in Japanese refers to the cannon batteries placed on the islands. In 1928, the Dai-San Daiba or "No.3 Battery" was refurbished and opened to the public as the Metropolitan Daiba Park, which remains open to this day. Of the planned 11 batteries, seven were started construction but only six were finished. No.1 to No.3 Batteries were completed in eight month in 1853. Among No.4 to No.7 started construction in 1854, it was only No.5 and No.6 that completed by the year end. No.4 and No.7 were abandoned with 30 per cent and 70 per cent unfinished, an alternative land battery near Gotenyama was built instead. For No.4, they resumed construction in 1862 and completed it in 1863. The modern island of Odaiba began to take shape when the Port of Tokyo opened in 1941.
Until the mid-1960s all except two batteries were either removed for unhindered passage of ships or incorporated into the Shinagawa port facilities and Tennozu island. In 1979 the called landfill no. 13, was finished directly connecting with the old "No. 3 Battery". "No. 6 Battery" was left to nature. Tokyo governor Shunichi Suzuki began a major development plan in the early 1990s to redevelop Odaiba as Tokyo Teleport Town, a showcase for futuristic living, with new residential and commercial development housing a population of over 100,000; the redevelopment was scheduled to be complete in time for a planned "International Urban Exposition" in spring 1996. Suzuki's successor Yukio Aoshima halted the plan in 1995, by which point over JPY 1 trillion had been spent on the project, Odaiba was still underpopulated and full of vacant lots. Many of the special companies set up to develop the island became bankrupt; the collapse of the Japanese asset price bubble was a major factor, as it frustrated commercial development in Tokyo generally.
The area was viewed as inconvenient for business, as its physical connections to Tokyo—the Rainbow Bridge and the Yurikamome rapid transit line—made travel to and from central Tokyo time-consuming. The area started coming back to life in the late 1990s as a tourist and leisure zone, with several large hotels and shopping malls. Several large companies including Fuji Television moved their headquarters to the island, transportation links improved with the connection of the Rinkai Line into the JR East railway network in 2002 and the eastward extension of the Yurikamome to Toyosu in 2006. Tokyo Big Sight, the convention center built to house Governor Suzuki's planned intercity convention became a major venue for international expositions; the D1 Grand Prix motorsport series has hosted drifting events at Odaiba since 2004. Odaiba is one of the venue locations in the upcoming 2020 Summer Olympics; the events to be held there under the venue plan include beach volleyball at Shiokaze Park and marathon swimming at Odaiba Marine Park, gymnastics at a new gymnastics venue.
Today's Odaiba is a popular sightseeing destination for Tokyoites and tourists alike. Major attractions include: Palette Town: Daikanransha, a 115-metre Ferris wheel Megaweb, exhibition hall of car maker Toyota Tokyo Leisure Land, 24-hour video gaming, bowling Venus Fort, a Venice-themed shopping mall Zepp Tokyo, one of Tokyo's largest performance halls/nightclubs Fuji Television studios with a distinctive building designed by Kenzo Tange Miraikan, Japan's National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation MORI Building Digital Art Museum Rainbow Bridge connecting Odaiba to the heart of Tokyo Tokyo Big Sight Tokyo International Exhibition Center Aqua City shopping center Diver City shopping center Gundam Base Tokyo, featuring a 22-meter tall Gundam statue Zepp DiverCity Decks Tokyo Beach shopping mall, featuring Sega Joypolis and Little Hong Kong Museum of Maritime Science with swimming pool Oedo-Onsen-Monogatari sentō Water to the baths rise up from 1400 meters underground. 14 Different baths Shiokaze park with BBQ places and Higashi Yashio park Telekom Center Building with observation deck One of two beaches in urban Tokyo, along with Kasai Rinkai Park in Edogawa Ward A replica of the Statue of Liberty Panasonic Centre, a science and technology showroom Two Shuto Expr
Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting and fielding. The game proceeds when a player on the fielding team, called the pitcher, throws a ball which a player on the batting team tries to hit with a bat; the objectives of the offensive team are to hit the ball into the field of play, to run the bases—having its runners advance counter-clockwise around four bases to score what are called "runs". The objective of the defensive team is to prevent batters from becoming runners, to prevent runners' advance around the bases. A run is scored when a runner advances around the bases in order and touches home plate; the team that scores the most runs by the end of the game is the winner. The first objective of the batting team is to have a player reach first base safely. A player on the batting team who reaches first base without being called "out" can attempt to advance to subsequent bases as a runner, either or during teammates' turns batting; the fielding team tries to prevent runs by getting batters or runners "out", which forces them out of the field of play.
Both the pitcher and fielders have methods of getting the batting team's players out. The opposing teams switch forth between batting and fielding. One turn batting for each team constitutes an inning. A game is composed of nine innings, the team with the greater number of runs at the end of the game wins. If scores are tied at the end of nine innings, extra innings are played. Baseball has no game clock. Baseball evolved from older bat-and-ball games being played in England by the mid-18th century; this game was brought by immigrants to North America. By the late 19th century, baseball was recognized as the national sport of the United States. Baseball is popular in North America and parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, East Asia in Japan and South Korea. In the United States and Canada, professional Major League Baseball teams are divided into the National League and American League, each with three divisions: East and Central; the MLB champion is determined by playoffs. The top level of play is split in Japan between the Central and Pacific Leagues and in Cuba between the West League and East League.
The World Baseball Classic, organized by the World Baseball Softball Confederation, is the major international competition of the sport and attracts the top national teams from around the world. A baseball game is played between two teams, each composed of nine players, that take turns playing offense and defense. A pair of turns, one at bat and one in the field, by each team constitutes an inning. A game consists of nine innings. One team—customarily the visiting team—bats in the top, or first half, of every inning; the other team -- customarily the home team -- bats in second half, of every inning. The goal of the game is to score more points than the other team; the players on the team at bat attempt to score runs by circling or completing a tour of the four bases set at the corners of the square-shaped baseball diamond. A player bats at home plate and must proceed counterclockwise to first base, second base, third base, back home to score a run; the team in the field attempts to prevent runs from scoring and record outs, which remove opposing players from offensive action until their turn in their team's batting order comes up again.
When three outs are recorded, the teams switch roles for the next half-inning. If the score of the game is tied after nine innings, extra innings are played to resolve the contest. Many amateur games unorganized ones, involve different numbers of players and innings; the game is played on a field whose primary boundaries, the foul lines, extend forward from home plate at 45-degree angles. The 90-degree area within the foul lines is referred to as fair territory; the part of the field enclosed by the bases and several yards beyond them is the infield. In the middle of the infield is a raised pitcher's mound, with a rectangular rubber plate at its center; the outer boundary of the outfield is demarcated by a raised fence, which may be of any material and height. The fair territory between home plate and the outfield boundary is baseball's field of play, though significant events can take place in foul territory, as well. There are three basic tools of baseball: the ball, the bat, the glove or mitt: The baseball is about the size of an adult's fist, around 9 inches in circumference.
It wound in yarn and covered in white cowhide, with red stitching. The bat is a hitting tool, traditionally made of a solid piece of wood. Other materials are now used for nonprofessional games, it is a hard round stick, about 2.5 inches in diameter at the hitting end, tapering to a narrower handle and culminating in a knob. Bats used by adults are around 34 inches long, not longer than 42 inches; the glove or mitt is a fielding tool, made of padded leather with webbing between the fingers. As an aid in catching and holding onto the ball, it takes various shapes to meet the specific needs of differ