Craig Douglas McMillan is a former New Zealand international cricketer who played all forms of the game. He was a right-handed batsman and useful right-arm medium pace bowler and played for Canterbury in New Zealand first-class cricket, he played English county cricket for Hampshire and Gloucestershire. He is the New Zealand batting coach and has had stints in the media as a commentator for Sky Network Television and the Indian Premier League and Star Cricket, his batting is characterised by innovation and improvisation, notably with a "square on" stance, which he sometimes uses in One-day Internationals when he is premeditating a big hit to the legside. His medium pace bowling is characterised by an high proportion of bouncers – belligerent for a part-time medium pace bowler, his teammates call him "Gladiator" because of his resemblance to actor Russell Crowe his appearance in the movie Gladiator. McMillan made his Test debut in 1997 against world champions Australia aged 22. At the Basin Reserve in 1998–99 he was part of a 137-run 6th wicket second innings partnership with Chris Cairns which won them the 2nd Test against India.
Earlier in the year he had scored his highest Test score, 142 against Sri Lanka at R. Premadasa Stadium. In the summer of 2000–01 in Hamilton, McMillan took 26 runs off a Younis Khan over, a record at the time. To date he has made 3 ODI centuries, the first two against Pakistan, including an innings of 104 off 75 balls, it was the equal fastest century by a New Zealander. The record was broken by Jacob Oram in January 2007 but he reclaimed it with a 67 ball century against the Australians in Hamilton on 20 February 2007. After being dropped for most of 2006, he was recalled to the NZ side for the CB series in Australia in 2007. On February 2007 he had belted a 27 ball 50 as New Zealand chased down Australia's total of 336 to win the Chappell–Hadlee Trophy, he continued his form, scoring the fastest century by a New Zealander and led his team from 41–4 to 350–9 and a one wicket victory against Australia in the third ODI of the Chappell–Hadlee Series. These performances capped off an excellent season and comeback to international cricket for "macca" as he was named in the 2007 world cup squad.
McMillan had shared the record for the fastest one day international fifty by a New Zealander, with a 21 ball effort against the USA. His cameo included two separate overs of 27 runs with his partner Nathan Astle; however that has since been bettered by Brendon McCullum's 50 off just 20 balls at the 2007 Cricket World Cup against Canada. A regular since his debut, his place in the side was under threat after a poor 2002, he finished the year with just 282 runs at 23.50 from his 8 Tests. He lost his place but was recalled to tour India in 2003–04 where he saved the 1st Test with innings of 54 and 83 not out. In the 2nd Test he in turn cemented his spot back in the side, he had a tour of England in 2004 where he broke his finger in a tour match against Leicestershire after a poor 1st Test. Calls re-emerged during the 2005 Chappell–Hadlee Series and the preceding tour to South Africa for McMillan to be dropped from the side. McMillan incurred criticism, along with fellow Black Caps Nathan Astle, Hamish Marshall and James Marshall, from the media for a slump in form.
He was subsequently dropped from the national squad to play Sri Lanka in a one-day series in December 2005 and January 2006. He returned to the domestic setup and piled on the runs for Canterbury thus keeping his name in the selectors minds, it paid off when his brother in law Nathan Astle got injured as he received an immediate recall to the side. His comeback game was unsuccessful as he was runout of 2 but in the second game he impressed with 29 not out out of a miserable team total of 73. McMillan sparkled in the 2007 ICC World Twenty20 in South Africa. During what would be his final international tournament, he was New Zealand's leading run-scorer with 163 runs at an average of 40.75 and a strike-rate of 181. McMillan did enough to earn selection for the Commonwealth Bank ODI series in Australia. On 21 January 2007 he made 89 against Australia. A month he scored a blistering hundred off just 67 balls, the fastest by any Kiwi player, his Gladiator-like efforts set the stage for a whopping 3–0 series win against Australia, the 2nd highest successful run chase in ODI history.
Chasing a massive 346, at one stage New Zealand were 41 for 4 and with Fleming, Vincent and Styris gone, looked well and out of the game. Craig McMillan's amazing innings kept their hopes alive and resulted in the greatest comeback by a team in ODI history. New Zealand managed to win with 3 balls left, he announced his retirement on 17 October 2007 after a Twenty20 tournament wherein he was New Zealand's leading run-scorer with 163 runs at an average of 40.75 and a strike-rate of 181. Citing personal reasons and health problems as contributing factors, McMillan said he wanted to go out on a high, he is criticised for his weight and lack of fitness, he has been involved in verbal confrontations with opposition fielders, only to lose his concentration and lose his wicket soon after. He was famously dismissed the ball after he was recorded by the stump microphone at Australian wicketkeeper Adam Gilchrist after being baited for having edged a ball and refused to walk, when the umpire was oblivious to the nick.
He had joined the Indian Cricket League, was the captain of the Kolkata Tigers till the eventual disbanding of the league. Craig McMillan at ESPNcricinfo
Batting average (cricket)
In cricket, a player's batting average is the total number of runs they have scored divided by the number of times they have been out. Since the number of runs a player scores and how they get out are measures of their own playing ability, independent of their teammates, batting average is a good metric for an individual player's skill as a batter; the number is simple to interpret intuitively. If all the batter's innings were completed, this is the average number of runs they score per innings. If they did not complete all their innings, this number is an estimate of the unknown average number of runs they score per innings; each player has several batting averages, with a different figure calculated for each type of match they play, a player's batting averages may be calculated for individual seasons or series, or at particular grounds, or against particular opponents, or across their whole career. Batting average has been used to gauge cricket players' relative skills since the 18th century.
Most players have career batting averages in the range of 20 to 40. This is the desirable range for wicket-keepers, though some fall short and make up for it with keeping skill; until a substantial increase in scores in the 21st century due to improved bats and smaller grounds among other factors, players who sustained an average above 50 through a career were considered exceptional, before the development of the heavy roller in the 1870s an average of 25 was considered good. All-rounders who are more prominent bowlers than batsmen average something between 20 and 30. 15 and under is typical for specialist bowlers. A small number of players have averaged less than 5 for a complete career, though a player with such an average is a liability unless an exceptional bowler as Alf Valentine, B. S. Chandrasekhar or Glenn McGrath were. Career records for batting average are subject to a minimum qualification of 20 innings played or completed, in order to exclude batsmen who have not played enough games for their skill to be reliably assessed.
Under this qualification, the highest Test batting average belongs to Australia's Sir Donald Bradman, with 99.94. Given that a career batting average over 50 is exceptional, that only five other players have averages over 60, this is an outstanding statistic; the fact that Bradman's average is so far above that of any other cricketer has led several statisticians to argue that, statistically at least, he was the greatest athlete in any sport. Disregarding this 20 innings qualification, the highest career test batting average is 112, by Andy Ganteaume, a Trinidadian Keeper-batsman, dismissed for 112 in his only test innings. Batting averages in One Day International cricket tend to be lower than in Test cricket, because of the need to score runs more and take riskier strokes and the lesser emphasis on building a large innings, it should be remembered in relation to the ODI histogram above, that there were no ODI competitions when Bradman played. If a batter has been dismissed in every single innings this statistic gives the average number of runs they score per innings.
However, for a batter with innings which finished not out, the true average number of runs they score per innings is unknown as it is not known how many runs they would have scored if they could have completed all their not out innings. This statistic is an estimate of the average number of runs. If their scores have a geometric distribution this statistic is the maximum likelihood estimate of their true unknown average. Batting averages can be affected by the number of not outs. For example, Phil Tufnell, noted for his poor batting, has an respectable ODI average of 15, despite a highest score of only 5 not out, as he scored an overall total of 15 runs from 10 innings, but was out only once. A batter who has not been dismissed in any of the innings over which their average is being calculated does not have a batting average, as dividing by zero does not give a result. Highest career batting averages in Test matches. Table shows players with at least 20 innings completed. * denotes not out. Last updated: 14 October 2018.
Highest career batting averages in First-class cricket as follows: Source: Cricinfo Statsguru. Table shows players with at least 50 innings batted, note this table has no requirement for minimum number of runs scored. * denotes not out. Last updated: 10 November 2018. Alternative measures of batting effectiveness have been developed, including: Strike rate measures a different concept to batting average – how the batter scores – so it does not supplant the role of batting average, it is used in limited overs matches, where the speed at which a batter scores is more important than it is in first-class cricket. A system of player rankings was developed to produce a better indication of players' current standings than is provided by comparing their averages. Cricket statistics Batting average Bowling average
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea. Spanning 10,990 square kilometres in area, it is the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles and the fourth-largest island country in the Caribbean. Jamaica lies about 145 kilometres south of Cuba, 191 kilometres west of Hispaniola. Inhabited by the indigenous Arawak and Taíno peoples, the island came under Spanish rule following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1494. Many of the indigenous people died of disease, the Spanish transplanted African slaves to Jamaica as labourers; the island remained a possession of Spain until 1655, when England conquered it and renamed it Jamaica. Under British colonial rule Jamaica became a leading sugar exporter, with its plantation economy dependent on African slaves; the British emancipated all slaves in 1838, many freedmen chose to have subsistence farms rather than to work on plantations. Beginning in the 1840s, the British utilized Chinese and Indian indentured labour to work on plantations.
The island achieved independence from the United Kingdom on 6 August 1962. With 2.9 million people, Jamaica is the third-most populous Anglophone country in the Americas, the fourth-most populous country in the Caribbean. Kingston is the country's capital and largest city, with a population of 937,700. Jamaicans have African ancestry, with significant European, Indian and mixed-race minorities. Due to a high rate of emigration for work since the 1960s, Jamaica has a large diaspora in Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States. Jamaica is an upper-middle income country with an average of 4.3 million tourists a year. Jamaica is a Commonwealth realm, with Elizabeth II as its queen, her appointed representative in the country is the Governor-General of Jamaica, an office held by Sir Patrick Allen since 2009. Andrew Holness has served as Prime Minister of Jamaica since March 2016. Jamaica is a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with legislative power vested in the bicameral Parliament of Jamaica, consisting of an appointed Senate and a directly elected House of Representatives.
The indigenous people, the Taíno, called the island Xaymaca in Arawakan, meaning the "Land of Wood and Water" or the "Land of Springs". Colloquially Jamaicans refer to their home island as the "Rock." Slang names such as "Jamrock", "Jamdown", or "Ja", have derived from this. The Arawak and Taíno indigenous people, originating in South America, first settled on the island between 4000 and 1000 BC; when Christopher Columbus arrived in 1494, there were more than 200 villages ruled by caciques. The south coast of Jamaica was the most populated around the area now known as Old Harbour; the Taino still inhabited Jamaica when the English took control of the island in 1655. The Jamaican National Heritage Trust is attempting to locate and document any evidence of the Taino/yamaye. Today, few Jamaican natives remain. Most notably among some Maroon communities as well as within some communities in Cornwall County, Jamaica Christopher Columbus claimed Jamaica for Spain after landing there in 1494, his probable landing point was Dry Harbour, called Discovery Bay, St. Ann's Bay was named "Saint Gloria" by Columbus, as the first sighting of the land.
One and a half kilometres west of St. Ann's Bay is the site of the first Spanish settlement on the island, established in 1509 and abandoned around 1524 because it was deemed unhealthy; the capital was moved to Spanish Town called St. Jago de la Vega, around 1534. Spanish Town has the oldest cathedral of the British colonies in the Caribbean; the Spanish were forcibly evicted by the English at Ocho Rios in St. Ann. In the 1655 Invasion of Jamaica, the English, led by Sir William Penn and General Robert Venables, took over the last Spanish fort on the island; the name of Montego Bay, the capital of the parish of St. James, was derived from the Spanish name manteca bahía, alluding to the lard-making industry based on processing the numerous boars in the area. In 1660, the population of Jamaica was about 4,500 1,500 black. By the early 1670s, as the English developed sugar cane plantations and "imported" more slaves, black people formed a majority of the population; the colony was shaken and destroyed by the 1692 Jamaica earthquake.
The Irish in Jamaica formed a large part of the island's early population, making up two-thirds of the white population on the island in the late 17th century, twice that of the English population. They were brought in as indentured labourers and soldiers after the conquest of Jamaica by Cromwell's forces in 1655; the majority of Irish were transported by force as political prisoners of war from Ireland as a result of the ongoing Wars of the Three Kingdoms at the time. Migration of large numbers of Irish to the island continued into the 18th century. Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492 and forcibly converted to Christianity in Portugal, during a period of persecution by the Inquisition; some Spanish and Portuguese Jewish refugees went to the Netherlands and England, from there to Jamaica. Others were part of the Iberian colonisation of the New World, after overtly converting to Catholicism, as only Catholics were allowed in the Spanish colonies. By 1660, Jamaica had become a refuge for Jews in the New World attracting those, expelled from Spain and Portugal.
An early group of Jews arrived in 1510, soon after the son of Christopher Columbus settled on the island. Working as merchants and traders, the
Sir Richard John Hadlee is a New Zealand former cricketer, regarded as one of the greatest fast bowlers and all-rounders in cricketing history. Hadlee was knighted in 1990 for services to cricket, he is a former chairman of the New Zealand board of selectors. In December 2002, he was chosen by Wisden as the second greatest Test bowler of all time. In March 2009, Hadlee was commemorated as one of the Twelve Local Heroes, a bronze bust of him was unveiled outside the Christchurch Arts Centre. On 3 April 2009, Sir Richard Hadlee was inducted into the ICC Cricket Hall of Fame. Sir Richard is the most prominent member of the Hadlee cricket playing family. Richard is the son of Walter Hadlee, the brother of Dayle and Barry Hadlee, his former wife Karen played international cricket for New Zealand. He was born on 3 July 1951 at Christchurch. In June 2018, Hadlee underwent tumor removal surgery. A bowling all-rounder, in an 86-Test career he took 431 wickets, was the first bowler to pass 400 wickets, with an average of 22.29, made 3124 Test runs at 27.16, including two centuries and 15 fifties.
Hadlee is rated by many experts as the greatest exponent of bowling with the new ball. He was the original Sultan of Swing. Hadlee was seen as one of the finest fast bowlers of his time, despite the contemporaneous presence of Dennis Lillee, Imran Khan, Andy Roberts, Michael Holding, Joel Garner, Kapil Dev, Wasim Akram, Waqar Younis and Malcolm Marshall among others; as one of the four top all rounders of his time, the others being Imran Khan, Kapil Dev and Ian Botham, Hadlee had the best bowling average of the four, but the lowest batting average. Born in Christchurch, Hadlee made his first class debut for Canterbury in 1971/72 and his test match debut in 1973 – on both occasions, his first delivery was dispatched to the boundary. Hadlee was an inconsistent performer at test level for several years. In 1978, Hadlee helped New Zealand to a historic first win over England by taking 6 for 26 in England's second innings, bowling the visitors out for 64 chasing a target of 137. In 1979/80, New Zealand faced the West Indies in a home test series at a time when the West Indies were a formidable world cricket power.
In the first test in Dunedin New Zealand achieved a shock 1-wicket win, helped by Hadlee's 11 wickets in the game. In the second test, Hadlee scored his maiden test century, helping New Zealand draw the test and win the series 1–0; the result was the start of a 12-year unbeaten home record for New Zealand in test match series. Hadlee was appointed a Member of the Order of the British Empire in the 1980 Queen's Birthday Honours. A tour to England in 1983 saw New Zealand register their first test win on English soil, at Headingley; the match was remarkable for Hadlee's match return of 0 for 89, a unusual occurrence in a New Zealand victory during his career. England won the 4 test series 3–1. In the return test series in New Zealand in 1984, New Zealand completed a remarkable three-day innings victory over England at Christchurch, in which England were dismissed for less than 100 in both of their innings; the match was notable for Hadlee's superb all-round performance – he took 8 wickets in the match, scored a rapid-fire 99 in New Zealand's only innings.
These efforts led him to achieve the number 1 ranking in ICC Test Bowling Rankings for the year 1984. 1985/86 was the beginning of a period in which Hadlee developed from a good fast bowler to a great one. In New Zealand's tour to Australia, an outstanding all-round performance helped destroy the home team in the first test at Brisbane, beginning with a personal test best 9 for 52 in Australia's first innings. A batting effort of 54 combined with 6 more wickets in Australia's second innings, helped New Zealand to a crushing innings victory. Hadlee followed this up with 7 wickets in a loss in the second test, 11 wickets in a New Zealand victory in the third test, giving his country their first series win on Australian soil and a personal haul of 33 wickets in 3 tests. In the first test of the return series in New Zealand, Hadlee took his 300th test wicket by trapping Australian captain Allan Border LBW; the series was won 1–0 by New Zealand by way of a victory in the third test at Eden Park. In 1986 Hadlee helped New Zealand to a 1–0 series win in England, their first over that country in England.
Hadlee's outstanding personal performance in the second test at Nottingham where he took 10 wickets and scored 68 in New Zealand's first innings powered his team to victory. In this test Hadlee a controversial character, added to this side of his reputation when he felled England wicketkeeper and Nottinghampshire teammate Bruce French with a nasty bouncer. During the New Zealand v West Indies test at Christchurch in March 1987, Hadlee and captain Jeremy Coney had a disagreement in the dressing room prior to the game, it progressed to not talking to each other on the field, communicating through John Wright at mid-on. In April 1987, New Zealand traveled to Sri Lanka, his 151 not out in the first test helped New Zealand to save the game.
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, is the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley, it has a population of 4.9 million, its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index; the city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre, it is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, has hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating in entertainment and sport, as well as education, health care and development, the EIU ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.
The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia, Australia's busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station, it has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world. Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years; when European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong—inhabited the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water; the first British settlement in Victoria part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land and founded the city of Hobart.
It would be 30 years. In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups agreed to share the settlement known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales, with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.
Known as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne; the British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a
Stumped is a method of dismissal in cricket. The action of stumping can only be performed by a wicket-keeper and, according to the Laws of Cricket, a batsman can be given out stumped if: the wicket-keeper puts down the wicket, while the batsman is: out of his ground. Being "out of his ground" is defined as not having any part of the batsman's body or his bat touching the ground behind the crease – i.e. if his bat is elevated from the floor despite being behind the crease, or if his foot is on the crease line itself but not across it and touching the ground behind it he would be considered out. One of the fielding team must appeal for the wicket by asking the umpire; the appeal is directed to the square-leg umpire, who would be in the best position to adjudicate on the appeal. Stumping is the fifth most common form of dismissal after caught, leg before wicket and run out, though it is seen more in Twenty20 cricket because of its more aggressive batting, it is governed by Law 39 of the Laws of Cricket.
It is seen with a medium or slow bowler, as with fast bowlers a wicket-keeper takes the ball too far back from the wicket to attempt a stumping. It includes co-operation between a bowler and wicket-keeper: the bowler draws the batsman out of his ground, the wicket-keeper catches and breaks the wicket before the batsman realises he has missed the ball and makes his ground, i.e. places the bat or part of his body on the ground back behind the popping crease. If the bails are removed before the wicket-keeper has the ball, the batsman can still be stumped if the wicket-keeper removes one of the stumps from the ground, while holding the ball in his hand; the bowler is credited for the batsman's wicket, the wicket-keeper is credited for the dismissal. A batsman may be out stumped off a wide delivery but cannot be stumped off a no-ball as bowler is credited for the wicket. Notes: The popping crease is defined as the back edge of the crease marking (i.e. the edge closer to the wicket. Therefore, a batsman whose bat or foot is on the crease marking, but does not touch the ground behind the crease marking, can be stumped.
This is quite common. The wicket must be properly put down in accordance with Law 28 of the Laws of cricket: using either the ball itself or a hand or arm, in possession of the ball. Note that since the ball itself can put down the wicket, a stumping is still valid if the ball rebounds from the'keeper and breaks the wicket though never controlled by him; the wicket-keeper must allow the ball to pass the stumps before taking it, unless it has touched either the batsman or his bat first. If the wicket-keeper fails to do this, the delivery is a "no-ball", the batsman cannot be stumped
Kingston is the capital and largest city of Jamaica, located on the southeastern coast of the island. It faces a natural harbour protected by the Palisadoes, a long sand spit which connects the town of Port Royal and the Norman Manley International Airport to the rest of the island. In the Americas, Kingston is the largest predominantly English-speaking city south of the United States; the local government bodies of the parishes of Kingston and St. Andrew were amalgamated by the Kingston and St. Andrew Corporation Act of 1923, to form the Kingston and St. Andrew Corporation. Greater Kingston, or the "Corporate Area" refers to those areas under the KSAC. Kingston Parish had a population of 96,052, St. Andrew Parish had a population of 555,828 in 2001. Kingston is only bordered by Saint Andrew to the east and north; the geographical border for the parish of Kingston encompasses the following communities, Tivoli Gardens, Denham Town, Rae Town, Kingston Gardens, National Heroes Park, Bournemouth Gardens, Norman Gardens, Rennock Lodge and Port Royal, along with portions of Rollington Town, Franklyn Town and Allman Town.
The city proper is bounded by Six Miles to the west, Stony Hill to the north, Papine to the northeast and Harbour View to the east, communities in urban and suburban Saint Andrew. Communities in rural St. Andrew such as Gordon Town, Mavis Bank, Lawrence Tavern, Mt. Airy and Bull Bay would not be described as being in Kingston city. Two parts make up the central area of Kingston: the historic Downtown, New Kingston. Both are served by Norman Manley International Airport and by the smaller and domestic Tinson Pen Aerodrome. Kingston was founded in July 1692 as a place for survivors of the 1692 earthquake that destroyed Port Royal. Before the earthquake, Kingston's functions were purely agricultural; the earthquake survivors set up a camp on the sea front. Two thousand people died due to mosquito-borne diseases; the people lived in a tented camp on Colonel Barry's Hog Crawle. The town did not begin to grow until after the further destruction of Port Royal by fire in 1703. Surveyor John Goffe drew up a plan for the town based on a grid bounded by North, East and Harbour Streets.
The new grid system of the town was designed to facilitate commerce the system of main thoroughfares 66 feet across which allowed transportation between the port and plantations farther inland. By 1716 it had become the centre of trade for Jamaica; the government sold land to people with the regulation that they purchase no more than the amount of the land that they owned in Port Royal, only land on the sea front. Wealthy merchants began to move their residences from above their businesses to the farm lands north on the plains of Liguanea; the first free school, Wolmers's, was founded in 1729 and there was a theatre, first on Harbour Street and moved in 1774 to North Parade. Both are still in existence. In 1755 the governor, Sir Charles Knowles, had decided to transfer the government offices from Spanish Town to Kingston, it was thought by some to be an unsuitable location for the Assembly in proximity to the moral distractions of Kingston, the next governor rescinded the Act. However, by 1780 the population of Kingston was 11,000, the merchants began lobbying for the administrative capital to be transferred from Spanish Town, by eclipsed by the commercial activity in Kingston.
By the end of the 18th century, the city contained more than 3,000 brick buildings. The harbour fostered trade, played part in several naval wars of the 18th century. Kingston took over the functions of Spanish Town; these functions included agriculture, processing and a main transport hub to and from Kingston and other sections of the island. The government passed an act to transfer the government offices to Kingston from Spanish Town, which occurred in 1872, it kept this status when the island was granted independence in 1962. In 1907, 800 people died in another earthquake known as the 1907 Kingston earthquake, destroying nearly all the historical buildings south of Parade in the city; that was. These three-story-high buildings were built with reinforced concrete. Construction on King Street in the city was the first area to breach this building code. During the 1930s, island-wide riots led to the development of trade unions and political parties to represent workers; the city became home to the Mona campus of the University of the West Indies founded in 1948, with 24 medical students.
Not until the 1960s did major change occur in the development of Kingston's city centre. The international attention of reggae music at that time coincided with the expansion and development of 95 acres of the Kingston city centre waterfront area; these developments led to an influx of shops and offices, the development of a new financial centre: New Kingston, which replaced the Knutsford Racetrack. Multi-story buildings and boulevards were placed within that section. In 1966 Kingston was the host city to the Commonwealth Games; the western section of the city was not the focus of development, that area proved to be politically tense. The 1970s saw deteriorating economic conditions that led to recurrent violence and a decline in tourism which affected the island. In the 1980 general elections, the democratic socialist People's National Party government was voted out, subsequent governments have been more market-oriented. Within a global urban era, the 1990s saw that Kingston has made efforts to modernise and devel