Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting and fielding. The game proceeds when a player on the fielding team, called the pitcher, throws a ball which a player on the batting team tries to hit with a bat; the objectives of the offensive team are to hit the ball into the field of play, to run the bases—having its runners advance counter-clockwise around four bases to score what are called "runs". The objective of the defensive team is to prevent batters from becoming runners, to prevent runners' advance around the bases. A run is scored when a runner advances around the bases in order and touches home plate; the team that scores the most runs by the end of the game is the winner. The first objective of the batting team is to have a player reach first base safely. A player on the batting team who reaches first base without being called "out" can attempt to advance to subsequent bases as a runner, either or during teammates' turns batting; the fielding team tries to prevent runs by getting batters or runners "out", which forces them out of the field of play.
Both the pitcher and fielders have methods of getting the batting team's players out. The opposing teams switch forth between batting and fielding. One turn batting for each team constitutes an inning. A game is composed of nine innings, the team with the greater number of runs at the end of the game wins. If scores are tied at the end of nine innings, extra innings are played. Baseball has no game clock. Baseball evolved from older bat-and-ball games being played in England by the mid-18th century; this game was brought by immigrants to North America. By the late 19th century, baseball was recognized as the national sport of the United States. Baseball is popular in North America and parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, East Asia in Japan and South Korea. In the United States and Canada, professional Major League Baseball teams are divided into the National League and American League, each with three divisions: East and Central; the MLB champion is determined by playoffs. The top level of play is split in Japan between the Central and Pacific Leagues and in Cuba between the West League and East League.
The World Baseball Classic, organized by the World Baseball Softball Confederation, is the major international competition of the sport and attracts the top national teams from around the world. A baseball game is played between two teams, each composed of nine players, that take turns playing offense and defense. A pair of turns, one at bat and one in the field, by each team constitutes an inning. A game consists of nine innings. One team—customarily the visiting team—bats in the top, or first half, of every inning; the other team -- customarily the home team -- bats in second half, of every inning. The goal of the game is to score more points than the other team; the players on the team at bat attempt to score runs by circling or completing a tour of the four bases set at the corners of the square-shaped baseball diamond. A player bats at home plate and must proceed counterclockwise to first base, second base, third base, back home to score a run; the team in the field attempts to prevent runs from scoring and record outs, which remove opposing players from offensive action until their turn in their team's batting order comes up again.
When three outs are recorded, the teams switch roles for the next half-inning. If the score of the game is tied after nine innings, extra innings are played to resolve the contest. Many amateur games unorganized ones, involve different numbers of players and innings; the game is played on a field whose primary boundaries, the foul lines, extend forward from home plate at 45-degree angles. The 90-degree area within the foul lines is referred to as fair territory; the part of the field enclosed by the bases and several yards beyond them is the infield. In the middle of the infield is a raised pitcher's mound, with a rectangular rubber plate at its center; the outer boundary of the outfield is demarcated by a raised fence, which may be of any material and height. The fair territory between home plate and the outfield boundary is baseball's field of play, though significant events can take place in foul territory, as well. There are three basic tools of baseball: the ball, the bat, the glove or mitt: The baseball is about the size of an adult's fist, around 9 inches in circumference.
It wound in yarn and covered in white cowhide, with red stitching. The bat is a hitting tool, traditionally made of a solid piece of wood. Other materials are now used for nonprofessional games, it is a hard round stick, about 2.5 inches in diameter at the hitting end, tapering to a narrower handle and culminating in a knob. Bats used by adults are around 34 inches long, not longer than 42 inches; the glove or mitt is a fielding tool, made of padded leather with webbing between the fingers. As an aid in catching and holding onto the ball, it takes various shapes to meet the specific needs of differ
In baseball, the dead-ball era was the period between around 1900 and the emergence of Babe Ruth as a power hitter in 1919. That year, Ruth hit; this era was characterized by a lack of home runs. The lowest league run average in history was in 1908. During the dead-ball era, baseball was much more of a strategy-driven game, using a style of play now known as small ball or inside baseball, it relied much more on hit-and-run types of plays than on home runs. These strategies emphasized speed by necessity. Teams played in spacious ball parks that limited hitting for power, compared to modern baseballs, the ball used was "dead" both by design and from overuse. Low-power hits like the Baltimore Chop, developed in the 1890s by the Baltimore Orioles, were used to get on base. Once on base, a runner would steal or be bunted over to second base and move to third base or score on a hit-and-run play. In no other era have teams stolen as many bases as in the dead-ball era. On 13 occasions between 1900 and 1920, the league leader in home runs had fewer than 10 home runs for the season.
Meanwhile, there were 20 instances where the league leader in triples had more. Pittsburgh Pirates outfielder Owen "Chief" Wilson set a record of 36 triples in 1912, a little-known record, one of baseball's unbreakable records, as is that of the 309 career triples of Sam Crawford set during this time. Despite their speed, teams struggled to score during the dead-ball era. Major league cumulative batting averages ranged between.239 and.279 in the National League and between.239 and.283 in the American League. The lack of power in the game meant lower slugging averages and on-base percentages, as pitchers could challenge hitters more without the threat of the long ball; the nadir of the dead-ball era was around 1907 and 1908, with a league-wide batting average of.239, slugging average of.306, ERA under 2.40. In the latter year, the Chicago White Sox hit three home runs for the entire season, yet they finished 88–64, just a couple of games from winning the pennant; some players and fans complained about the low-scoring games, baseball sought to remedy the situation.
In 1909, Ben Shibe invented the cork-centered ball, which the Reach Company—official ball supplier to the American League —began marketing. Spalding, who supplied the National League, followed with its own cork-center ball; the change in the ball affected play in both leagues. In 1910, the American League batting average was.243. The National League saw a jump in the league batting average from.256 in 1910 to.272 in 1912. 1911 happened to be the best season of Ty Cobb’s career. Joe Jackson hit.408 in 1911, the next year Cobb batted.410. These were the only.400 averages between 1902 and 1919. In 1913, pitchers started to regain control, helped by a serendipitous invention by minor league pitcher Russ Ford. Ford accidentally scuffed a baseball against a concrete wall, after he threw it, noticed the pitch dived as it reached the batter; the emery pitch was born. Soon pitchers not only had the dominating spitball; as play continued, the ball became scuffed. This made it harder to hit as it moved more during the pitch, more difficult to see as it became dirtier.
By 1914 run scoring was back to the pre-1911 years and remained so until 1919. Such a lack of power in the game led to one of the more unusual player nicknames in history. Frank Baker, one of the best players of the dead-ball era, earned the nickname of "Home Run" Baker for hitting two home runs in the 1911 World Series. Although Baker led the American League in home runs four times, his highest home run season was 1913, when he hit 12 home runs, he finished with 96 home runs for his career; the best homerun hitter of the dead-ball era was Philadelphia Phillies outfielder "Cactus" Gavvy Cravath. Cravath led the National League in home runs six times, with a high total of 24 for the pennant-winning Phillies in 1915 and seasons of 19 home runs each in 1913 and 1914. Cravath, was aided by batting in the Baker Bowl, a notoriously hitter-friendly park with only a short 280-foot distance from the plate to the right field wall; the following factors contributed to the dramatic decline in runs scored during the dead-ball era: The foul strike rule was a major rule change that, in just a few years, sent baseball from a high-scoring game to a game where scoring any runs was a struggle.
Prior to this rule, foul balls did not count as strikes. Thus, a batter could foul off a countless number of pitches with no strikes counted against him—except for bunt attempts; this gave the batter an enormous advantage. In 1901, the National League adopted the foul strike rule, the American League followed suit in 1903. Before 1921, it was common for a baseball to be in play for over 100 pitches. Players used the same ball. Early baseball leagues were cost-conscious, so fans had to throw back balls, hit into the stands; the longer the ball was in play, the softer it became—and hitting a used, softer ball for distance is much more difficult than hitting a new, harder one. The ball itself was softer to begin with making home runs less likely; the ball was hard to hit because pitchers could manipulate it before a pitch. For example, the spitball pitch was permitted in
History of the St. Louis Browns
The St. Louis Browns were a Major League Baseball team that originated in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, as the Milwaukee Brewers. Charter member of the American League, the Brewers moved to St. Louis, after the 1901 season, where they played for 52 years as the St. Louis Browns; this article covers the franchise's more-than-five-decade history in St. Louis. After the 1953 season, the team relocated to Baltimore, where it became the Baltimore Orioles; as of May 2018, there are only 11 living former St. Louis Browns players. In the late 19th century, the team was formed as the Milwaukee Brewers in the Western League. For the 1900 season, the Western League was renamed the "American League", in 1901, it was converted to a major league team under the leadership of Ban Johnson. Johnson intended to move the Milwaukee Brewers to St. Louis, a larger market for Major League Baseball; when he could not find a suitable owner, he operated the team in Milwaukee for a lame-duck season in 1901. In 1902, he found a suitable St. Louis-based owner in carriage maker Robert Hedges.
The team moved to St. Louis and changed their name to the "Browns." This referred to the original name of the 1880s club that by 1900 was known as the St. Louis Cardinals. Hedges built a new park, known as Sportsman's Park, on the site of the old Browns' former venue. In their first St. Louis season, the Browns finished second. Although the Browns had only four winning seasons from 1902 to 1922, they were popular at the gate during their first two decades in St. Louis, they trounced the Cardinals in attendance. Pitcher Barney Pelty was a workhorse for the Browns, a member of their starting rotation from 1904, when he pitched 31 complete games and 301 innings, through 1911. In 1909, the Browns rebuilt Sportsman's Park as the third concrete-and-steel park in the major leagues. During this time, the Browns were best known for their role in the race for the 1910 American League batting title. Ty Cobb took off the last game of the season, believing that his slight lead over Nap Lajoie, of the Cleveland Naps, would hold up unless Lajoie had a near-perfect day at the plate.
Browns' manager Jack O'Connor had ordered rookie third baseman Red Corriden to play on the outfield grass. This all but conceded. Lajoie made it to first easily. On his last at-bat, Lajoie reached base on an error – giving him a hitless at-bat. O'Connor and coach Harry Howell tried to bribe the official scorer, a woman, to change the call to a hit – offering to buy her a new wardrobe. Cobb won the batting title by just a few thousandths of a point over Lajoie, but it was reported that one game may have been counted twice in the statistics, there were rumors about the attempted bribery, causing a scandal about the rankings. After news broke of the scandal, a writer for the St. Louis Post claimed: "All St. Louis is up in arms over the deplorable spectacle, conceived in stupidity and executed in jealousy." The resulting outcry triggered an investigation by American League president Ban Johnson. At his insistence, Hedges fired Howell. In 1916, Hedges sold the Browns to Philip DeCatesby Ball, who owned the St. Louis Terriers in the by-then-defunct Federal League.
Under Ball's early tenure, the club had its first sustained period of success on the field. Ball spent to put a winner of the field. But, analysts think Ball made a series of blunders that would doom the franchise. Shortly after buying the team, he fired general manager Branch Rickey, promptly hired by the Cardinals. Four years Ball allowed the Cardinals to move out of dilapidated Robison Field and share Sportsman's Park with the Browns. Rickey and Cardinals owner Sam Breadon used the proceeds from the Robison Field sale to build baseball's first modern farm system; this effort produced several star players who brought the Cardinals more drawing power than the Browns. The 1922 Browns excited their owner by beating the Yankees to a pennant; the club was boasting the best players in franchise history, including future Hall of Famer George Sisler and an outfield trio of Ken Williams, Baby Doll Jacobson, Jack Tobin, who batted.300 or better from 1919–23 and in 1925. In 1922, Williams became the first player in Major League history to hit 30 home runs and steal 30 bases in a season, something that would not be done again in the Majors until 1956.
Ball confidently predicted that there would be a World Series in Sportsman's Park by 1926. In anticipation, he increased the capacity of his ballpark from 18,000 to 30,000. There was a World Series in Sportsman's Park in 1926 – but it was the Cardinals who took part, upsetting the Yankees. St. Louis had been considered a "Browns town" until then. Meanwhile, the Browns fell into the cellar, they had only two winning records from 1927 to 1943, including a 43-111 mark in 1939, still the worst in franchise history. Ball died in 1933, his estate ran the team for three years until Rickey helped broker a sale to investment banker Donald Lee Barnes. His son-in-law, Bill DeWitt, was the team's general manager. To help finance the purchase, Barnes sold 20,000 shares of stock to the public at $5 a share, an unusual practice for a sports franchise. By 1941, Barnes was convinced. After interests in Los Angeles approached him about buying a stake in the team, he asked AL owners for permission to move there for the 1942 season.
The Cincinnati Reds are an American professional baseball team based in Cincinnati, Ohio. The Reds compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the National League Central division, they were a charter member of the American Association in 1882 and joined the NL in 1890. The Reds played in the NL West division from 1969 to 1993, before joining the Central division in 1994, they have won five World Series titles, nine NL pennants, one AA pennant, 10 division titles. The team plays its home games at Great American Ball Park, which opened in 2003 replacing Riverfront Stadium. Bob Castellini has been chief executive officer since 2006. For 1882-2018, the Reds' overall win-loss record is 10524-10306; the origins of the modern Cincinnati Reds can be traced to the expulsion of an earlier team bearing that name. In 1876, Cincinnati became one of the charter members of the new National League, but the club ran afoul of league organizer and long-time president William Hulbert for selling beer during games and renting out their ballpark on Sundays.
Both were important activities to entice the city's large German population. While Hulbert made clear his distaste for both beer and Sunday baseball at the founding of the league, neither practice was against league rules in those early years. On October 6, 1880, seven of the eight team owners pledged at a special league meeting to formally ban both beer and Sunday baseball at the regular league meeting that December. Only Cincinnati president W. H. Kennett refused to sign the pledge, so the other owners formally expelled Cincinnati for violating a rule that would not go into effect for two more months. Cincinnati's expulsion from the National League incensed Cincinnati Enquirer sports editor O. P. Caylor, who made two attempts to form a new league on behalf of the receivers for the now bankrupt Reds franchise; when these attempts failed, he formed a new independent ballclub known as the Red Stockings in the Spring of 1881, brought the team to St. Louis for a weekend exhibition; the Reds' first game was a 12–3 victory over the St. Louis club.
After the 1881 series proved a success, Caylor and a former president of the old Reds named Justus Thorner received an invitation from Philadelphia businessman Horace Phillips to attend a meeting of several clubs in Pittsburgh with the intent of establishing a rival to the National League. Upon arriving in the city, however and Thorner discovered that no other owners had decided to accept the invitation, with Phillips not bothering to attend his own meeting. By chance, the duo met a former pitcher named Al Pratt, who hooked them up with former Pittsburgh Alleghenys president H. Denny McKnight. Together, the three men hatched a scheme to form a new league by sending a telegram to each of the other owners who were supposed to attend the meeting stating that he was the only person who did not attend and that everyone else was enthusiastic about the new venture and eager to attend a second meeting in Cincinnati; the ploy worked, the American Association was formed at the Hotel Gibson in Cincinnati with the new Reds a charter member with Thorner as president.
Led by the hitting of third baseman Hick Carpenter, the defense of future Hall of Fame second baseman Bid McPhee, the pitching of 40-game-winner Will White, the Reds won the inaugural AA pennant in 1882. With the establishment of the Union Association Justus Thorner left the club to finance the Cincinnati Outlaw Reds and managed to acquire the lease on the Reds Bank Street Grounds playing field, forcing new president Aaron Stern to relocate three blocks away at the hastily built League Park; the club never placed higher than second or lower than fifth for the rest of its tenure in the American Association. The Cincinnati Red Stockings left the American Association on November 14, 1889 and joined the National League along with the Brooklyn Bridegrooms after a dispute with St. Louis Browns owner Chris Von Der Ahe over the selection of a new league president; the National League was happy to accept the teams in part due to the emergence of the new Player's League. This new league, an early failed attempt to break the reserve clause in baseball, threatened both existing leagues.
Because the National League decided to expand while the American Association was weakening, the team accepted an invitation to join the National League. It was at this time that the team first shortened their name from "Red Stockings" to "Reds"; the Reds wandered through the 1890s signing aging veterans. During this time, the team never finished above never closer than 10 1⁄2 games. At the start of the 20th century, the Reds had hitting Cy Seymour. Seymour's.377 average in 1905 was the first individual batting crown won by a Red. In 1911, Bob Bescher stole 81 bases, still a team record. Like the previous decade, the 1900s were not kind to the Reds, as much of the decade was spent in the league's second division. In 1912, the club opened Redland Field; the Reds had been playing baseball on that same site, the corner of Findlay and Western Avenues on the city's west side, for 28 years, in wooden structures, damaged by fires. By the late 1910s the Reds began to come out of the second division; the 1918 team finished fourth, new manager Pat Moran led the Reds to an NL pennant in 1919, in what the club advertised as its "Golden Anniversary".
The 1919 team had hitting stars Edd Roush and Heinie Groh while the pitching staff was led by Hod Eller and left-hander Harry "Slim" Sallee. The Reds finished ahead of John McGraw's New York Giants, won the world championship in eight games over the
Commissioner of Baseball
The Commissioner of Baseball is the chief executive of Major League Baseball and the associated Minor League Baseball – a constellation of leagues and clubs known as organized baseball. Under the direction of the Commissioner, the Office of the Commissioner of Baseball hires and maintains the sport's umpiring crews, negotiates marketing and television contracts; the commissioner is chosen by a vote of the owners of the teams. The current commissioner is Rob Manfred, who assumed office on January 25, 2015; the title "commissioner", a title now applied to the heads of several other major sports leagues as well as baseball, derives from its predecessor office, the National Commission. The National Commission was the ruling body of professional baseball starting with the National Agreement of 1903, which made peace between the National League and the American League, it consisted of three members: the two League presidents and a Commission chairman, whose primary responsibilities were to preside at meetings and to mediate disputes.
Although the Commission chairman August Herrmann was the nominal head of major league baseball, it was AL President Ban Johnson who dominated the Commission. The event that would lead to the appointment of a single Commissioner of Baseball was the Black Sox Scandal — the worst of a series of incidents in the late 1910s that jeopardized the integrity of the game. However, the motivations behind the creation of the Commissioner's office were more than the mere desire to rebuild public relations; the scandal had not only tarnished the image of baseball, but had brought relations between team owners and AL President Johnson to a breaking point. In particular, Chicago White Sox owner Charles Comiskey was incensed at what he perceived to be Johnson's indifference to his suspicions that the 1919 World Series had been thrown; as a result, the National League, whose owners had never been on good terms with Johnson, agreed to invite the White Sox along with the Boston Red Sox and New York Yankees to join their league.
The NL unveiled plans to put a twelfth team in Detroit. With the American League's status as a major league and its existence in jeopardy, the five AL owners loyal to Johnson sued for peace. At the urging of Detroit Tigers owner and Johnson loyalist Frank Navin, a compromise was reached in late 1920 to reform the National Commission with a membership of non-baseball men. Having agreed to appoint only non-baseball men to the National Commission, the owners tapped federal judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis, an ardent baseball fan, to serve as the reformed commission's chairman. Landis responded by declaring that he would only accept an appointment as sole commissioner, with nearly unlimited authority to act in the "best interests of baseball" — in essence, serving as an arbitrator whose decisions could not be appealed. Landis insisted on a lifetime contract; the owners, still reeling from the perception that the sport was crooked agreed. Landis's first significant act was to deal with the Black Sox scandal.
Following a trial, the eight players suspected of involvement in the fix were acquitted, including Buck Weaver and superstar Shoeless Joe Jackson. Following the players' acquittal, Landis banned them all from baseball for life, he famously declared, "Regardless of the verdict of juries, no player who throws a ballgame, no player that undertakes or promises to throw a ballgame, no player that sits in conference with a bunch of crooked players and gamblers where the ways and means of throwing a game are discussed and does not promptly tell his club about it, will play professional baseball." Landis explained that though the players had all been acquitted in court, none of them could be allowed back in the game if its image was to be restored with the public. Over the years, he dealt harshly with others proven to have thrown individual games, consorted with gamblers or engaged in actions that he felt tarnished the image of the game. Among the others he banned were New York Giants players Phil Douglas and Jimmy O'Connell, Philadelphia Phillies pitcher Gene Paulette, Giants coach Cozy Dolan, Phillies owner William D. Cox.
He formalized the unofficial banishments of Hal Chase and Heinie Zimmerman. In 1921, he banned Giants center fielder Benny Kauff though he had been acquitted of involvement in a car theft ring. Nonetheless, Landis was convinced Kauff was guilty and argued that players of "undesirable reputation and character" had no place in baseball; the owners had assumed that Landis would deal with the Black Sox Scandal and settle into a comfortable retirement as the titular head of baseball. Instead, Landis ruled baseball with an iron hand for the next 25 years, he established a fiercely independent Commissioner's Office that would go on to make both players and owners miserable with decisions that he argued were in the best interests of the game. He worked to clean up the hooliganism, tarnishing the reputation of players in the 1920s, inserted his office into negotiations with players, where he deemed appropriate, to end a few of the labor practices of owners like Charles Comiskey that had contributed to the players' discontent.
He personally approved broadcasters for the World Series. Landis's only significant rival in the early years was longtime American League founder and president Ban Johnson, reckoned as the most powerful man in the game before Landis's arrival. Johnson was as strong-willed as Landis, a clash between the two was inevitable, it happened in the 1924 World Series. When several Giants were implicated in a plan to bribe players on the moribund Phillies late in the season
Boston Red Sox
The Boston Red Sox are an American professional baseball team based in Boston, Massachusetts. The Red Sox compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the American League East division; the Red Sox have won nine World Series championships, tied for the third-most of any MLB team, they have played in 13. Their most recent appearance and win was in 2018. In addition, they won the 1904 American League pennant, but were not able to defend their 1903 World Series championship when the New York Giants refused to participate in the 1904 World Series. Founded in 1901 as one of the American League's eight charter franchises, the Red Sox' home ballpark has been Fenway Park since 1912; the "Red Sox" name was chosen by the team owner, John I. Taylor, circa 1908, following the lead of previous teams, known as the "Boston Red Stockings", including the forerunner of the Atlanta Braves. Boston was a dominant team in the new league, defeating the Pittsburgh Pirates in the first World Series in 1903 and winning four more championships by 1918.
However, they went into one of the longest championship droughts in baseball history, dubbed the "Curse of the Bambino" after its alleged inception due to the Red Sox' sale of Babe Ruth to the rival New York Yankees two years after their world championship in 1918, an 86-year wait before the team's sixth World Championship in 2004. The team's history during that period was punctuated with some of the most memorable moments in World Series history, including Enos Slaughter's "mad dash" in 1946, the "Impossible Dream" of 1967, Carlton Fisk's home run in 1975, Bill Buckner's error in 1986. Following their victory in the 2018 World Series, they became the first team to win four World Series trophies in the 21st century, including championships in 2004, 2007, 2013 and 2018. Red Sox history has been marked by the team's intense rivalry with the Yankees, arguably the fiercest and most historic in North American professional sports; the Boston Red Sox are owned by Fenway Sports Group, which owns Liverpool F.
C. of the Premier League in England. The Red Sox are one of the top MLB teams in average road attendance, while the small capacity of Fenway Park prevents them from leading in overall attendance. From May 15, 2003 to April 10, 2013, the Red Sox sold out every home game—a total of 820 games for a major professional sports record. Both Neil Diamond's "Sweet Caroline", The Standells's "Dirty Water" have become anthems for the Red Sox; the name Red Sox, chosen by owner John I. Taylor after the 1907 season, refers to the red hose in the team uniform beginning in 1908. Sox had been adopted for the Chicago White Sox by newspapers needing a headline-friendly form of Stockings, as "Stockings Win!" in large type did not fit in a column. The team name "Red Sox" had been used as early as 1888 by a'colored' team from Norfolk, Virginia; the Spanish language media sometimes refers to the team as Medias Rojas, a translation of "red socks". The official Spanish site uses the variant "Los Red Sox"; the Red Stockings nickname was first used by a baseball team by the Cincinnati Red Stockings, who were members of the pioneering National Association of Base Ball Players.
Managed by Harry Wright, Cincinnati adopted a uniform with white knickers and red stockings and earned the famous nickname, a year or two before hiring the first professional team in 1869. When the club folded after the 1870 season, Wright was hired by Boston businessman Ivers Whitney Adams to organize a new team in Boston, he did, bringing three teammates and the "Red Stockings" nickname along; the Boston Red Stockings won four championships in the five seasons of the new National Association, the first professional league. When a new Cincinnati club was formed as a charter member of the National League in 1876, the "Red Stockings" nickname was reserved for them once again, the Boston team was referred to as the "Red Caps". Other names were sometimes used before Boston adopted the nickname "Braves" in 1912. In 1901, the upstart American League established a competing club in Boston. For seven seasons, the AL team had no official nickname, they were "Boston", "Bostonians" or "the Bostons". Their 1901–1907 jerseys, both home, road, just read "Boston", except for 1902 when they sported large letters "B" and "A" denoting "Boston" and "American."
Newspaper writers of the time used other nicknames for the club, including "Somersets", "Plymouth Rocks", "Beaneaters", the "Collinsites"", "Pilgrims." For years many sources have listed "Pilgrims" as the early Boston AL team's official nickname, but researcher Bill Nowlin has demonstrated that the name was used, if at all, during the team's early years. The origin of the nickname appears to be a poem entitled "The Pilgrims At Home" written by Edwin Fitzwilliam, sung at the 1907 home opener; this nickname was used during that season because the team had a new manager and several rookie players. John I. Taylor had said in December 1907 that the Pilgrims "sounded too much like homeless wanderers." The National League club in Boston, though called the "Red Stockings" anymore, still wore red trim. In 1907, the Nat
1922 New York Yankees season
The 1922 New York Yankees season was the 20th season for the Yankees in New York and their 22nd overall. The team finished with a record of 94 wins and 60 losses, to win their second pennant in franchise history, by a single game over the St. Louis Browns. New York was managed by Miller Huggins, their home games were played at the Polo Grounds. In the 1922 World Series, the Yankees again lost to their landlords, the New York Giants, 4 games to none with one tied game; the final game of the Series was the Yankees' final game as a tenant in the Polo Grounds. During the season, they had begun construction of their new home, Yankee Stadium, which would open in 1923; the Yankees started the season without their star, Babe Ruth, serving a suspension due to breaking the rule against World Series participants barnstorming. Although Commissioner Landis refused to back down on his enforcement of the rule, he did repeal the absurd rule by the end of the 1922 season. Note: Pos = position. = Batting average.
= Batting average.