Kenai National Wildlife Refuge
The Kenai National Wildlife Refuge is a 1.92-million-acre wildlife habitat preserve located on the Kenai Peninsula of Alaska, United States. It is adjacent to Kenai Fjords National Park; this refuge was created in 1941 as the Kenai National Moose Range, but in 1980 it was changed to its present status by the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act. The refuge is administered from offices in Soldotna. There is a wide variety of terrain in the refuge, including muskeg and other wetlands, alpine areas, taiga forest; the refuge protects several large mammals, including wolf packs, brown bears, black bears, dall sheep, Canadian lynx, caribou, as well as thousands of migratory and native birds. There are numerous lakes, as well as the Kenai River, the refuge is a popular destination for fishing for salmon and trout; the refuge has several campgrounds and boat launches, including two developed campgrounds, one at Hidden Lake and another at Skilak Lake, both accessible from Skilak Lake Loop Road, which intersects the Sterling Highway at both ends.
Other less-developed campgrounds and campsites are accessible from the Sterling Highway, Skilak Loop Road, Swanson River Road, Swan Lake Road, the of which do not require fees to access. Since 2005 the refuge has offered 16 cabins for public use via a reservation system, with some cabins accessible only via boat; the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge has multiple small canoe systems linking lakes or groups of lakes. It further possess two larger canoe trails, which link large networks of lakes and rivers via portages; the most popular, the Swan Lake Canoe Trail, travels 60 miles, beginning at Canoe Lake, terminates alternatively at Portage Lake or the confluence of the Moose and Kenai rivers in Sterling. The longest, the Swanson River Canoe Route, spanning 80 miles, begins either at Paddle Lake or Gene Lake, ends where the Swanson River meets the Cook Inlet at Captain Cook State Park. There are over 110 miles of hiking trails in the refuge, accessed from the Sterling Highway, Skilak Lake Loop Road, Swanson River Road, various campgrounds, the refuge visitor center and headquarters.
These hikes range from difficult, multi-day back-country hikes to easier, short paved-trail walks. As with most national wildlife refuges, the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge is open to hunting; the Funny River Fire, a human-caused fire that began on May 19, 2014, had burned in the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge. During firefighting activities, a wolf den was damaged by a bulldozer and 5 pups were rescued by firefighters; the pups were taken to the Alaska Zoo and were transferred to the Minnesota Zoo. Shanta Creek fire Official Site The short film Kenai National Wildlife Refuge is available for free download at the Internet Archive
To cities, towns, charter townships and boroughs. The term can be used to describe municipally owned corporations. Municipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which they are located; this event is marked by the award or declaration of a municipal charter. A city charter or town charter or municipal charter is a legal document establishing a municipality, such as a city or town. In Canada, charters are granted by provincial authorities; the Corporation of Chennai is the oldest Municipal Corporation in the world after UK. The title "corporation" was used in boroughs from soon after the Norman conquest until the Local Government Act 2001. Under the 2001 act, county boroughs were renamed "cities" and their corporations became "city councils". After the Partition of Ireland, the corporations in the Irish Free State were Dublin, Cork and Waterford and Drogheda, Sligo and Wexford. Dún Laoghaire gained borough status in 1930 as “The Corporation of Dun Laoghaire".
Galway's borough status, lost in 1840, was restored in 1937. The New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 allowed municipal corporations to be established within the new Provinces of New Zealand; the term fell out of favour following the abolition of the Provinces in 1876. In the United States, such municipal corporations are established by charters that are granted either directly by a state legislature by means of local legislation, or indirectly under a general municipal corporation law after the proposed charter has passed a referendum vote of the affected population. Under the enterprise meaning of the term, municipal corporations are "organisations with independent corporate status, managed by an executive board appointed by local government officials, with majority public ownership"; some MOCs rely on revenue from user fees, distinguishing them from agencies and special districts funded through taxation, although this is not always the case. Municipal corporation follows a process of externalization that requires new skills and orientations from the respective local governments, follow common changes in the institutional landscape of public services.
They are argued to be more efficient than bureaucracy but have higher failure rates because of their legal and managerial autonomy. Unincorporated area German town law Municipal incorporationA Brief Summary of Municipal Incorporation Procedures by State - University of Georgia Characteristics and State Requirements for Incorporated Places - United States CensusMunicipal disincorporation / dissolutionDissolving Cities - University of California, Berkeley Municipal Disincorporation in California - California City Finance
Bethel Census Area, Alaska
Bethel Census Area is a census area in the U. S. state of Alaska. As of the 2010 census, the population is 17,013, it therefore has no borough seat. Its largest community is the city of Bethel, the largest city in the unorganized borough. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the census area has an area of 45,504 square miles, of which 40,570 square miles is land and 4,934 square miles is water, its territory includes the large Nunivak Island in the Bering Sea. Its land area is comparable to that of Kentucky, which has an area of under forty thousand square miles. Kusilvak Census Area, Alaska - northwest Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area, Alaska - north Matanuska-Susitna Borough, Alaska - east Kenai Peninsula Borough, Alaska - southeast Lake and Peninsula Borough, Alaska - south Dillingham Census Area, Alaska - south Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Bering Sea Wilderness Lake Clark National Park and Preserve Lake Clark Wilderness Togiak National Wildlife Refuge Togiak Wilderness Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge Nunivak Wilderness As of the census of 2000, there were 16,006 people, 4,226 households, 3,173 families residing in the census area.
The population density was 0 people per square mile. There were 5,188 housing units at an average density of 0/sq mi; the racial makeup of the census area was 12.53% White, 0.38% Black or African American, 81.93% Native American, 1.05% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.19% from other races, 3.85% from two or more races. 0.87% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,226 households out of which 51.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.20% were married couples living together, 15.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.90% were non-families. 19.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.73 and the average family size was 4.41. In the census area the population was spread out with 39.80% under the age of 18, 9.70% from 18 to 24, 28.90% from 25 to 44, 16.40% from 45 to 64, 5.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 25 years.
For every 100 females, there were 113.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 112.80 males. Bethel Census Area is one of only 38 county-level census divisions of the United States where the most spoken language is not English and one of only 3 where it is neither English nor Spanish. 63.14% of the population speak a Yupik language at home, followed by English at 34.71%. Crow Village Georgetown Napaimute Umkumiute List of Airports in the Bethel Census Area Nunathloogagamiutbingoi Dunes Census Area map, 2000 census: Alaska Department of Labor Census Area map, 2010 census: Alaska Department of Labor
Cook Inlet stretches 180 miles from the Gulf of Alaska to Anchorage in south-central Alaska. Cook Inlet branches into the Knik Arm and Turnagain Arm at its northern end surrounding Anchorage. On its south end merges with Shelikof Strait, Stevenson Entrance, Kennedy Entrance and Chugach Passage; the watershed covers about 100,000 km² of southern Alaska, east of the Aleutian Range and east of the Alaska Range, receiving water from its tributaries the Knik River, the Little Susitna River, the Susitna and Matanuska rivers. The watershed includes the drainage areas of Denali. Within the watershed there are several national parks and the active volcano Mount Redoubt, along with three other active volcanoes. Cook Inlet provides navigable access to the port of Anchorage at the northern end, to the smaller Homer port further south. Before the growth of Anchorage, Knik was the destination for most marine traffic in upper Cook Inlet. 400,000 people live within the Cook Inlet watershed. The Cook Inlet region contains active volcanoes, including Mount Redoubt.
Volcanic eruptions in the region have been associated with earthquakes and tsunamis, debris avalanches have resulted in tsunamis also. There was an earthquake of the magnitude of 7.1 on December 31, 1901 generated by an eruption that caused several tsunamis. In 2009 a lahar from Mt. Redoubt threatened the Drift River oil terminal; the inlet was first settled by Dena'ina people. In the 18th century, Russian fur hunters were among the first European visitors; the Lebedev Lastochkin Company leader Stepan Zaikov established a post at the mouth of the Kenai River, Fort Nikolaev, in 1786. These fur trappers used Siberian Native and Alaska Native people Aleuts from the Aleutian Islands and Koniag natives from Kodiak, to hunt for sea otters and other marine mammal species for trade with China via Russia's then-exclusive inland port of trade at Kiakhta. Other Europeans to visit Cook Inlet include the 1778 expedition of James Cook, its namesake, who sailed into it while searching for the Northwest Passage.
Cook received maps of Alaska, the Aleutians, Kamchatka during a visit with Russian fur trader Gerasim Izmailov in Unalaska, combined these maps with those of his expedition to create the first Mercator projection of the North Pacific. The inlet was named after Cook in 1794 by George Vancouver, who had served under Cook in 1778. Turnagain Arm was named by William Bligh of HMS Bounty fame. Bligh served as Cook's Sailing Master on his 3rd and final voyage, the aim of, discovery of the Northwest Passage. Upon reaching the head of Cook Inlet, Bligh was of the opinion that both Knik Arm and Turnagain Arm were the mouths of rivers and not the opening to the Northwest Passage. Under Cook's orders Bligh organized a party to travel up Knik Arm, which returned to report Knik Arm indeed led only to a river. Afterwards a second party was dispatched up Turnagain Arm and it too returned to report only a river lay ahead; as a result of this frustration the second body of water was given the disingenuous name "Turn Again".
Early maps label Turnagain Arm as the "Turnagain River". The S. S. Farallon was a wooden Alaskan Steamship Company liner that struck Black Reef in the Cook Inlet on January 5, 1910. All thirty-eight men on board survived, were rescued twenty-nine days later. Few white people visited upper Cook Inlet until construction of the Alaska Railroad along the eastern shores of Turnagain Arm and Knik Arm of Cook Inlet around 1915; the natives of the Eklutna village are the descendants of the residents of eight native villages around upper Cook Inlet. During the 1964 Alaska earthquake, areas around the head of Turnagain Arm near Girdwood and Portage dropped as much as 8 feet by subsidence and subsequent tidal action. Both hamlets were destroyed. Girdwood was relocated inland and Portage was abandoned. About 20 miles of the Seward Highway sank below the high-water mark of Turnagain Arm. Most of Alaska's population surrounds Cook Inlet, concentrated in the Anchorage, Alaska area and in communities on the Kenai Peninsula.
The more remote west side of the inlet is not connected to the road system, is home to the village of Tyonek, a number of oil camps. The Cook Inlet Basin contains large gas deposits including several offshore fields; as of 2005 there were 16 platforms in Cook Inlet, the oldest of, the XTO A platform first installed by Shell in 1964, newest of, the Osprey platform installed by Forest Oil in 2000. Most of the platforms are operated by Union Oil, acquired by Chevron in 2005. There are numerous oil and gas pipelines running around and under the Cook Inlet; the main destinations of the gas pipelines are to Kenai where the gas is used to fuel commercial fertilizer production and a liquified natural gas plant and to Anchorage where the gas is consumed for domestic uses. Alaska has half the known coal reserves in the U. S. For decades, there has been a proposal to build a large coal mine on the west side of Cook Inlet near the Chuitna River, the native village of Tyonek, Alaska. American Rivers has placed the Chuitna River on its list of the 10 most endangered rivers for 2007, based on the threat of this mine.
Turnagain Arm is one of only about 60 bodies of water worldwide to exhibit a tidal bore. The bore may be more than six feet high and travel at 15 miles per hour on high spring tides and opposing winds. Turnagain Arm sees the largest tidal range in United States, with a mean of 30 feet, the fourth highest in th
African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. The term refers to descendants of enslaved black people who are from the United States. Black and African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States. Most African Americans are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States. On average, African Americans are of West/Central African and European descent, some have Native American ancestry. According to U. S. Census Bureau data, African immigrants do not self-identify as African American; the overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities. Immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American and South American nations and their descendants may or may not self-identify with the term. African-American history starts in the 16th century, with peoples from West Africa forcibly taken as slaves to Spanish America, in the 17th century with West African slaves taken to English colonies in North America.
After the founding of the United States, black people continued to be enslaved, the last four million black slaves were only liberated after the Civil War in 1865. Due to notions of white supremacy, they were treated as second-class citizens; the Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only, only white men of property could vote. These circumstances were changed by Reconstruction, development of the black community, participation in the great military conflicts of the United States, the elimination of racial segregation, the civil rights movement which sought political and social freedom. In 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected President of the United States; the first African slaves arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony, founded by Spanish explorer Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in 1526. The marriage between Luisa de Abrego, a free black domestic servant from Seville and Miguel Rodríguez, a white Segovian conquistador in 1565 in St. Augustine, is the first known and recorded Christian marriage anywhere in what is now the continental United States.
The ill-fated colony was immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the slaves revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans. De Ayllón and many of the colonists died shortly afterwards of an epidemic and the colony was abandoned; the settlers and the slaves who had not escaped returned to Haiti, whence. The first recorded Africans in British North America were "20 and odd negroes" who came to Jamestown, Virginia via Cape Comfort in August 1619 as indentured servants; as English settlers died from harsh conditions and more Africans were brought to work as laborers. An indentured servant would work for several years without wages; the status of indentured servants in early Virginia and Maryland was similar to slavery. Servants could be bought, sold, or leased and they could be physically beaten for disobedience or running away. Unlike slaves, they were freed after their term of service expired or was bought out, their children did not inherit their status, on their release from contract they received "a year's provision of corn, double apparel, tools necessary", a small cash payment called "freedom dues".
Africans could raise crops and cattle to purchase their freedom. They raised families, married other Africans and sometimes intermarried with Native Americans or English settlers. By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. In 1640, the Virginia General Court recorded the earliest documentation of lifetime slavery when they sentenced John Punch, a Negro, to lifetime servitude under his master Hugh Gwyn for running away. In the Spanish Florida some Spanish married or had unions with Pensacola, Creek or African women, both slave and free, their descendants created a mixed-race population of mestizos and mulattos; the Spanish encouraged slaves from the southern British colonies to come to Florida as a refuge, promising freedom in exchange for conversion to Catholicism. King Charles II of Spain issued a royal proclamation freeing all slaves who fled to Spanish Florida and accepted conversion and baptism.
Most went to the area around St. Augustine, but escaped slaves reached Pensacola. St. Augustine had mustered an all-black militia unit defending Spain as early as 1683. One of the Dutch African arrivals, Anthony Johnson, would own one of the first black "slaves", John Casor, resulting from the court ruling of a civil case; the popular conception of a race-based slave system did not develop until the 18th century. The Dutch West India Company introduced slavery in 1625 with the importation of eleven black slaves into New Amsterdam. All the colony's slaves, were freed upon its surrender to the British. Massachusetts was the first British colony to recognize slavery in 1641. In 1662, Virginia passed a law that children of enslaved women took the status of the mother, rather than that of the father, as under English common law; this principle was called partus sequitur ventrum. By an act of 1699, the colony ordered all free blacks deported defining as slaves all people of African descent who remained in the c
Borough (United States)
A borough in some U. S. states is a unit of local government or other administrative division below the level of the state. The term is used in six states: A type of municipality: Connecticut, New Jersey and Pennsylvania A subdivision of a consolidated city, corresponding to another present or previous political subdivision: New York and Virginia In Alaska only, a borough is a county-equivalent. In Alaska, the word "borough" is used instead of "county". Like counties, boroughs are administrative divisions of the state; each borough in Alaska has a borough seat, the administrative center for the borough. The Municipality of Anchorage is a consolidated city-borough, as are Sitka, Juneau and Yakutat. Nearly half of the state's area, however, is part of the vast Unorganized Borough, which has no borough-level government at all; the United States Census Bureau has divided the Unorganized Borough into ten census areas for statistical purposes. In addition to cities, Connecticut has another type of dependent municipality known as a borough.
Boroughs are the populated center of a town that decided to incorporate in order to have more responsive local government. When a borough is formed, it is still dependent on its town. There are nine boroughs in Connecticut. One borough, Naugatuck, is coextensive and consolidated with its town; the other eight boroughs, such as Woodmont, have jurisdiction over only a part of their town. Boroughs in Connecticut are counted as separate municipal governments, but governmental functions performed in other parts of the state by town governments are performed by the parent town of the borough. In Michigan, the term borough only applied to Mackinac Island from February 2, 1817, to March 25, 1847; the Borough government was established by William Henry Puthuff after the island was proclaimed as U. S. territory in the War of 1812. The borough government was replaced by a village government in 1847. In Minnesota, "borough" was applied to one municipality, Belle Plaine, from 1868 to 1974. In New Jersey, boroughs are independent municipalities and are one of five types of municipal government, each operating separately at the equivalent level of the other four types of municipal government available in New Jersey: Township, Town and Village.
Many boroughs were formed out of larger townships, but in such cases there is no continuing link between the borough and the township. Most boroughs were formed during the Boroughitis phenomenon of the mid-1890s. New York City is divided into five boroughs: Brooklyn, Queens, the Bronx, Staten Island; each of these is coterminous with a county: Kings County, New York County, Queens County, Bronx County, Richmond County, respectively. There are no county governments within New York City for executive purposes; the powers of the boroughs are inferior to the powers of the citywide government, but each borough elects a borough president, who in turn appoints some members of local community boards. The boroughs of New York City are treated as separate counties for judicial purposes and for some legal filings. Boroughs do not exist in any other part of the state of New York. In Pennsylvania's state laws that govern classes of municipalities, the term "borough" is used the way other states sometimes use the word "town."
A borough is a self-governing entity, smaller than a city. If an area is not governed by either a borough or city the area is governed as a township. Villages or hamlets are unincorporated and have no municipal government, other than the township in which they are found. By tradition, as recognized by publications of the state government, the only incorporated town in Pennsylvania is Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania In August 2005, there were 961 boroughs in the state. In Virginia, under Code of Virginia § 15.2-3534, when multiple local governments consolidate to form a consolidated city, the consolidated city may be divided into geographical subdivisions called boroughs, which may be the same as the existing cities, counties, or portions of such counties. Those boroughs are not separate local governments. For example, Chesapeake is divided into six boroughs, one corresponding to the former city of South Norfolk and one corresponding to each of the five magisterial districts of the former Norfolk County.
In Virginia Beach, the seven boroughs were abolished effective July 1, 1998
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c