King Aweida was a monarch in the Pacific nation of Nauru. Before Nauru came under European rule, it was governed by a king who made laws that were enforced by local chiefs. When Germany annexed Nauru to German New Guinea, Aweida retained his sovereignty as king and remained the chieftain of the Nauruan people, Aweijeda was born to Chief Jim and his wife, Eidingab of the Emea tribe. His first marriage was to a daughter, Eibinua of the Eamwit tribe from Bush village. After Eibinua died, Aweijeda remarried, this time to Eidukiri, of the Eamwit tribe, in the second photograph, King Aweida is wearing the top hat. His wife, the woman, is wearing a white robe. This photograph is the right image of a stereoscopic pair
High commissioner is the title of various high-ranking, special executive positions held by a commission of appointment. The English term is used to render various equivalent titles in other languages. In the Commonwealth of Nations, a commissioner is the senior diplomat in charge of the diplomatic mission of one Commonwealth government to another. In this usage, a Commonwealth nations high commission is its embassy to another Commonwealth nation, an example was the island of Cyprus. Until 12 July 1878 Cyprus was under Ottoman rule based in Istanbul, from that date it was under British administration, but Istanbul retained nominal sovereignty until Cyprus was fully annexed by Britain on 5 November 1914. As diplomatic residents were appointed to native rulers, high commissioners could likewise be appointed as British agents of indirect rule upon native states. The best known of these commissioners, Alfred Milner who was appointed to both positions in the 1890s, is considered responsible by some for igniting the Second Boer War.
He was represented in each of the other units by a Resident Commissioner. In the colonial sense, some other powers have or previously had high commissioners, in the Kingdom of Denmark, High Commissioners represent the Government of Denmark in Greenland and the Faroe Islands and take part in negotiations on policies and decisions affecting their region. Greenland and the Faroe Islands have one Commissioner each, originally the French word Haut Commissaire, or in full Haut Commissaire de la république, was rarely used for governatorial functions, rather gouverneur and various lower titles. In Atlantic waters, from 14 September 1939 till September 1943, yet a colony could achieve independence without a High Commissioner, e. g. Guinée. The current High Commissioner of Vanuatu to the US is David J. Wilson. e. In early May 1919, the Kingdom of Greece was given a mandate by the Supreme Allied War Council for the city of Smyrna and its hinterland, which it proceeded to occupy on 12 May. A civilian administration was set up in the Smyrna Zone, from 21 May 1919 until 9 September 1922, in the Monarchy, before 1910, they were known as Comissários Régios.
In 1934–1956 the Governors of the Western Sahara were subordinated to him, the office itself was however filled by the governors of Spanish West Africa from 1939 to 1956. Haiti, the half of the island of Hispaniola, had a similar experience. It was a US protectorate from 1915 to 1936, after five US military commanders, there was one High Commissioner, John H. Russell, following World War I, Rear Admiral Mark Lambert Bristol served as United States High Commissioner for Turkey from 1919 to 1927. The Philippines became a United States unincorporated territory on 13 August 1898, after gaining autonomy on 15 November 1935, it had the following High Commissioners, 1935–1937 William Francis Frank Murphy, who was the last Governor-General over the Islands
Parliament of Nauru
The Parliament of Nauru has 19 members, elected for a three-year term in multi-seat constituencies. The President of Nauru is elected by the members of the Parliament, the number of seats was increased to 19 following elections in 2013. The members of the Parliament of Nauru are elected by a voting system. On 22 March 2010, Radio New Zealand International reported that President Marcus Stephen had dissolved Parliament in readiness for elections on 24 April 2010, the election saw all 18 MPs returned, but by this stage nine of them had formed the Opposition, resulting in a deadlocked Parliament. Another election was held in June 2010 as a result of the continuing deadlock, after weeks of uncertainty, the deadlock was resolved when the Opposition agreed to have one of its own MPs, Ludwig Scotty, elected as Speaker. President Stephen suggested that the number of MPs should be expanded to 19, the Speaker is the presiding officer of Parliament. The Speaker is an MP elected by the MPs, the Speaker has no vote in no-confidence votes and presidential elections.
Following the April 2008 election, Riddell Akua was appointed Speaker of the Parliament of Nauru, two weeks after the April 2010 election, Godfrey Thoma was elected Speaker. Due to the political deadlock fresh elections were held in June, Scotty resigned at the end of the 20th Parliament in March 2013. Godfrey Thoma was elected to replace him, following the 2013 election, Scotty was re-elected to the speakers post
Politics of Nauru
Politics of Nauru takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Nauru is the head of government of the executive branch. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the parliament, the Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. Naurus economic viability has historically rested on its phosphate reserves, Phosphate — in actuality a resource derived from a 1, 000-year cycle of bird droppings—has been mined on the island since 1906. In the 20th century, the small Pacific nation generated healthy revenues from this lucrative—but finite—resource, the government has invested in property on other islands and the United States through its Nauru Phosphate Royalties Trust. Nauru, as a result, has been a casualty of this movement, in December 1999, four major international banks banned dollar transactions with Nauru. The United States Department of State issued a report identifying Nauru as a money laundering centre, used by narcotics traffickers.
The last few years has seen repeated changes of government, Naurus unsettled political situation never led to civil disturbances, the transitions were always sanctioned by parliament and occurred peacefully. President Bernard Dowiyogo took office in April 2000 for his fourth and, after a minimal hiatus, Dowiyogo first served as president from 1976 to 1978. He returned to office in 1989, and was re-elected in 1992. A vote in parliament, forced him to power to Kinza Clodumar in 1995. Dowiyogo regained the presidency when the Clodumar government fell in mid-1998, in April 2000, René Harris, former chairman of the Nauru Phosphate Corporation, became president as he briefly assembled support in parliament. Harris attempt to put together an administration lasted for only a few days of parliamentary maneuvering, in the end, Harris proved unable to secure parliaments confidence, and Dowiyogo returned yet again to the presidency by the end of the month. Phosphate depletion will likely be one of the most important considerations for the government in the few years as the supply is forecast to be exhausted by 2003.
Since Nauru imports almost everything it consumes the need to diversify the economy, as noted above, offshore banking has been one arena into which Nauru has traversed, the rewards are limited by growing concern about the ethical parameters of this business. Tourism is another industry that is being gradually built, yet another concern is the ecological damage that resulted from a century of phosphate mining. Along with the United Kingdom and New Zealand were responsible for the large scale, the mining left an ecological and economic disaster for Nauru to handle when the country achieved independence in 1968. Thus, Nauru was left to handle the immense and expensive task of restoring large chunks of land which were destroyed by the mining, Nauru demanded compensation from the three nations, but was refused. Finally, in 1993, Nauru was forced to turn to the International Court of Justice at The Hague in The Netherlands and it filed a claim of $73 million against the three countries
Sprent Arumogo Dabwido is a Nauruan politician who formerly served as the President of Nauru. The son of a parliamentarian, Dabwido was originally elected to the Meneng Constituency in the Parliament of Nauru at the 2004 elections. In his role as president, Dabwido functioned as chairman of the Cabinet of Nauru, the second son of former parliamentarian Audi Dabwido, Dabwido worked in public insurance before entering politics. He was a member of the Naoero Amo party, and was elected to the Parliament of Nauru at the 2004 elections. Again re-elected at the 2010 elections, Dabwido joined the faction in November 2011 after Stephen resigned as president. After moving a motion of no confidence in Pitcher, Dabwido was elected president by the parliament, with nine votes supporting his nomination, in his speech during the opening plenary, Dabwido evaluated the potential problems faced by islands in the Pacific Ocean resulting from rising sea levels. In his new Cabinet, he filled the positions of Minister for Public Service, Minister for Police & Emergency Services, Minister for Home Affairs, and Minister for Climate Change.
On behalf of Nauru, Dabwido made his first address to the United Nations General Assembly during the debate of its sixty-seventh session. During his speech, he urged the UN to address climate change more directly, Dabwido did not stand for re-election, and was replaced by Baron Waqa after the 2013 parliamentary elections
Fiji, officially the Republic of Fiji, is an island country in Melanesia in the South Pacific Ocean about 1,100 nautical miles northeast of New Zealands North Island. Fiji is an archipelago of more than 330 islands, of which 110 are permanently inhabited, the two major islands, Viti Levu and Vanua Levu, account for 87% of the population of almost 860,000. The capital, Suva on Viti Levu, serves as Fijis principal cruise port, about three-quarters of Fijians live on Viti Levus coasts, either in Suva or in smaller urban centres like Nadi or Lautoka. Viti Levus interior is sparsely inhabited due to its terrain, Fiji has one of the most developed economies in the Pacific due to an abundance of forest and fish resources. Today, the sources of foreign exchange are its tourist industry. The countrys currency is the Fijian dollar, Fijis local government, in the form of city and town councils, is supervised by the Ministry of Local Government and Urban Development. The majority of Fijis islands were formed through volcanic activity starting around 150 million years ago, some geothermal activity still occurs on the islands of Vanua Levu and Taveuni.
Fiji has been inhabited since the second millennium BC, and was settled first by Austronesians and by Melanesians, Europeans visited Fiji from the 17th century, after a brief period as an independent kingdom, the British established the Colony of Fiji in 1874. Fiji was a Crown colony until 1970, when it gained independence as a Commonwealth realm, a republic was declared in 1987, following a series of coups détat. In a coup in 2006, Commodore Frank Bainimarama seized power, in 2009, Iloilo was replaced as President by Ratu Epeli Nailatikau. After years of delays, an election was held on 17 September 2014. Bainimaramas FijiFirst party won with 59. 2% of the vote, Fijis main island is known as Viti Levu and it is from this that the name Fiji is derived, though the common English pronunciation is based on that of their island neighbours in Tonga. Its emergence can be described as follows, Fijians first impressed themselves on European consciousness through the writings of the members of the expeditions of Cook who met them in Tonga.
They were described as warriors and ferocious cannibals, builders of the finest vessels in the Pacific. They inspired awe amongst the Tongans, and all their Manufactures, especially bark cloth and clubs, were highly valued and much in demand. They called their home Viti, but the Tongans called it Fisi, and it was by this foreign pronunciation, first promulgated by Captain James Cook, that these islands are now known. Feejee, the Anglicised spelling of the Tongan pronunciation, was used in accounts and other writings until the late 19th century, by missionaries and other travellers visiting Fiji. Pottery art from Fijian towns shows that Fiji was settled before or around 3500 to 1000 BC, the first settlements in Fiji were started by voyaging traders and settlers from the west about 5000 years ago
Boe is a district in the country of Nauru. It is the district of Boe Constituency. Boe is located in the southwest of the island and it borders on the districts of Aiwo, Yaren along the coastline, and Buada inland. It covers an area of 0.5 km², and has a population of 950 and it is the smallest and most densely populated district in Nauru. The elevation above sea level is about 5 metres, baron D. Waqa, the President of Nauru, is from Boe, having been elected from that constituency to serve in the Parliament of Nauru. Kinza Clodumar, formerly President of Nauru, is from Boe, a native from Boe is the second Angam Baby Bethel Enproe Adam. Geography of Nauru List of settlements in Nauru Media related to Boe at Wikimedia Commons
Nauru, officially the Republic of Nauru and formerly known as Pleasant Island, is an island country in Micronesia in the Central Pacific. Its nearest neighbour is Banaba Island in Kiribati,300 kilometres to the east and it further lies northwest of Tuvalu, north of the Solomon Islands, east-northeast of Papua New Guinea, southeast of the Federated States of Micronesia and south of the Marshall Islands. With 10,084 residents in a 21-square-kilometre area, Nauru is the smallest state in the South Pacific and third smallest state by area in the world, behind only Vatican City and Monaco. Settled by native peoples from Micronesia and Polynesia, Nauru was annexed and claimed as a colony by the German Empire in the late 19th century, after World War I, Nauru became a League of Nations mandate administered by Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. During World War II, Nauru was occupied by Japanese troops, after the war ended, the country entered into UN trusteeship. Nauru gained its independence in 1968, Nauru is a phosphate rock island with rich deposits near the surface, which allowed easy strip mining operations.
It has some remaining phosphate resources which, as of 2011, are not economically viable for extraction, Nauru boasted the highest per-capita income enjoyed by any sovereign state in the world during the late 1960s and early 1970s. When the phosphate reserves were exhausted, and the environment had been seriously harmed by mining. To earn income, Nauru briefly became a tax haven and illegal money laundering centre, from 2001 to 2008, and again from 2012, it accepted aid from the Australian Government in exchange for hosting the Nauru detention centre. As a result of dependence on Australia, many sources have identified Nauru as a client state of Australia. Nauru was first inhabited by Micronesians and Polynesians at least 3,000 years ago, there were traditionally 12 clans or tribes on Nauru, which are represented in the 12-pointed star on the countrys flag. Traditionally, Nauruans traced their descent matrilineally, inhabitants practised aquaculture, they caught juvenile ibija fish, acclimatised them to fresh water, and raised them in the Buada Lagoon, providing a reliable source of food.
The other locally grown components of their diet included coconuts and pandanus fruit, the name Nauru may derive from the Nauruan word Anáoero, which means I go to the beach. The British sea captain John Fearn, a hunter, became the first Westerner to visit Nauru in 1798. From around 1830, Nauruans had contact with Europeans from whaling ships, around this time, deserters from European ships began to live on the island. The islanders traded food for alcoholic palm wine and firearms, the firearms were used during the 10-year Nauruan Tribal War that began in 1878. After an agreement with Great Britain, Nauru was annexed by Germany in 1888, the arrival of the Germans ended the civil war, and kings were established as rulers of the island. The most widely known of these was King Auweyida, christian missionaries from the Gilbert Islands arrived in 1888
Marcus Stephen is a Nauruan politician and former sportsperson who previously was a member of the Cabinet of Nauru, and who served as President of Nauru from December 2007 to November 2011. The son of Nauruan parliamentarian Lawrence Stephen, Stephen was educated at St Bedes College, after his retirement from weightlifting, Stephen worked at the Bank of Nauru before being elected to parliament at the 2003 elections. Having occupied various portfolios in the Nauruan government under President René Harris, Stephen was sworn in as president after moving a no confidence motion against his predecessor, Ludwig Scotty. Two separate elections were called in April and June 2010 after accusations of bribery of government members of parliament, Marcus Stephens father, Lawrence Stephen, served as a Member of the Parliament of Nauru from 1971 to 1977 and again from 1980 to 1986. He is related to the prominent Keke family of Nauru, Stephen received High School education in Australia attending St Bedes College, Melbourne Victoria.
He has a Diploma in Business Accounting from the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, from 2001 to 2003 he was employed in management at The Bank of Nauru. He initially played Australian rules football for the team the Aces. In 1989 the Nauru Weightlifting Federation was founded, primarily to give Stephen, the sole top-class weightlifter in Nauru at the time, in 1992 he took part in his first Olympic Games in Barcelona. Since Nauru had no Olympic Committee at the time, he applied for Samoan citizenship and was allowed to compete for Samoa. In 1993 the committee was founded and Stephen was able to represent Nauru in the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, when the Olympic torch was carried to Sydney, Stephen had the honour of being a torch bearer during its stopover in Nauru. It was at the Commonwealth Games where most of his successes came, in the 1994 Commonwealth Games he won three gold medals in the 59 kg class and in the 1998 Commonwealth Games in the 62 kg class he collected three more golds.
In his last Games, the 2002 Commonwealth Games in Manchester he won three silvers in the 62 kg class, at the 1999 World Championship in Athens he was runner up in the clean and jerk in the 62 kg class. In 2005 he was elected member of the International Weightlifting Federation Hall of Fame, in March 2008, it was reported that Stephen had been appointed to the presidency of the Oceania Weightlifting Federation, the Pacific regions official continental weightlifting body. Since 1997 he has been the Treasurer of the Nauru Olympic Committee, on 3 May 2003 Stephen was elected to the Nauru parliament with a score of just over 215 points, achieving first place in the Ewa and Anetan Constituency. In October 2004 he was re-elected to parliament, between November 2004 and May 2006 Stephen held Chairmanship of the Nauru Fisheries & Marine Resources Authority becoming Minister for Nauru Fisheries & Marine Resources on 13 November 2007. After Nauru joined the International Whaling Commission on 15 June 2005 and he represented Nauru at the IWC-Congress in June 2005 in the South Korean city of Ulsan.
Stephen was re-elected to parliament in the August 2007 parliamentary election and he unsuccessfully stood as a presidential candidate in the vote held in parliament on 28 August, in which Scotty was re-elected. However, following a vote of no confidence in Parliament against President Scotty on 19 December 2007