Tokyo Tokyo Metropolis, one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2018, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world; the urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603, it became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. Tokyo is referred to as a city but is known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo; the 23 Special Wards of Tokyo were Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, it merged with Tokyo Prefecture and became Tokyo Metropolis with an additional 26 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture, the Izu islands and Ogasawara islands south of Tokyo.
The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, with the total population of Tokyo Metropolis exceeding 13.8 million. The prefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan area called the Greater Tokyo Area with over 38 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy; as of 2011, Tokyo hosted 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world at that time. Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development Index; the city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System. Tokyo third in the Global Cities Index; the GaWC's 2018 inventory classified Tokyo as an alpha+ world city – and as of 2014 TripAdvisor's World City Survey ranked Tokyo first in its "Best overall experience" category. As of 2018 Tokyo ranked as the 2nd-most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm, and the world's 11th-most expensive city according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's cost-of-living survey.
In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo was ranked first out of all sixty cities in the 2017 Safe Cities Index; the QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student in 2016 and 2nd in 2018. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, the 1993 G-7 summit, will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics. Tokyo was known as Edo, which means "estuary", its name was changed to Tokyo when it became the imperial capital with the arrival of Emperor Meiji in 1868, in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital in the name of the capital city. During the early Meiji period, the city was called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph; some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei".
The name Tokyo was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku, written by Satō Nobuhiro. When Ōkubo Toshimichi proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi, he got the idea from that book. Tokyo was a small fishing village named Edo, in what was part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu was transferred from Mikawa Province to Kantō region; when he became shōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of his ruling. During the subsequent Edo period, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century, but Edo was Tokugawa's home and was not capital of Japan. The Emperor himself lived in Kyoto from 794 to 1868 as capital of Japan. During the Edo era, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, in the presence of such peace, Edo adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city.
The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry forced the opening of the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation. Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments. Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that t
In photography and cinematography, a filter is a camera accessory consisting of an optical filter that can be inserted into the optical path. The filter can be of a square or oblong shape and mounted in a holder accessory, or, more a glass or plastic disk in a metal or plastic ring frame, which can be screwed into the front of or clipped onto the camera lens. Filters modify the images recorded. Sometimes they are used to make only subtle changes to images. In monochrome photography, coloured filters affect the relative brightness of different colours. Others change the colour balance of images, so that photographs under incandescent lighting show colours as they are perceived, rather than with a reddish tinge. There are filters that distort the image in a desired way, diffusing an otherwise sharp image, adding a starry effect, etc. Linear and circular polarising filters reduce oblique reflections from non-metallic surfaces. Many filters absorb necessitating longer exposure; as the filter is in the optical path, any imperfections—non-flat or non-parallel surfaces, scratches, dirt—affect the image.
There is no universal standard naming system for filters. The Wratten numbers adopted in the early twentieth century by Kodak a dominant force in film photography, are used by several manufacturers. Colour correction filters are identified by a code of the form CC50Y—CC for colour correction, 50 for the strength of the filter, Y for yellow. Optical filters are used including in particular astronomy. Photographic filters sell in larger quantities at correspondingly lower prices than many laboratory filters; the article on optical filters has material relevant to photographic filters. In digital photography the majority of filters used with film cameras have been rendered redundant by digital filters applied either in-camera or during post processing. Exceptions include the ultraviolet filter used to protect the front surface of the lens, the neutral density filter, the polarising filter and the infra red filter; the neutral density filter permits effects requiring wide apertures or long exposures to be applied to brightly lit scenes, while the graduated neutral density filter is useful in situations where the scene's dynamic range exceeds the capability of the sensor.
Not using optical filters in front of the lens has the advantage of avoiding the reduction of image quality caused by the presence of an extra optical element in the light path and may be necessary to avoid vignetting when using wide-angle lenses. Filters in photography can be classified according to their use: Clear and ultraviolet Color correction Color conversion Color separation called color subtraction Contrast enhancement Infrared Neutral density, including the graduated neutral density filter and solar filter Polarizing Special effects of various kinds, including Graduated color, called color grads Cross screen and star diffractors Diffusion and contrast reduction Spot Close-up or macro diopters, split diopters or split focus Clear filters known as window glass filters or optical flats, are transparent and perform no filtering of incoming light; the only use of a clear filter is to protect the front of a lens. UV filters are used to block invisible ultraviolet light, to which most photographic sensors and film are at least sensitive.
The UV is recorded as if it were blue light, so this non-human UV sensitivity can result in an unwanted exaggeration of the bluish tint of atmospheric haze or more unnaturally, of subjects in open shade lit by the ultraviolet-rich sky. The glass or plastic of a camera lens is opaque to short-wavelength UV, but transparent to long-wavelength UV. A UV filter passes all or nearly all of the visible spectrum but blocks all ultraviolet radiation, it can be left on the lens for nearly all shots: UV filters are used for lens protection in the same way as clear filters. A strong UV filter, such as a Haze-2A or UV17, cuts off some visible light in the violet part of the spectrum, has a pale yellow color. Strong UV filters are sometimes used for warming color photos taken in shade with daylight-type film. While in certain cases, such as harsh environments, a protection filter may be necessary, there are downsides to this practice. Arguments for the use of protection filters include: If the lens is dropped, the filter may well suffer scratches or breakage instead of the front lens element.
The filter can be cleaned without damage to the lens surface or coatings. If there is blowing sand the filter will protect the front of the lens from abrasion and nicks. A few lenses, such as some of Canon's L series lenses, require the use of a filter to complete their weather sealing. Arguments against their use include: Adding another element may degrade image quality if its surfaces are less than flat and parallel. Filters from reputable makers are unlikely to cause any problems, but some "ba
A teleconverter is a secondary lens mounted between a camera and a photographic lens which enlarges the central part of an image obtained by the objective lens. A 2× teleconverter for a 35 mm camera would enlarge the central 12×18 mm part of an image to the size of 24×36 mm in the standard 35 mm film format. Teleconverters are made in 1.4×, 1.7×, 2× and 3× variants, with 1.4× and 2× being the most common. A 2× teleconverter doubles the focal length of a given lens. Teleconverters decrease the intensity of the light that reaches the film plane by a factor of 4—equivalent to doubling the focal ratio—and decrease the resolution of an image by a factor of 2. A teleconverter works to a telephoto group of a proper telephoto lens, it consists of a group of lenses. The location of a teleconverter is such that the image produced by the objective is located behind the teleconverter in a distance smaller than its focal length; this image is a virtual object of the teleconverter, focused further away and thus enlarged.
For example, when a single negative lens is placed so that the image formed by the objective is located in the midpoint between the lens and its focal point the lens produces the image in its focal point and enlarging it two-fold, thereby acting as a 2× teleconverter. When used with somewhat slow lenses they may reduce the effective aperture enough that the camera's autofocus system will no longer work. Dedicated teleconverters only work with a limited number of lenses telephoto lenses made by the same manufacturer, or by a third-party manufacturer to a matching standard. Using a teleconverter with an existing lens is less expensive than acquiring a separate, longer telephoto lens, but as the teleconverter is magnifying the existing image circle, it magnifies any aberrations; the use of a teleconverter results in a darker image. A different type of teleconverter called a teleside converter can be mounted on the front of the camera's lens rather than between the primary lens and the camera body.
These are popular with users of video cameras and bridge cameras with fixed lenses, as they represent the only way to add more reach to such a camera. They are afocal lenses that do not reduce the brightness of the image, but are more to add aberrations to the image, independent of the quality of the main lens. Teleconverters may be confused with extension tubes, a non-optical component designed to increase magnification. Barlow lens Canon Extender EF Convertible lens Nikon F-mount teleconverter Telecompressor
A camera is an optical instrument to capture still images or to record moving images, which are stored in a physical medium such as in a digital system or on photographic film. A camera consists of a lens which focuses light from the scene, a camera body which holds the image capture mechanism; the still image camera is the main instrument in the art of photography and captured images may be reproduced as a part of the process of photography, digital imaging, photographic printing. The similar artistic fields in the moving image camera domain are film and cinematography; the word camera comes from camera obscura, which means "dark chamber" and is the Latin name of the original device for projecting an image of external reality onto a flat surface. The modern photographic camera evolved from the camera obscura; the functioning of the camera is similar to the functioning of the human eye. The first permanent photograph was made in 1825 by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce. A camera works with the light of the visible spectrum or with other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum.
A still camera is an optical device which creates a single image of an object or scene and records it on an electronic sensor or photographic film. All cameras use the same basic design: light enters an enclosed box through a converging/convex lens and an image is recorded on a light-sensitive medium. A shutter mechanism controls the length of time. Most photographic cameras have functions that allow a person to view the scene to be recorded, allow for a desired part of the scene to be in focus, to control the exposure so that it is not too bright or too dim. On most digital cameras a display a liquid crystal display, permits the user to view the scene to be recorded and settings such as ISO speed and shutter speed. A movie camera or a video camera operates to a still camera, except it records a series of static images in rapid succession at a rate of 24 frames per second; when the images are combined and displayed in order, the illusion of motion is achieved. Traditional cameras capture light onto photographic film.
Video and digital cameras use an electronic image sensor a charge coupled device or a CMOS sensor to capture images which can be transferred or stored in a memory card or other storage inside the camera for playback or processing. Cameras that capture many images in sequence are known as movie cameras or as ciné cameras in Europe; however these categories overlap as still cameras are used to capture moving images in special effects work and many modern cameras can switch between still and motion recording modes. A wide range of film and plate formats have been used by cameras. In the early history plate sizes were specific for the make and model of camera although there developed some standardisation for the more popular cameras; the introduction of roll film drove the standardization process still further so that by the 1950s only a few standard roll films were in use. These included 120 film providing 8, 12 or 16 exposures, 220 film providing 16 or 24 exposures, 127 film providing 8 or 12 exposures and 135 providing 12, 20 or 36 exposures – or up to 72 exposures in the half-frame format or in bulk cassettes for the Leica Camera range.
For cine cameras, film 35 mm wide and perforated with sprocket holes was established as the standard format in the 1890s. It was used for nearly all film-based professional motion picture production. For amateur use, several smaller and therefore less expensive formats were introduced. 17.5 mm film, created by splitting 35 mm film, was one early amateur format, but 9.5 mm film, introduced in Europe in 1922, 16 mm film, introduced in the US in 1923, soon became the standards for "home movies" in their respective hemispheres. In 1932, the more economical 8 mm format was created by doubling the number of perforations in 16 mm film splitting it after exposure and processing; the Super 8 format, still 8 mm wide but with smaller perforations to make room for larger film frames, was introduced in 1965. Traditionally used to "tell the camera" the film speed of the selected film on film cameras, film speed numbers are employed on modern digital cameras as an indication of the system's gain from light to numerical output and to control the automatic exposure system.
Film speed is measured via the ISO system. The higher the film speed number the greater the film sensitivity to light, whereas with a lower number, the film is less sensitive to light. On digital cameras, electronic compensation for the color temperature associated with a given set of lighting conditions, ensuring that white light is registered as such on the imaging chip and therefore that the colors in the frame will appear natural. On mechanical, film-based cameras, this function is served by the operator's choice of film stock or with color correction filters. In addition to using white balance to register natural coloration of the image, photographers may employ white balance to aesthetic end, for example, white balancing to a blue object in order to obtain a warm color temperature; the lens of a camera brings it to a focus on the sensor. The design and manufacture of the lens is critical to the quality of the photograph being taken; the technological revolution in camera design in the 19th century revolutionized optical glass manufacture and lens design with great benefits for modern lens manufacture in a wide range of optical instruments from reading glasses to microscopes.
Pioneers included Leitz. Camera lenses are
Canon Extender EF
The Canon Extender EF lenses are a group of teleconverter lenses made by Canon. These lenses are used between any of the Canon EOS line of cameras; when used with a compatible lens, they will multiply the focal length of the lens by a factor of either 1.4x or 2x, at the cost of decreasing the lens' aperture by 1 or 2 stops respectively. For example, using a 1.4x or 2x extender with the Canon EF 500mm f/4L IS USM would result in a 700mm f/5.6 or 1000mm f/8 lens. Canon has released six models: 1.4x 1.4x II 1.4x III 2x 2x II 2x III The extenders are constructed with metal bayonets, engineered plastic ends. There are no moving parts. Three generations of the extenders exist: the older 1.4× and 2×, the 1.4× II and 2× II, the 1.4× III and 2.0× III. The II versions have anti-reflective surfaces inside the extender body; the optical construction of the 1.4× versions are of a five-element design. Both 2× versions use seven elements, although the optical formula of the II version is different to improve optical performance.
The III versions of the extenders have improved autofocus performance as well increased image quality over the II, their front and rear elements are coated with fluorine anti-smear coating to be easier to clean. These Extender EF lenses can only be used with lenses. While all EF lenses have mount designs that can be used with EOS bodies, only lenses with accordant mounts can be used with the extender EF lenses; these lenses must have the clearance to accept the protruding lens on the extender, as well as 10 electronic contacts for proper electronic communication with the extender. These extra electronic contacts are used for sending the correct aperture information to the body; when a compatible lens is used with a 1.4× or 2× extender, it will cost the lens a one or two stop decline in aperture size, respectively. Autofocus speed of any used EF lens is affected; when used with the 1.4× extender, autofocus speed is reduced by 50%. When used with the 2× extender, autofocus speed is reduced by 75%.
Image stabilization may not work on lenses that are equipped with an extender, or on certain EOS bodies. Though not specified by Canon as such, users have reported that the tilt-shift lenses in Canon's line-up can be used with the extenders. However, when used with an extender, the lens will not pass on the correct aperture to the camera; the focal length stored in the Exif data will be incorrect. The following is a list of EF lenses that are compatible with the Extender EF lenses together with their resulting focal lengths, apertures. Listed is the autofocus and image stabilization functionality. Canon EOS bodies that have a high density, high precision auto-focus sensor with 45 or more AF points are able to autofocus at maximum apertures of f/8. Canon EOS-1D X Mark II Canon EOS-1D X Canon EOS 5D Mark III Canon EOS 5DS Canon EOS 5DS R Canon EOS 5D Mark IV Canon EOS 6D Mark II Canon EOS 7D Mark II Canon EOS 80D Canon EOS 77D Canon EOS 800D/Rebel T7i Canon EOS-1D Mark IV Canon EOS-1Ds Mark III Canon EOS-1D Mark III Canon EOS-1Ds Mark II Canon EOS-1D Mark II Canon EOS-1D Mark II N Canon EOS-1Ds Canon EOS-1D Canon EOS-1V Canon EOS 3 Canon EOS bodies that have Dual Pixel CMOS AF like the 70D and models support autofocusing in Liveview mode, with maximum apertures as small as f/11.
Kenko Nikon F-mount teleconverter Teleconverter
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
135 is photographic film in a film format used for still photography. It is a cartridge film with a film gauge of 35 mm used for hand-held photography in 35 mm film cameras, its engineering standard for the film is controlled by ISO 1007. The term 135 was introduced by Kodak in 1934 as a designation for the cassette for 35 mm film for still photography, it grew in popularity, surpassing 120 film by the late 1960s to become the most popular photographic film size. Despite competition from formats such as 828, 126, 110, APS, it remains so today. 135 camera film always comes perforated with Kodak Standard perforations. The size of the 135 film frame has been adopted by many high-end digital single-lens reflex and digital mirrorless cameras referred to as "full frame". Though the format is much smaller than historical medium format and large format film, it is much larger than image sensors in most compact cameras and smart phone cameras. Individual rolls of 135 film are enclosed in single-spool, light-tight, metal cassettes to allow cameras to be loaded in daylight.
The film is taped to a spool and exits via a slot lined with flocking. The end of the film is cut on one side to form a leader, it has the same dimensions and perforation pitch. Most cameras require the film to be rewound; some motorized cameras unwind the film upon loading and expose the images in reverse order, returning the film to the cassette. Disposable cameras use the same technique. Since the 1980s film cassettes have been marked with a DX encoding pattern. Different films are sensitive to light at different degrees. Since the introduction of digital cameras the most usual films have colour emulsions of ISO 100/21° to ISO 800/30°. Films of lower sensitivity and higher sensitivity are for more specialist purposes. There are colour and monochrome films and positive. Monochrome film is panchromatic. Film designed to be sensitive to infrared radiation can be obtained, both monochrome and with false-colour rendition. More exotic emulsions have been available in 135 than other roll-film sizes; the term 135 format refers to a 36×24 mm film format known as 35 mm format.
The 36×24 mm format is common to digital image sensors, where it is referred to as full frame format. On 135 film, the longer dimension of the 36×24 mm frame runs parallel to the length of the film; the perforation size and pitch are according to the standard specification KS-1870. For each frame, the film advances 8 perforations; this is specified as 38.00 mm. This allows for 2 mm gaps between frames; each camera model has a different location for the sprocket. Therefore, each camera model's frame will vary in position relative to the perforations; the film is 0.14 mm thick. Other image formats have been applied to 135 film, such as the half-frame format of 18×24 mm which earned some popularity in the 1960s, the 24×24 mm of the Robot cameras; the successful range of Olympus Pen cameras utilized the smaller half-frame size, allowing the design of a compact SLR camera. Unusual formats include the 24×32 mm and 24×34 mm on the early Nikon rangefinders, 24×23 mm for use with some stereo cameras. In 1967, the Soviet KMZ factory introduced a 24×58 mm panoramic format with its Horizont camera.
In 1998, Hasselblad and Fuji introduced a 24×65 mm panoramic format with the XPan/TX-1 camera. There is a 21×14 mm format used by Tessina subminiature camera; the film is available in lengths for varying numbers of exposures. The standard full-length roll has always been 36 exposures. Through about 1980, 20 exposure rolls were the only shorter length with widespread availability. Since 20 exposure rolls have been discontinued in favour of 24 and 12 exposure rolls. With most cameras it is possible to get 3 more exposures than the nominal capacity on the film if the camera is loaded in a darkroom and some cameras allow this with daylight loading. 27 exposure disposable cameras are loaded in the dark with standard 24 exposure cassette. Other shorter lengths have been manufactured. There have been some 6, 8, 10, 15 exposure rolls given away as samples, sometimes in disposable cameras, or used by insurance adjusters to document damage claims. 12 exposure rolls have been used in the daily press. Photographers who load their own cassettes can use any length of film – with thinner film base up to 45 exposures will fit.
Ilford at one time made HP5 black-and-white film on a thin polyester base, which allowed 72 exposures in a single cassette. They produced special tanks to allow this to be processed; the 135 film size is derived from earlier still cameras using lengths of 35 mm cine film, the same size as, but with different perforations than, 135 film. The 35 mm film standard for motion picture film was established in Thomas Edison's lab by William Kennedy Laurie Dickson. Dickson took 70 mm film stock supplied by George Eastman's Eastman Kodak Company; the 70 mm film was cut lengthwise into two equal width strips, spliced togethe