Bertram Bert Thomas Combs was a jurist and politician from the U. S. state of Kentucky. After serving on the Kentucky Court of Appeals, he was elected the 50th Governor of Kentucky in 1959 on his run for the office. Following his gubernatorial term, he was appointed to the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals by President Lyndon B, serving from 1967 to 1970. Combs rose from poverty in his native Clay County, Kentucky, to obtain a law degree from the University of Kentucky and he was decorated for prosecuting Japanese war criminals before military tribunals during World War II, returned to Kentucky and his law practice. In 1951, Governor Lawrence Wetherby appointed him to fill a vacancy on the Kentucky Court of Appeals, that year, he was elected to a full term on the court, defeating former governor and judge Simeon S. Willis. Kentuckys Democratic Party had split into two factions by 1955 when Earle C, the leader of one faction, chose Combs to challenge A. B. Happy Chandler, who headed the other, in the gubernatorial primary.
Combs uninspiring speeches and candidness about the need for state revenue cost him the primary election. Chandler, who went on to win the governorship, had promised that he would not need to raise taxes to meet the financial obligations. This damaged Chandlers credibility and left Combs looking courageous and honest in the eyes of the electorate, consequently, in 1959, Combs was elected governor, defeating Harry Lee Waterfield, Chandlers choice to succeed him in office, in the primary. Early in his term, Combs secured passage of a three percent sales tax to pay a bonus to the military veterans. Knowing a tax of one percent would have sufficient, he used the excess revenue to enact a system of reforms including expansion of the states highway. He devoted much of the surplus to education, following his term in office, Combs was appointed to the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals by President Johnson. He served for three years before resigning and running for governor again in 1971 and he lost in the Democratic primary to Wendell H.
Ford, his former executive secretary. In 1984, Combs agreed to represent sixty-six of the states school districts in a lawsuit challenging the states system of financing public education. The suit, Rose v. Council for Better Education, resulted in the Kentucky Supreme Court declaring the entire system of public schools unconstitutional. In response, the Kentucky General Assembly drafted a sweeping education measure known as the Kentucky Education Reform Act in 1991, on December 3,1991, Combs was caught in a flash flood while driving home from his law office. His body was found in the Red River near Rosslyn, in Powell County, the coroner determined that he died of hypothermia
Lexington, consolidated with Fayette County, is the second-largest city in Kentucky and the 61st largest in the United States. Known as the Horse Capital of the World, it is the heart of the states Bluegrass region, with a mayor-alderman form of government, it is one of two cities in Kentucky designated by the state as first-class, the other is the states largest city of Louisville. In the 2016 U. S. Census Estimate, the population was 318,449, anchoring a metropolitan area of 506,751 people. Lexington ranks tenth among US cities in college education rate, with 39. 5% of residents having at least a bachelors degree and this area of fertile soil and abundant wildlife was long occupied by varying tribes of Native Americans. European explorers began to trade with them but settlers did not come in force until the late 18th century, Lexington was founded by European Americans in June 1775, in what was considered Fincastle County, Virginia,17 years before Kentucky became a state. A party of frontiersmen, led by William McConnell, camped on the Middle Fork of Elkhorn Creek at the site of the present-day McConnell Springs, upon hearing of the colonists victory in the Battles of Lexington and Concord on April 19,1775, they named their campsite Lexington.
It was the first of what would be many American places to be named after the Massachusetts town, the risk of Indian attacks delayed permanent settlement for four years. In 1779, during the American Revolutionary War, Col. Robert Patterson and 25 companions came from Fort Harrod and they built cabins and a stockade, establishing a settlement known as Bryan Station. In 1780, Lexington was made the seat of Virginias newly organized Fayette County, colonists defended it against a British and allied Shawnee attack in 1782, during the last part of the American Revolutionary War. The town was chartered on May 6,1782, by an act of the Virginia General Assembly, the First African Baptist Church was founded c. 1790 by Peter Durrett, a Baptist preacher and slave held by Joseph Craig. Durrett helped guide The Travelling Church, a migration of several hundred pioneers led by the preacher Lewis Craig and Captain William Ellis from Orange County. It is the oldest black Baptist congregation in Kentucky and the third oldest in the United States, I would suppose it contains about five hundred dwelling houses, many of them elegant and three stories high.
The country around Lexington for many miles in every direction, is equal in beauty and fertility to anything the imagination can paint and is already in a state of cultivation. Residents have fondly continued to refer to Lexington as The Athens of the West since Espys poem dedicated to the city, in the early 19th century, planter John Wesley Hunt became the first millionaire west of the Alleghenies. London Ferrill, second preacher of First African Baptist, was one of three clergy who stayed in the city to serve the suffering victims, additional cholera outbreaks occurred in 1848–49 and the early 1850s. Cholera was spread by using contaminated water supplies, but its transmission was not understood in those years. Often the wealthier people would flee town for outlying areas to try to avoid the spread of disease, planters held slaves for use as field hands, laborers and domestic servants. In the city, slaves worked primarily as servants and artisans, although they worked with merchants, shippers
Catfish are a diverse group of ray-finned fish. There are armour-plated types and there are naked types, neither having scales, despite their name, not all catfish have prominent barbel. Members of the Siluriformes order are defined by features of the skull, Catfish are of considerable commercial importance, many of the larger species are farmed or fished for food. Many of the species, particularly the genus Corydoras, are important in the aquarium hobby. Many catfish are nocturnal, but others are crepuscular or diurnal, extant catfish species live inland or in coastal waters of every continent except Antarctica. Catfish have inhabited all continents at one time or another, Catfish are most diverse in tropical South America and Africa with one family native to North America and one family in Europe. More than half of all species live in the Americas. They are the only ostariophysans that have entered freshwater habitats in Madagascar and they are found in freshwater environments, though most inhabit shallow, running water.
Representatives of at least eight families are hypogean with three families that are troglobitic, one such species is Phreatobius cisternarum, known to live underground in phreatic habitats. Numerous species from the families Ariidae and Plotosidae, and a few species from among the Aspredinidae and Bagridae, are found in salt water. In the United States, catfish species may be known by a variety of names, such as mud cat, polliwogs. These nicknames are not standardized, so one area may call a bullhead catfish by the nickname chucklehead, while in state or region. Representatives of the genus Ictalurus have been introduced into European waters in the hope of obtaining a sporting, the European stock of American catfishes has not achieved the dimensions of these fish in their native waters, and have only increased the ecological pressure on native European fauna. Walking catfish have introduced in the freshwaters of Florida. Flathead catfish, Pylodictis olivaris, is a North American pest on Atlantic slope drainages, pterygoplichthys species, released by aquarium fishkeepers, have established feral populations in many warm waters around the world.
In general, they are buoyant, which means that they will usually sink rather than float due to a reduced gas bladder. Catfish have a variety of shapes, though most have a cylindrical body with a flattened ventrum to allow for benthic feeding. A flattened head allows for digging through the substrate as well as serving as a hydrofoil
Separate but equal
The phrase was derived from a Louisiana law of 1890, although the law actually used the phrase equal but separate. The doctrine was confirmed in the Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court decision of 1896, in practice the separate facilities provided to African Americans were rarely equal, usually they were not even close to equal, or they did not exist at all. The doctrine was overturned by a series of Supreme Court decisions, the overturning of segregation laws in the United States was a long process that lasted through much of the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s, involving federal legislation, and many court cases. However Southern states contended that the requirement of equality could be met in a manner that kept the races separate and this rejection is evident in the Slaughter-House Cases and Civil Rights Cases. After the end of Reconstruction, the government adopted a general policy of leaving racial segregation up to the individual states. One example of policy was the second Morrill Act. Before the end of the war, the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act had provided funding for higher education by each state with the details left to the state legislatures.
The 1890 Act which implicitly accepted the concept of separate. Prior to the Second Morrill Act,17 states excluded blacks from access to the land grant colleges without providing similar educational opportunities. In response to the Second Morrill Act,17 states established separate land grant colleges for blacks which are now referred to as public historically black colleges and universities. In fact, some states adopted laws prohibiting schools from educating blacks and whites together, the legitimacy of such laws under the 14th Amendment was upheld by the U. S. Supreme Court in the 1896 case of Plessy v. Ferguson,163 U. S.537. The Plessy doctrine was extended to the schools in Cumming v. Richmond County Board of Education,175 U. S.528. In Texas, the established a state-funded law school for white students without any law school for black students. In 1892, Homer Plessy, who was of mixed ancestry and appeared to be white, the conductor of the train collected passenger tickets at their seats. When Plessy told the conductor he was 7/8ths white and 1/8th black, Plessy said he resented sitting in a coloreds-only car and was arrested immediately.
One month after his arrest, Plessy appeared in court before Judge John Howard Ferguson, plessys lawyer, Albion Tourgee, claimed Plessy’s 13th and 14th amendment rights were violated. The 13th amendment abolished slavery, and the 14th amendment granted equal protection to all under the law, the Supreme Court decision in Plessy v. Ferguson established the phrase separate but equal. The ruling railway companies carrying passengers in their coaches in that State to provide equal, accommodations provided on each railroad car were required to be the same as those provided on the others
Kentucky Dam is a hydroelectric dam on the Tennessee River on the county line between Livingston and Marshall counties in the U. S. state of Kentucky. It was a project initiated during the New Deal of President Franklin D. Roosevelts administration. The dam impounds the Kentucky Lake of 160,000 acres, which is the largest of TVAs reservoirs, a canal connects Kentucky Lake to nearby Lake Barkley, created by Barkley Dam on the Cumberland River. The lakes run parallel for more than 50 miles, with the Land Between the Lakes National Recreation Area located between them, Kentucky Dam is located slightly more than 22 miles above the mouth of the Tennessee River, which empties into the Ohio River at Paducah, Kentucky. After absorbing the Tennessee, the Ohio flows for another 46 miles before emptying into the Mississippi River at Cairo, the dam is approximately 20 miles north of the Kentucky-Tennessee border and 10 miles southeast of the Kentucky-Illinois border. The city of Grand Rivers is located southeast of the dam, Kentucky Lake stretches southward for 184 miles across Kentucky and most of the length of Tennessee to the base of Pickwick Landing Dam, near the Tennessee-Alabama line.
Barkley Dam, which is operated by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, is located along the Cumberland River just opposite Lake City a few miles east of Kentucky Dam. The canal connecting Kentucky and Barkley lakes joins Kentucky Lake approximately 3 miles upstream from Kentucky Dam, Kentucky Dam is 206 feet high, more than half the dam is submerged by water. At 8,422 feet long, Kentucky Dam is the longest dam on the Tennessee River, the dam has a generating capacity of 223,100 kilowatts, and its 24-bay spillway has a total discharge of 1,050,000 cubic feet per second. Kentucky Lakes 2,064 miles of shoreline,160,300 acres of water surface, a large industrial complex of chemical plants has developed below the dam near Calvert City due to the convenient barge transportation and inexpensive TVA electricity. The locks lift raises and lowers vessels up to 75 feet between Kentucky Lake and the part of the river. Throughout the 19th century, Congress passed a series of initiatives to improve navigation on the Tennessee River between the mouth and Florence, Alabama.
By the 1890s, a 5-foot continuous channel had been secured, the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers conducted an extensive survey of the lower river in the early 1900s, and recommended constructing a dam at Aurora Landing, but the project was never funded. In the 1930s, the Tennessee Valley Authority sought to create a continuous minimum 9-foot channel along the entirety of the river from Paducah to Knoxville. The Authority sought to control flooding on the lower Mississippi River. Research had shown that 4% of the water in the lower Mississippi originates in the Tennessee River watershed, TVA surveyed the lower part of the river and considered the Aurora Landing site, but eventually settled on the present site at river mile 22.4. The Kentucky Dam project was authorized by Congress on May 23,1938, the construction of Kentucky Dam and its reservoir required the purchase 320,244 acres of land,48,496 acres of which had to be cleared. 2,609 families,3,390 graves, and 365 miles of roads had to be relocated,65 new bridges were built,7 were rebuilt, and 3 were razed
Tennessee Valley Authority
The enterprise was a result of the efforts of Senator George W. Norris of Nebraska. TVA was envisioned not only as a provider, but as an economic development agency that would use federal experts and electricity to rapidly modernize the regions economy. T. V. A. s service area covers most of Tennessee, portions of Alabama and Kentucky, and small slices of Georgia, North Carolina and it was the first large regional planning agency of the federal government and remains the largest. Under the leadership of David Lilienthal, T. V. A. became a model for Americas governmental efforts to seek in assisting the modernization of agrarian societies in the developing world, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt signed the Tennessee Valley Authority Act, creating the TVA. During the 1920s and the Great Depression years, Americans began to support the idea of ownership of utilities. The concept of government-owned generation facilities selling to publicly owned distribution utilities was controversial, many believed privately owned power companies were charging too much for power, did not employ fair operating practices, and were subject to abuse by their owners, at the expense of consumers.
By forming utility holding companies, the sector controlled 94 percent of generation by 1921. Many private companies in the Tennessee Valley were bought by the federal government, others shut down, unable to compete with the T. V. A. Government regulations were passed to prevent competition with T. V. A. T. V. A. was one of the first federal hydropower agencies, other attempts to create T. V. A. -like regional agencies have failed, such as a proposed Columbia Valley Authority for the Columbia River in the Pacific Northwest. Regional power consumers may benefit from lower-cost electricity supplied from T. V. A. s network of 29 power-producing hydropower facilities, supporters of TVA, note that the agencys management of the Tennessee River system without appropriated federal funding saves federal taxpayers millions of dollars annually. Defenders note that TVA is overwhelmingly popular in Tennessee among conservatives and liberals alike, as Barry Goldwater discovered in 1964, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled TVA to be constitutional in Ashwander v.
Tennessee Valley Authority,297 U. S.288. The Court noted that regulating commerce among the states regulation of streams. The war powers authorized the project, the argument before the court was that electricity generation was a by-product of navigation and flood control and therefore could be considered constitutional. In the 1920s a major battle erupted over building a power system in the Tennessee Valley, based on the World War I federal dam at Muscle Shoals. It would generate electricity and produce fertilizer, Senator George Norris of Nebraska blocked a proposal from Henry Ford in 1920 to use the dam to modernize the valley. Norris deeply distrusted privately owned utility companies and he did get Congress to pass the Muscle Shoals Bill, but it was vetoed as socialistic by President Herbert Hoover in 1931. The idea behind the Muscle Shoals Bill in 1933 became a part of the New Deals TVA
National Military Park
The designation applies to sites where historic battles were fought on American soil during the armed conflicts that shaped the growth and development of the United States. There are 11 National Battlefields, nine National Military Parks, four National Battlefield Parks, the National Park Service does not distinguish among the four designations in terms of their preservation or management policies. In 1890, Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park was the first such site created by Congress, originally these sites were maintained by the War Department, but were transferred to the National Park Service on August 10,1933. The different designations appear to represent Congressional attitudes at the time of authorization of each individual site, only Brices Cross Roads National Battlefield Site, which is small, still bears that designation, others have since been redesignated. As with all areas in the National Park System, these battle sites are automatically listed on the National Register of Historic Places
Federal government of the United States
The Federal Government of the United States is the national government of the United States, a republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D. C. and several territories. The federal government is composed of three branches, legislative and judicial, whose powers are vested by the U. S. Constitution in the Congress, the President, and the courts, including the Supreme Court. The powers and duties of these branches are defined by acts of Congress. The full name of the republic is United States of America, no other name appears in the Constitution, and this is the name that appears on money, in treaties, and in legal cases to which it is a party. The terms Government of the United States of America or United States Government are often used in documents to represent the federal government as distinct from the states collectively. In casual conversation or writing, the term Federal Government is often used, the terms Federal and National in government agency or program names generally indicate affiliation with the federal government.
Because the seat of government is in Washington, D. C, Washington is commonly used as a metonym for the federal government. The outline of the government of the United States is laid out in the Constitution, the government was formed in 1789, making the United States one of the worlds first, if not the first, modern national constitutional republics. The United States government is based on the principles of federalism and republicanism, some make the case for expansive federal powers while others argue for a more limited role for the central government in relation to individuals, the states or other recognized entities. For example, while the legislative has the power to create law, the President nominates judges to the nations highest judiciary authority, but those nominees must be approved by Congress. The Supreme Court, in its turn, has the power to invalidate as unconstitutional any law passed by the Congress and these and other examples are examined in more detail in the text below. The United States Congress is the branch of the federal government.
It is bicameral, comprising the House of Representatives and the Senate, the House currently consists of 435 voting members, each of whom represents a congressional district. The number of each state has in the House is based on each states population as determined in the most recent United States Census. All 435 representatives serve a two-year term, each state receives a minimum of one representative in the House. There is no limit on the number of terms a representative may serve, in addition to the 435 voting members, there are six non-voting members, consisting of five delegates and one resident commissioner. In contrast, the Senate is made up of two senators from each state, regardless of population, there are currently 100 senators, who each serve six-year terms
Murray is a home rule-class city in Calloway County, Kentucky, in the United States. It is the seat of Calloway County and the 22nd-largest city in Kentucky, the citys population was 17,741 during the 2010 U. S. census, and its micropolitan areas population was 37,191. It is the home of Murray State University, the city now known as Murray began as a post office and trading center sometime in the early 1820s. It was at first called Williston in honor of James Willis, the name was changed to Pooltown after Robert Pool, a local merchant. The name was changed again to Pleasant Springs before its incorporation on January 17,1844, Murray was not the first county seat, which was at Wadesboro. Calloway County was larger than today. In 1842, the legislature divided the area. It was felt that a centrally located county seat was needed. A new courthouse was built along with a jail, and the town Murray was laid out on an 80-acre plot subdivided into 137 business and residential lots divided by eight streets.
Kentucky did not officially secede from the Union during the Civil War, instead declaring its neutrality, no major battles were fought near the town, but guerrilla warfare sometimes took place nearby. In the spring of 1862, a Union force stationed in Paducah marched across the county to the Tennessee River, parts of Murray were burned on several occasions. Once, part of the town was burned by the Union Army in retaliation for its support for the Confederate guerrillas. An estimated 800 men from the area joined in the Confederate Army, either as infantry in the Kentucky Orphan Brigade or in the cavalry, Calloway Countys Confederate veterans are honored by monument on the northeast side of the court house square. Donated by the United Daughters of the Confederacy, it is the only Confederate monument in the South that does not face true north, there are several tales about the reason for this, but nowadays no one really knows. Murray is located at 36°36′34″N 88°18′56″W,7 miles north of the Tennessee border, benton is 19 miles to the north, and Mayfield is 24 miles to the northwest.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 11.3 square miles, of which 0.29 square miles. Murray has a subtropical climate and four distinct seasons. The warmest month of the year is July, with a high temperature of 90 °F
Murray State University
Murray State University is a four-year public university located in Murray, United States. In addition to the campus, Murray State operates extended campuses offering upper level and graduate courses in Paducah, Madisonville. One would be in the part of the state, which caused many cities. Wells spoke on behalf of the city of Murray to convince the Normal School Commission to choose his city, on September 2,1922, Murray was chosen as the site of the western normal school, while Morehead was chosen for the eastern normal school. On November 26,1922, John Wesley Carr was elected the first president of the Murray State Normal School by the State Board of Education, believing it had the authority to elect the president, the Normal School Commission picked Rainey Wells to be the first president. On May 15,1923, The Kentucky Court of Appeals ruled for the State Board of Education, Murray State Normal School opened on September 23,1923. Until the first building was completed, now Wrather West Kentucky Museum, all students commuted until the first dormitory, Wells Hall, was constructed in 1925.
Wilson Hall was completed under Carrs presidency, with other structures were in progress, in 1926, Rainey T. Wells, recognized as the founder of Murray State, became its second president. Wells served from 1926 to 1932, and during this time Lovett Auditorium, Carr Health Building, in 1926, the Normal School was renamed Murray State Normal School and Teachers College, and the General Assembly granted it authority to confer baccalaureate degrees. In 1928, the college was accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges, in 1930, the name was changed to Murray State Teachers College and it was granted authority to offer liberal arts and preprofessional courses. The name was changed again in 1948 to Murray State College, the Shield is the official seal of the university. It is taken from the heraldic coat-of-arms of the family of William Murray, Earl of Mansfield, William Murray is an ancestor of the Murray family from whom the city and the university take their names. The shield is blue with a double gold border—its three stars represent hope and achievement, the oldest and most easily recognizable buildings on the Murray State campus are situated around a large, tree-lined area on the south side of campus.
This part of campus, known as the Quadrangle, is bounded by 16th Street to the west, 15th Street to the east, Lovett Auditorium to the north, ground was broken for Wrather Hall on October 15,1923, and it has been in use since 1924. Wrather Hall first housed administrative offices and classrooms before becoming Wrather West Kentucky Museum, the building features a large auditorium that is frequently used for lectures and meetings. Faculty Hall, Wells Hall and the Business Building line the edge of the Quadrangle. The Lowry Center, Pogue Library and the Price Doyle Fine Arts Center line the side of the Quad. The 11-story Doyle Fine Arts Center is the tallest building on campus, directly south of the Quad is Sparks Hall