Electoral history of John F. Kennedy
Electoral history of John F. Kennedy, 35th President of the United States. Massachusetts's 11th congressional district, 1946: John F. Kennedy – 22,183 Michael J. Neville – 11,341 John F. Cotter – 6,677 Joseph Russo – 5,661 Catherine E. Falvey – 2,446 Joseph Lee – 1,848 Joseph Russo – 799 Michael DeLuca – 536 Francis N. Rooney – 521 Robert B. DiFruscio – 298 Massachusetts's 11th congressional district, 1946: John F. Kennedy – 69,093 Lester Bowen – 26,007 Philip Geer – 1,036 Massachusetts's 11th congressional district, 1948: John F. Kennedy - 106,366 Massachusetts's 11th congressional district, 1950: John F. Kennedy – 87,699 Vincent J. Celeste – 18,302 Martha E. Geer – 582 Massachusetts United States Senate election, 1952: John F. Kennedy – 1,211,984 Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. – 1,141,247 Thelma Ingersoll – 4,683 Mark R. Shaw – 2,508 Democratic presidential primary in Massachusetts, 1956: John W. McCormack – 26,128 Adlai Stevenson II – 19,024 Estes Kefauver – 4,547 Dwight D. Eisenhower – 1,850 John F. Kennedy – 949 W. Averell Harriman – 394 Frank J. Lausche – 253 Others – 1,379 1956 Democratic presidential primaries: Adlai Stevenson II – 3,069,504 Estes Kefauver – 2,283,172 Unpledged delegates – 380,300 Frank J. Lausche – 278,074 John W. McCormack – 26,128 Dwight D. Eisenhower – 6,358 W. Averell Harriman – 3,368 Robert Meyner – 1,129 John F. Kennedy – 949 Harry S. Truman – 728 Stuart Symington – 402 Paul A. Dever – 207 Lyndon B. Johnson – 2 Others – 3,610 1956 Democratic National Convention: First ballot: Estes Kefauver – 466.5 John F. Kennedy – 294.5 Albert Gore, Sr. – 178 Robert F. Wagner, Jr. – 162.5 Hubert Humphrey – 134 Luther Hodges – 40 P. T. Maner – 33 LeRoy Collins – 29 Clinton Anderson – 16 Frank G. Clement – 14 Pat Brown – 1 Lyndon B. Johnson – 1 Stuart Symington – 1Second ballot: John F. Kennedy – 618 Estes Kefauver – 551.5 Albert Gore, Sr. – 110.5 Hubert Humphrey – 74.5 Robert F. Wagner, Jr. – 9.5 Luther Hodges – 0.5Third ballot: Estes Kefauver – 755.5 John F. Kennedy – 589 Albert Gore, Sr. – 13.5 Robert F. Wagner, Jr. – 6 Hubert Humphrey – 2Massachusetts United States Senate election, 1958: John F. Kennedy – 1,362,926 Vincent J. Celeste – 488,318 Lawrence Gilfedder – 5,457 Mark R. Shaw – 5,335 1960 Democratic presidential primaries: John F. Kennedy – 1,847,259 Pat Brown – 1,354,031 George H. McLain – 646,387 Hubert Humphrey – 590,410 George Smathers – 322,235 Michael DiSalle – 315,312 Unpledged delegates – 241,958 Albert S. Potter – 208,057 Wayne Morse – 147,262 Adlai Stevenson II – 51,833 1960 Democratic National Convention: John F. Kennedy – 806 Lyndon B. Johnson – 409 Stuart Symington – 86 Adlai Stevenson II – 80 Robert Meyner – 43 Hubert Humphrey – 42 George Smathers – 30 Ross Barnett – 23 Herschel C.
Loveless – 2 Pat Brown – 1 Orval E. Faubus – 1 Albert Rosellini – 1 United States presidential election, 1960: John F. Kennedy/Lyndon B. Johnson – 34,220,984 and 303 electoral votes Richard Nixon/Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. – 34,108,157 and 219 electoral votes Harry F. Byrd/Strom Thurmond – 286,359 and 14 electoral votes Harry F. Byrd/Barry Goldwater – 1 electoral vote Orval E. Faubus/James G. Crommelin – 44,984
1960 United States presidential election
The 1960 United States presidential election was the 44th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 8, 1960. In a contested election, Democrat John F. Kennedy defeated incumbent Vice President Richard Nixon, the Republican Party nominee; this was the first election in which all fifty states participated, the last in which the District of Columbia did not. It was the first election in which an incumbent president was ineligible to run for a third term due to the term limits established by the 22nd Amendment. Nixon faced little opposition in the Republican race to succeed popular incumbent Dwight D. Eisenhower. Kennedy, a U. S. Senator from Massachusetts, established himself as the Democratic front-runner with his strong performance in the 1960 Democratic primaries, including a key victory in West Virginia over Senator Hubert Humphrey, he defeated Senate Majority Leader Lyndon B. Johnson on the first presidential ballot of the 1960 Democratic National Convention, asked Johnson to serve as his running mate.
The issue of the Cold War dominated the election, as tensions were high between the United States and the Soviet Union. Kennedy won a 303 to 219 Electoral College victory, is considered to have won the national popular vote by 112,827, a margin of 0.17 percent. The issue of the popular vote was complicated by the presence of several unpledged electors in the Deep South. Fourteen unpledged electors from Mississippi and Alabama cast their vote for Senator Harry F. Byrd, as did a faithless elector from Oklahoma; the 1960 presidential election was the closest election since 1916, this closeness can be explained by a number of factors. Kennedy benefited from the economic recession of 1957–58, which hurt the standing of the incumbent Republican Party, he had the advantage of 17 million more registered Democrats than Republicans. Furthermore, the new votes that Kennedy, the first Roman Catholic president, gained among Catholics neutralized the new votes Nixon gained among Protestants. Kennedy's campaigning skills decisively outmatched Nixon's, who wasted time and resources campaigning in all fifty states while Kennedy focused on campaigning in populous swing states.
Nixon's emphasis on his experience carried little weight for most voters. Kennedy used his large, well-funded campaign organization to win the nomination, secure endorsements, with the aid of the big-city bosses, get out the vote in the big cities. Kennedy relied on Johnson to hold the South, used television effectively. In 1963, Kennedy was succeeded by Johnson. Nixon would successfully seek the presidency in 1968; the major candidates for the 1960 Democratic presidential nomination were John F. Kennedy, Governor Pat Brown of California, Senator Stuart Symington from Missouri, Senator Lyndon B. Johnson from Texas, former Illinois Governor Adlai Stevenson, Senator Wayne Morse from Oregon, Senator Hubert Humphrey from Minnesota. Several other candidates sought support in their home state or region as "favorite son" candidates without any realistic chance of winning the nomination. Symington and Johnson all declined to campaign in the presidential primaries. While this reduced their potential delegate count going into the Democratic National Convention, each of these three candidates hoped that the other leading contenders would stumble in the primaries, thus causing the convention's delegates to choose him as a "compromise" candidate acceptable to all factions of the party.
Kennedy was dogged by suggestions from some Democratic Party elders that he was too youthful and inexperienced to be president. Realizing that this was a strategy touted by his opponents to keep the public from taking him Kennedy stated frankly, "I'm not running for vice president, I'm running for president." The next step was the primaries. Kennedy's Roman Catholic religion was an issue. Kennedy first challenged Minnesota Senator Hubert Humphrey in the Wisconsin primary and defeated him. Kennedy's attractive sisters and wife Jacqueline combed the state looking for votes, leading Humphrey to complain that he "felt like an independent merchant competing against a chain store." However, some political experts argued that Kennedy's margin of victory had come entirely from Catholic areas, thus Humphrey decided to continue the contest in the Protestant state of West Virginia. The first televised debate of 1960 was held in West Virginia, Kennedy outperformed Humphrey. Humphrey's campaign was low on funds and could not compete for advertising and other "get-out-the-vote" drives with Kennedy's well-financed and well-organized campaign.
In the end, Kennedy defeated Humphrey with over 60% of the vote, Humphrey ended his presidential campaign. West Virginia showed that Kennedy, a Catholic, could win in a Protestant state. Although Kennedy had only competed in nine presidential primaries, Kennedy's rivals and Symington, failed to campaign in any primaries. Though Stevenson had twice been the Democratic Party's presidential candidate and retained a loyal following of liberals, his two landslide defeats to Republican Dwight Eisenhower led most party leaders and delegates to search for a "fresh face" who could win a national election. Following the primaries, Kennedy traveled around the nation speaking to state delegations and their leaders; as the Democratic Convention opened, Kennedy was far in the lead, but was still seen as being just short of the delegate total he needed to win. The 1960 Democratic National Convention was held in California. In the week before the convention opened, Kennedy receiv
Project Mercury was the first human spaceflight program of the United States, running from 1958 through 1963. An early highlight of the Space Race, its goal was to put a man into Earth orbit and return him safely, ideally before the Soviet Union. Taken over from the US Air Force by the newly created civilian space agency NASA, it conducted twenty unmanned developmental flights, six successful flights by astronauts; the program, which took its name from Roman mythology, cost $2.2 billion adjusted for inflation. The astronauts were collectively known as the "Mercury Seven", each spacecraft was given a name ending with a "7" by its pilot; the Space Race began with the 1957 launch of the Soviet satellite Sputnik 1. This came as a shock to the American public, led to the creation of NASA to expedite existing US space exploration efforts, place most of them under civilian control. After the successful launch of the Explorer 1 satellite in 1958, manned spaceflight became the next goal; the Soviet Union put the first human, cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin, into a single orbit aboard Vostok 1 on April 12, 1961.
Shortly after this, on May 5, the US launched its first astronaut, Alan Shepard, on a suborbital flight. Soviet Gherman Titov followed with a day-long orbital flight in August 1961; the US reached its orbital goal on February 20, 1962, when John Glenn made three orbits around the Earth. When Mercury ended in May 1963, both nations had sent six people into space, but the Soviets led the US in total time spent in space; the Mercury space capsule was produced by McDonnell Aircraft, carried supplies of water and oxygen for about one day in a pressurized cabin. Mercury flights were launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida, on launch vehicles modified from the Redstone and Atlas D missiles; the capsule was fitted with a launch escape rocket to carry it safely away from the launch vehicle in case of a failure. The flight was designed to be controlled from the ground via the Manned Space Flight Network, a system of tracking and communications stations. Small retrorockets were used to bring the spacecraft out of its orbit, after which an ablative heat shield protected it from the heat of atmospheric reentry.
A parachute slowed the craft for a water landing. Both astronaut and capsule were recovered by helicopters deployed from a US Navy ship; the Mercury project gained popularity, its missions were followed by millions on radio and TV around the world. Its success laid the groundwork for Project Gemini, which carried two astronauts in each capsule and perfected space docking maneuvers essential for manned lunar landings in the subsequent Apollo program announced a few weeks after the first manned Mercury flight. Project Mercury was approved on October 7, 1958 and publicly announced on December 17. Called Project Astronaut, President Dwight Eisenhower felt that gave too much attention to the pilot. Instead, the name Mercury was chosen from classical mythology, which had lent names to rockets like the Greek Atlas and Roman Jupiter for the SM-65 and PGM-19 missiles, it absorbed military projects with the same aim, such as the Air Force Man in Space Soonest. Following the end of World War II, a nuclear arms race evolved between the Soviet Union.
Since the USSR did not have bases in the western hemisphere from which to deploy bomber planes, Joseph Stalin decided to develop intercontinental ballistic missiles, which drove a missile race. The rocket technology in turn enabled both sides to develop Earth-orbiting satellites for communications, gathering weather data and intelligence. Americans were shocked when the Soviet Union placed the first satellite into orbit in October 1957, leading to a growing fear that the US was falling into a "missile gap". A month the Soviets launched Sputnik 2, carrying a dog into orbit. Though the animal was not recovered alive, it was obvious. Unable to disclose details of military space projects, President Eisenhower ordered the creation of a civilian space agency in charge of civilian and scientific space exploration. Based on the federal research agency National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, it was named the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, it achieved its first goal, an American satellite in space, in 1958.
The next goal was to put a man there. The limit of space was defined at the time as a minimum altitude of 62 mi, the only way to reach it was by using rocket-powered boosters; this created risks for the pilot, including explosion, high g-forces and vibrations during lift off through a dense atmosphere, temperatures of more than 10,000 °F from air compression during reentry. In space, pilots would require pressurized chambers or space suits to supply fresh air. While there, they would experience weightlessness, which could cause disorientation. Further potential risks included radiation and micrometeoroid strikes, both of which would be absorbed in the atmosphere. All seemed possible to overcome: experience from satellites suggested micrometeoroid risk was negligible, experiments in the early 1950s with simulated weightlessness, high g-forces on humans, sending animals to the limit of space, all suggested potential problems could be overcome by known technologies. Reentry was studied using the nuclear warheads of ballistic missiles, which demonstrated a blunt, forward-facing heat shield could solve the problem of heating.
T. Keith Glennan had been appointed the first Administrator of NASA, with Hugh L. Dryden as his Deputy, at the creation of the agency on October 1, 1958. Glennan would report to the preside
The Truman Doctrine was an American foreign policy whose stated purpose was to counter Soviet geopolitical expansion during the Cold War. It was announced to Congress by President Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947, further developed on July 12, 1948, when he pledged to contain threats in Greece and Turkey. Direct American military force was not involved, but Congress appropriated financial aid to support the economies and militaries of Greece and Turkey. More the Truman Doctrine implied American support for other nations threatened by Soviet communism; the Truman Doctrine became the foundation of American foreign policy, led, in 1949, to the formation of NATO, a military alliance, still in effect. Historians use Truman's speech to date the start of the Cold War. Truman told Congress that "it must be the policy of the United States to support free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures." Truman contended that because totalitarian regimes coerced free peoples, they automatically represented a threat to international peace and the national security of the United States.
Truman made the plea in the midst of the Greek Civil War. He argued that if Greece and Turkey did not receive the aid, they would fall to communism with grave consequences throughout the region; because Turkey and Greece were historic rivals, it was considered necessary to help both even though the crisis in Greece was far more intense. Critics of the policy have observed that the governments of Greece and Turkey were themselves far from democratic at this time, neither were facing Soviet subversion in the spring of 1949. Historian Eric Foner writes that the Doctrine "set a precedent for American assistance to anticommunist regimes throughout the world, no matter how undemocratic, for the creation of a set of global military alliances directed against the Soviet Union."For years, the United Kingdom had supported Greece, but was now near bankruptcy and was forced to radically reduce its involvement. In February 1947, Britain formally requested for the United States to take over its role in supporting the royalist Greek government.
The policy won the support of Republicans who controlled Congress and involved sending $400 million in American money but no military forces to the region. The effect was to end the Greek revolt, in 1952, both Greece and Turkey joined NATO, a military alliance, to guarantee their stability; the Truman Doctrine was informally extended to become the basis of American Cold War policy throughout Europe and around the world. It shifted American foreign policy toward the Soviet Union from anti-fascism ally to a policy of containment of Soviet expansion as advocated by diplomat George Kennan, it was distinguished from rollback by implicitly tolerating the previous Soviet takeovers in Eastern Europe. At the conclusion of World War II, Turkey was pressured by the Soviet government to allow Russian shipping to flow through the Turkish Straits, which connected the Black Sea to the Mediterranean; as the Turkish government would not submit to the Soviet Union's requests, tensions arose in the region, leading to a show of naval force on the side of the Soviets.
Since British assistance to Turkey had ended in 1947, the U. S. dispatched military aid to ensure. Turkey received $100 million in economic and military aid and the U. S sent the aircraft carrier Franklin D. Roosevelt; the postwar period from 1946 started with a "multi-party period" and the Democratic Party government of Adnan Menderes. Seven weeks after the Axis powers abandoned Greece in October 1944, the British helped retake Athens from the victorious National Liberation Front, controlled by the Greek Communist Party; this began with a mass killing of unarmed EAM supporters known as the Dekemvriana on December 3. The leftists attempted to retaliate, but were outgunned by the British-backed government and subjected to the White Terror. With the full outbreak of civil war, guerrilla forces controlled by the Greek Communist Party sustained a revolt against the internationally recognized Greek government, formed after 1946 elections boycotted by the KKE; the British realized that the KKE were being directly funded by Josip Broz Tito in neighboring Yugoslavia.
In line with the Churchill-Stalin "percentages agreement", the Greek communists received no help from the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia provided them support and sanctuary against Stalin's wishes. By late 1946, Britain informed the United States that due to its own weakening economy, it could no longer continue to provide military and economic support to royalist Greece. In 1946–47, the United States and the Soviet Union moved from being wartime allies to Cold War adversaries; the breakdown of Allied cooperation in Germany provided a backdrop of escalating tensions for the Truman Doctrine. To Truman, the growing unrest in Greece began to look like a pincer movement against the oil-rich areas of the Middle East and the warm-water ports of the Mediterranean. In February 1946, Kennan, an American diplomat in Moscow, sent his famed "Long Telegram", which predicted the Soviets would only respond to force and that the best way to handle them would be through a long-term strategy of containment, stopping their geographical expansion.
After the British warned that they could no longer help Greece, following Prime Minister Konstantinos Tsaldaris's visit to Washington in December 1946 to ask for American assistance, the U. S. State Department formulated a plan. Aid would be given to both Turkey, to help cool the long-standing rivalry between them. American policy makers recognized the instability of the region, fearing that if Greec
1960 Democratic Party presidential primaries
The 1960 Democratic presidential primaries were the selection process by which voters of the Democratic Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 1960 U. S. presidential election. Senator John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts was selected as the nominee through a series of primary elections and caucuses culminating in the 1960 Democratic National Convention held from July 11 to July 15, 1960, in Los Angeles, California. Recalling the experience of 1928 Catholic Democratic presidential nominee Al Smith, many wondered if anti-Catholic prejudice would affect Kennedy's chances of winning the nomination and the election in November. To prove his vote-getting ability, Kennedy challenged Minnesota Senator Hubert Humphrey, a liberal, in the Wisconsin primary. Although Kennedy defeated Humphrey in Wisconsin, the fact that his margin of victory came from Catholic areas left many party bosses unconvinced of Kennedy's appeal to non-Catholic voters. Kennedy next faced Humphrey in the Protestant state of West Virginia, where anti-Catholic bigotry was said to be widespread.
Humphrey's campaign was low on money and could not compete with the well-organized, well-financed Kennedy team. Kennedy's attractive sisters and brothers combed the state looking for votes, leading Humphrey to complain that he "felt like an independent merchant running against a chain store." On primary day, Kennedy crushed Humphrey with over 60% of the vote. Humphrey withdrew from the race and Kennedy had gained the victory he needed to prove to the party's bosses that a Catholic could win in a non-Catholic state. In the months leading up to the Democratic Convention Kennedy traveled around the nation persuading delegates from various states to support him. However, as the Convention opened, Kennedy was still a few dozen votes short of victory. Although Kennedy won primaries by comfortable margin, his main opponent, Senate Majority Leader Lyndon B. Johnson, who did not participate in primaries, had a strong base in party establishment and gained many delegates. Johnson was a write-in; the following political leaders were candidates for the 1960 Democratic presidential nomination.
Morse and Fisher were considered to be "favorite-son" candidates, without any realistic chance of winning the nomination: Total number of vote in primaries: candidates: John F. Kennedy - 1,847,259 Hubert Humphrey - 590,410 Unpledged delegates - 241,958 Wayne Morse - 147,262 Adlai Stevenson - 51,833"Favorite Sons:" Pat Brown - 1,354,031 George H. McLain - 646,387 George Smathers - 322,235 Michael DiSalle - 315,312 Presidential tally: John F. Kennedy: 806 Lyndon B. Johnson: 409 Stuart Symington: 86 Adlai Stevenson: 80 Robert B. Meyner: 43 Hubert Humphrey: 42 George Smathers: 30 Ross Barnett: 23 Herschel C. Loveless: 2 Pat Brown, Orval E. Faubus, Albert Dean Rosellini: each 1 vote Kennedy announced Lyndon B. Johnson as his choice of running-mate on the afternoon following his nomination. Johnson was nominated by acclamation that evening. Republican Party presidential primaries, 1960
Presidency of John F. Kennedy
The presidency of John F. Kennedy began on January 20, 1961, when Kennedy was inaugurated as the 35th President of the United States, ended on November 22, 1963, upon his assassination, a span of 1,036 days. A Democrat, he took office following the 1960 presidential election, in which he narrowly defeated Richard Nixon, he was succeeded by Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson. Kennedy's time in office was marked by Cold War tensions with Cuba. In Cuba, a failed attempt was made in April 1961 at the Bay of Pigs to overthrow the government of Fidel Castro. In October 1962, the Kennedy administration learned that Soviet ballistic missiles had been deployed in Cuba; the United States and the Soviet Union came to an agreement to end the crisis, the Soviets withdrew the missiles. To contain Communist expansion in Asia, Kennedy increased the number of American military advisers in South Vietnam by a factor of 18 over his predecessor, Dwight D. Eisenhower. In domestic politics, Kennedy made bold proposals in his New Frontier agenda, but few were passed by Congress.
He presided over a growing economy that experienced a drop in unemployment rates. Kennedy took steps to support the Civil Rights Movement, helping to pass the Twenty-fourth Amendment, which abolished poll taxes, he established the Peace Corps and intensified the Space Race. Two major pieces of Kennedy's domestic agenda, a civil rights bill and a tax cut, were enacted within a year of his death. Kennedy was assassinated in November 1963 while visiting Texas. Though the Warren Commission concluded that Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone in assassinating Kennedy, Kennedy's death gave rise to various conspiracy theories. Kennedy was the first Roman Catholic to serve as President of the United States, as well as the youngest individual to win a U. S. presidential election. Historians and political scientists tend to rank Kennedy as an above-average president. Kennedy, who represented Massachusetts in the United States Senate from 1953 to 1960, had finished second on the vice presidential ballot of the 1956 Democratic National Convention.
After Republican President Dwight D. Eisenhower defeated Adlai Stevenson II in the 1956 presidential election, Kennedy began to prepare a bid for the presidency in the 1960 election. In January 1960, Kennedy formally announced his candidacy in that year's presidential election. Senator Hubert Humphrey of Minnesota emerged as Kennedy's primary challenger in the 1960 Democratic primaries. Kennedy's victory in the heavily-Protestant state of West Virginia prompted Humphrey's withdrawal from the race. At the 1960 Democratic National Convention, Kennedy fended off challenges from Stevenson and Senator Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas to win the presidential nomination on the first ballot of the convention. Kennedy chose Johnson to be his vice-presidential running mate, despite opposition from many liberal delegates and Kennedy's own staff, including his brother Robert F. Kennedy. Kennedy believed that Johnson's presence on the ticket would appeal to Southern voters, he thought that Johnson could serve as a valuable liaison to the Senate.
Incumbent Vice President Richard Nixon faced little opposition for the 1960 Republican nomination. He won the party's primaries and received the nearly-unanimous backing of the delegates at the 1960 Republican National Convention. Nixon chose Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. the chief U. S. delegate as his running mate. Both presidential nominees traveled extensively during the course of the campaign. Not wanting to concede any state as "unwinnable," Nixon undertook a fifty-state strategy, while Kennedy focused the states with the most electoral votes. Ideologically and Nixon agreed on the continuation of the New Deal and the Cold War containment policy. Major issues in the campaign included the economy, Kennedy's Catholicism and whether the Soviet space and missile programs had surpassed those of the U. S. On November 8, 1960, Kennedy defeated Nixon in one of the closest presidential elections of the 20th century. Kennedy won the popular vote by a narrow margin of 120,000 votes out of a record 68.8 million ballots cast.
He won the electoral vote by a wider margin, receiving 303 votes to Nixon's 219. 14 unpledged electors from two states—Alabama and Mississippi—voted for Senator Harry F. Byrd of Virginia, as did one faithless elector in Oklahoma. In the concurrent congressional elections, Democrats retained wide majorities in both the House of Representatives and the Senate. Kennedy was the first person born in the 20th century to be elected president, and, at age 43, the youngest person elected to the office, he was the first Roman Catholic elected to the presidency. Kennedy was inaugurated as the nation's 35th president on January 20, 1961, on the East Portico of the United States Capitol. Chief Justice Earl Warren administered the oath of office. In his inaugural address, Kennedy spoke of the need for all Americans to be active citizens, famously saying: "Ask not what your country can do for you, he invited the nations of the world to join together to fight what he called the "common enemies of man: tyranny, poverty and war itself."
To these admonitions he added: All this will not be finished in the first one hundred days. Nor will it be finished in the first one thousand days, nor in the life of this Administration, nor perhaps in our lifetime on this planet, but let us begin." In closing, he expanded on his desire for greater inter
Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman was the 33rd president of the United States from 1945 to 1953, succeeding upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt after serving as vice president, he implemented the Marshall Plan to rebuild the economy of Western Europe, established the Truman Doctrine and NATO. Truman was elected to the United States Senate in 1934 and gained national prominence as chairman of the Truman Committee aimed at waste and inefficiency in wartime contracts. Soon after succeeding to the presidency he authorized the first and only use of nuclear weapons in war. Truman's administration renounced isolationism, he rallied his New Deal coalition during the 1948 presidential election and won a surprise victory that secured his own presidential term. Truman oversaw the Berlin Airlift of 1948; when Communist North Korea invaded South Korea in 1950, he gained United Nations approval for the large policy action known as the Korean War. It saved South Korea but the Chinese intervened, driving back the UN/US forces and preventing a rollback of Communism in North Korea.
On domestic issues, bills endorsed by Truman faced opposition from a conservative Congress, but his administration guided the U. S. economy through the post-war economic challenges. In 1948 he submitted the first comprehensive civil rights legislation and issued Executive Orders to start racial integration in the military and federal agencies. Allegations of corruption in the Truman administration became a central campaign issue in the 1952 presidential election and accounted for Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower's electoral victory against Democrat Adlai Stevenson II. Truman's financially difficult retirement was marked by the founding of his presidential library and the publication of his memoirs; when he left office, Truman's presidency was criticized, but scholars rehabilitated his image in the 1960s and he is ranked as one of the best presidents. Truman was born in Lamar, Missouri, on May 8, 1884, the oldest child of John Anderson Truman and Martha Ellen Young Truman, his namesake was Harrison "Harry" Young.
His middle initial "S" honors Anderson Shipp Truman and Solomon Young. A brother, John Vivian, was born soon followed by sister Mary Jane. Truman's ancestry is English and less Scotch-Irish, German or French. John Truman was a livestock dealer; the family lived in Lamar until Harry was ten months old, when they moved to a farm near Harrisonville, Missouri. The family next moved to Belton, in 1887 to his grandparents' 600-acre farm in Grandview; when Truman was six, his parents moved to Independence, so he could attend the Presbyterian Church Sunday School. He did not attend a traditional school. While living in Independence, he served as a Shabbos goy for Jewish neighbors, doing tasks for them on Shabbat that their religion prevented them from doing on that day. Truman was interested in music and history, all encouraged by his mother, with whom he was close; as president, he solicited political as well as personal advice from her. He rose at five every morning to practice the piano, which he studied more than twice a week until he was fifteen.
Truman worked as a page at the 1900 Democratic National Convention in Kansas City. After graduating from Independence High School in 1901, Truman enrolled in Spalding's Commercial College, a Kansas City business school, he made use of his business college experience to obtain a job as a timekeeper on the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway, sleeping in hobo camps near the rail lines. He took on a series of clerical jobs, was employed in the mail room of The Kansas City Star. Truman and his brother Vivian worked as clerks at the National Bank of Commerce in Kansas City, he returned to the Grandview farm in 1906, where he lived until entering the army in 1917 after the beginning of the Great War. During this period, he courted Bess Wallace. Truman said he intended to propose again, but he wanted to have a better income than that earned by a farmer. To that end, during his years on the farm and after World War I, he became active in several business ventures, including a lead and zinc mine near Commerce, Oklahoma, a company that bought land and leased the oil drilling rights to prospectors, speculation in Kansas City real estate.
Truman derived some income from these enterprises, but none proved successful in the long term. Truman is the only president since William McKinley not to earn a college degree. In addition to having attended business college, from 1923 to 1925 he took night courses toward an LL. B. at the Kansas City Law dropped out after losing reelection as county judge. He was informed by attorneys in the Kansas City area that his education and experience were sufficient to receive a license to practice law. However, he did not pursue it. While serving as president in 1947, Truman applied for a license to practice law. A friend, an attorney began working out the arrangements, informed Truman that his application had to be notarized. By the time Truman received this information he had changed his mind, so he never sought notarization. After rediscovery of Truman's application, in 1996 the Missour