The Kennedy Round was the sixth session of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade multilateral trade negotiations held between 1964 and 1967 in Geneva, Switzerland. Congressional passage of the U. S. Trade Expansion Act in 1962 authorized the White House to conduct mutual tariff negotiations leading to the Kennedy Round. Participation increased over previous rounds. Sixty-six nations, representing 80% of world trade, attended the official opening on May 4, 1964, at the Palais des Nations. Despite several disagreements over details, the director general announced the round’s success on May 15, 1967, the final agreement was signed on June 30, 1967—the last day permitted under the Trade Expansion Act; the round was named after U. S. President John F. Kennedy, assassinated six months before the opening negotiations; the main objectives of the Kennedy Round were to: Slash tariffs by half with a minimum of exceptions Break down farm trade restrictions Remove non-tariff barriers Help developing countries The European trade integration signaled by the creation of the European Economic Community in the 1957 Treaty of Rome led the United States to fear its own products would be shut out of the European market.
Thus, President Kennedy pressed for the passage of the Trade Expansion Act, which gave the president authority to decrease duties up to 50% from their 1962 levels or increase them up to 50% from their 1934 levels. The window for this increased authority was after June 30, 1962, before July 1, 1967. Trade adjustment assistance was considered within the act with several provisions that provided for the financial and technical assistance to firms and workers adversely affected by the opening of trade, it made provisions for treating the EEC as a single trade partner and made special provisions for any trade agreements covering agricultural commodities. After the act was passed, the administration pressed for a new round of multilateral trade talks to utilize its new authority, which would become known as the Kennedy Round upon the death of President Kennedy in November 1963; the Kennedy Round opened on May 4, 1964, at the Palais des Nations. It was the last GATT round to have tariff reduction as its primary focus.
However, it was the first GATT round to deal with non-tariff issues, such as dumping, a practice whereby a company exports a product at a price lower than the price it charges in its home market. It notably pioneered a "linear" style of negotiations. In contrast to the item-by-item negotiations of previous GATT rounds, many countries offered across-the-board cuts of a certain percentage on all tariffs of participating countries. Members of the so-called "Bridge Club"—the United States, European Economic Community and the UK—led the negotiations and offered linear cuts. Six other European countries joined them in linear cuts. Another 36 countries were nonlinear participators, a difference which led to tension within the negotiations, as linear countries felt nonlinear countries had no right to participate in the "confrontation and justice" procedure for dealing with proposed exceptions. Thus, although the Kennedy Administration had contemplated finishing the round in six months, the round was plagued with delays and slow progress.
In addition to the linear and nonlinear divides, disputes arose over agricultural policy and tariff disparities. The United States wanted Europe to agree to cut farm tariffs before moving on to industrial tariffs, but gridlock forced the United States to relent. Only low expectations stopped the concluding agricultural agreements from being considered a disaster. Further, equivalent percentage cuts to high U. S. tariffs and medium EEC tariffs were seen to favor the United States. Since President Lyndon Johnson had little chance of success in reauthorizing the Trade Expansion Act, its July 1, 1967 deadline served as the effective deadline for the Kennedy round. After a marathon session, negotiators announced a satisfactory agreement at a midnight meeting with the press on May 15, 1967; the final agreement was signed on June 30, 1967. However, within the United States, Congress repealed several provisions of the round of global tariff cuts, hurting the future credibility of the United States in worldwide trade negotiations.
U. S. tariff concessions involved $8.5 billion worth of goods, foreign tariff concessions on imports from the United States involved $8.1 billion. 64% of non-agricultural dutiable imports were covered by U. S. linear cuts, with an average tariff reduction of 35%. Foreign tariff reductions were on average 34%, covered 48% of their non-agricultural dutiable imports. Non-tariff achievements included the establishment of the GATT Antidumping Code of 1967, which gave a procedural framework for negotiating dumping accusations and expanded upon the original Article VI in GATT; the round can be seen as a success for developing nations. A "Trade and Development" section was added to the GATT charter, it called for the stabilization of raw material prices. Further, the agricultural grains arrangement provided for higher minimum trading prices as well as a food aid program to developing countries; some progress was made with negotiations on commodities. The round extended the Long Term Cotton Textile Arrangement for another three years and provided frameworks for negotiating steel, chemicals and paper tariffs.
General protectionist criticisms have been made of the round. In voting to withdraw from the WTO in 2000, Congressman Jack Metcalf cited the Kennedy round as the beginning of "the slow decline in Americans’ living standards" and that all such multilateral agreements "may mesmerize an
FSV Glückauf Brieske-Senftenberg is a German football club from Senftenberg in Brandenburg playing in the Landesliga Brandenburg-Süd. FSV Glückauf Brieske-Senftenberg was founded on 19 January 1919 as Fußballverein Grube Marga before becoming Fußballsportverein Grube Marga in 1928; the club was renamed Sportverein Sturm Grube Marga in 1933 and played two seasons in the Gauliga Berlin-Brandenburg, one of the country's 16 top-flight regional divisions. After World War II, the club was closed before being reformed as Sportgemeinde Grube Marga and becoming part of the separate football competition that emerged in East Germany under Soviet occupation. In 1948, it was renamed BSG Franz Mehring Grube in recognition of leftist politician and writer Franz Mehring. Two years the club was known as BSG Aktivist Ost Brieske and became part of the DDR-Oberliga; the team played as SC Aktivist Brieske-Senftenberg between 1954 and 1963, earning their best result in 1958 when they finished third. They were relegated after a 14th-place result in 1963 and the club was broken up.
The footballers were delegated to establish Sportclub Cottbus, whose football side became independent as BSG Energie Cottbus in 1966 and was the predecessor of FC Energie Cottbus. The reserve team of SC Aktivist merged with BSG Aktivist Brieske-Ost to form BSG Aktivist Senftenberg in February 1972 and went on to play in the DDR-Liga. After German reunification in 1990, the club was renamed FSV Glückauf Brieske-Senftenberg and became one of the founding members of the NOFV-Oberliga Mitte in the combined German football competition. After the dissolution of the NOFV-Oberliga Mitte, Brieske qualified for the NOFV-Oberliga Süd in 1994, it was relegated from third-tier competition after finishing 15th in the 1995–96 season. Since the club has played in the Brandenburg-Liga and the Landesliga below that, it has played in the Landesliga since it was once again relegated in 2011. The club's honours: Landesliga Brandenburg-Süd Champions: 2009 Runners-up: 2014 FSV Glückauf Brieske-Senftenberg
The Ems Dollart Region, established in 1977, is a cross-border organisation located in the northern Dutch-German border area. The region is named after the Dollart estuary, its aim is to establish and improve contacts and levels of interaction between people and organisations within the border region. The organization is based in the Dutch village of Bad Nieuweschans. Here, the office has developed into a Dutch-German center, where cross-border functions and other activities take place; the office serves as an administration base and launching point for many cross-border projects. The EDR consists of 100 members including: Municipalities from the Dutch provinces of Groningen and Friesland, as well as from the German regions of East-Frisia, the Emsland and parts of the Cloppenburg region. Additionally, regional associations such as cultural organizations and chambers of commerce and industry are represented. Since its establishment, the EDR has been active in the areas of spatial planning, infrastructure and developing the regional economy.
However, the EDR places special emphasis on its efforts to develop and intensify the contacts between the populations on both sides of the German-Dutch border. In order to reach these goals, the EDR provides financial assistance for regional cross-border initiatives; the basis for these activities is provided by the contributions of EDR members. In addition, the EDR receives financial support from the Dutch provinces of Groningen and Friesland, as well as project associated contributions from the German federal state of Lower-Saxony. An important contributor to the activities of the EDR is the European Union, which contributes to cross-border activities as a part of its INTERREG-IVA program; this program provides subsidies to projects in the following areas: economy and innovation, sustainable regional development, as well as integration and society. Over the years and networks have been established among the people and organizations on both sides of the Dutch-German border; as a result of this closer interaction, it has become clear to many participants that significant obstacles to full co-operation remain.
Differences in legal systems present the most significant obstacle to cross-border cooperation, but differing customs and cultural expectations can add to the difficulties of cross-border initiatives. The EDR works to overcome these obstacles; the EDR Council consists of two representatives from each member. The EDR Council gathers twice yearly to receive news on important projects and discuss developments at the EDR; each EDR member has one vote, used to elect the EDR Board of Directors. The EDR Board of Directors is elected in bi-annual terms by the EDR Council, it consists of eight from Germany and eight from the Netherlands. The board sits monthly and prepares cross-border projects and initiatives. Further, the board represents the interests of the region in regional and European conventions; the position of chairman rotates between a Dutch representative every two years. EUREGIO Meuse-Rhine Euroregion List of euroregions EDR Website INTERREG IV Program
Adam Williamson is a former American soccer player, who last played midfielder for the Ocean City Barons in the USL Premier Development League. Williamson grew up in Petersburg, Cape May County, New Jersey and played soccer at Ocean City High School. Williamson played college soccer for Lehigh University from 2002 to 2005. In 79 games he notched 15 assists, he played for the Ocean City Barons of the Premier Development League in the summer of 2005, playing in 13 games, notching four goals and six assists. He was selected in the third round, 35th overall in the 2006 MLS Draft by the New England Revolution, but waived at the end of the season, he subsequently signed for the Hammerheads in April 2007, made his debut against Charlotte Eagles on May 11, 2007. He played in 14 league games for the Hammerheads that scoring one goal and two assists, he scored his first professional goal on June 2007, in a road game at the Bermuda Hogges. It was the lone goal in a 1-0 victory. Williamson last played for the Ocean City Barons during the 2008 season where he appeared in 12 games and dished out four assists
The Twelve Foot Dinghy was designed by George Cockshott, an amateur boat designer from Southport, England in response to a 1912 design contest. It became the first one-design racing dinghy to achieve international recognition; the class was granted the'International' status by the IYRU in 1919 and remained this status until 1964 when it was revoked by the same authority. The class was selected as one of the Olympic classes for the Olympics in 1920 & 1928. In 1913 there was published in England a new rating rule for yachts of all sizes; the rule was prepared by the self -styled'Boat Racing Association' under the chairmanship of Lt. Col. J. T. Bucknill at a meeting in November 1912. B. R. A. Felt that ordinary racing sailors were not catered for by the YRA rating rules. There was to be a class of 18 footer rating, to be smaller than a 6m. Other sizes of yachts were intended to follow, including a 20 foot; the B. R. A. Rating formula was: Rating in feet= divided by 4 + divided by 3 x cube root of weight.
The class is known in some quarters as' The International One-Design 12 Foot Dinghy Class' as it is the smallest and 5th design approved by the International Conference of Nations held in 1919. Since the revoking of the International status the 12 foot Dinghy became a National class in many countries; this however resulted in deviations in the class rules between the different Nationalities. In 2006 the foundation of the international association were laid at a meeting in the Hotel Jolanda, Italy this was followed by another meeting in Tuzla, Turkey in October 2007. During this time much progress has been made towards re-establishing the 12' Dinghy as a international class; however this did not resulted in a single set of class rules so far. The 12 feet dinghy is one of the Vintage Yachting Classes at the 2018 Vintage Yachting Games in Copenhagen. In 2020 Lough Ree yacht Club in Ireland will be celebrating their 250 centenary with a Clinkerfest regatta including International 12 foot dinghies on the last weekend of May.
In 2020 a centenary regatta will be held in Ostende to commemorate 100 years since the first Olympic regatta for dinghies. In 1924, The Brussels Royal Yacht Club held the first World Dinghy Championships. Belgium England France The Netherlands Irish Free State Italy. In 1925, The Royal Munster Yacht Club held the second World Dinghy Championships in Co.. Cork, Irish Free State. Mr. Watney GBR Mr. Bokre NED Mr. Van Haltern BEL Capt. Payne IRL Following the success of the George Cockshott design, there was a suggestion in 1920 that the Cockshott design be replaced by a design by Frank Morgan Giles, who suggested that his design was superior to the design created by Cockshott, a mere amateur. Morgan Giles persuaded the British that his design was superior, but he was unable to convince the Dutch or Italians. Due to the type of short steep waves which occur in Dublin Bay, some owners of the Dun Laoghaire International 12 footers under the recommendation of J. J. O'Leary, modified the design in the 1960s to reduce the amount of water taken over the bow.
They modified the design by putting a small foredeck with washboards, inserting a new mast step aft of the existing step, cutting a circular hole in the forward thwart, moving the mast aft, shortening the boom, cutting down the size of the mainsail, hoisting a small jib borrowed from the other Dublin Bay classic dinghy class the Water Wag. The modification was declared a success, the modified fleet sailed and raced for about another 10 years. No alterations were made to the hull, or underwater appendages - so the alterations should be reversible. In the 1920s till the 1950s there were fleets in Royal Munster Yacht Club, Sutton Dinghy Club, Baltimore, Clontarf Yacht and Boat Club, Seapoint Boat Club; the first'International Dinghy Championship' was held by the Royal Munster Yacht Club in Cork Harbour on 12, 13 and 14 August 1925. In 2011 the first Irish combined DBSC 12 foot and int. 12 foot Championships for at least 40 years was held at the Royal St George Yacht Club. Boats of the International Design and the Dublin Bay rig sailed against each other as equals in 2011, won by Gail Varian in a DBSC rigged boat.
In 2015 in Dun Laoghaire harbour and in the waters outside the harbour, the second Irish championship of recent years took placed under the Royal St. George Yacht Club burgee on 30 August. George Miller in ` Pixie' an Internationally rigged; the following year the event in Dun Laoghaire harbour, part of the National Heritage Week, was sailed in light weather, showed that the DBSC boat was capable of pointing higher upwind, but being slower downwind. The Irish championship winner was the DBSC 12 Sgadan owned by David Sarratt and crewed by Gail Varian. In 2018 George Miller in'Pixie' repeated his 2015 win despite completing race three with a jury rig. Miller dominated again in 2019. In 2020 Athlone Yacht Club/ Lough Ree Yacht Club will be celebrating 250 years of existence and one of the chief events to celebrate the occasion will be'Clinkerfest', a celebration of the Clinker built boats introduced in Ireland by The Vikings 1000 years ago. Competing over the Whit weekend will be International 12 footers, Water Wags, IDRA 14s, Colleens and of course Shannon ODs.
International Class Page Dutch Class Page
Norma Bertha Pensado Moreno is a Mexican career diplomat, a member of the Mexican Foreign Service since 1991. She serves as Ambassador of Mexico to Russia, concurrently to Armenia and Belarus, she is the first woman to head the Mexican embassy in Russia. Norma Pensado Moreno earned a licentiate in Economics from the National Autonomous University of Mexico's Faculty of Economics in 1981 with the thesis América Latina: Un difícil camino a la integración, she has taken courses on foreign policy and diplomacy, such as "Globalization and the New Global Economy" at the Universities of Oxford and Stanford, "Políticas de Comercio Exterior en América Latina" from ECLAC/UNCTAD/OAS/UNDP/ILPES. She is an associate member of the Mexican Council on Foreign Relations. Pensado Moreno joined the Mexican Foreign Service in September 1991. At the Secretariat of Foreign Affairs, she has served as Director of Academic Exchange and Scholarships in the General Directorate of Cultural Affairs, Director General for Europe, Director General for Latin America and the Caribbean.
In 2012, she was appointed Undersecretary for Latin America and the Caribbean by President Felipe Calderón. Abroad, she has served as Alternate Representative in the Permanent Mission of Mexico to the United Nations based in Vienna, as Counselor in the Delegation of Mexico to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development in Paris, as Head of Chancery at the Embassy of Mexico in Sweden. In 2006 she rose to the rank of ambassador and was appointed Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Ambassador to the Kingdom of Sweden, concurrently to the Republics of Latvia and Lithuania. Subsequently, she was appointed Ambassador to the Republic of Finland, concurrently to the Republic of Estonia. Since 2017 she has served as Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to the Russian Federation, concurrently to the Republics of Armenia and Belarus. In 2018 she headed the assistance and consular protection actions of Mexicans during the 2018 FIFA World Cup, whose result and good performance was recognized by the Permanent Commission of the Congress of the Union of Mexico.
She has represented her country at numerous conferences and international meetings within the framework of the United Nations, the OECD, organizations of the Inter-American System. She has participated in various forums, both in Mexico and in European and Latin American countries, as a lecturer and panelist on international affairs, foreign policy in Mexico, gender issues. Decoration "Servicio Exterior Mexicano – 25 años" from the Secretariat of Foreign Affairs Commander Grand Cross of the Order of the Polar Star from the King of Sweden Commander Grand Cross of the Order of the Lion of Finland from the Republic of Finland "Participación Ciudadana: algunos elementos sobre el caso de Finlandia" in Mecanismos de Participación Ciudadana: una experiencia global, coordinated by Gerardo Romero Altamirano and Gema M. Morales Martínez. Electoral Institute of the State of Querétaro, Tirant lo Blanch, Mexico City. Concept and coordination of the DVD documentary Mexico and Finland: 80 Years of Friendship.
Embassy of Mexico to Finland, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Finland. Helsinki, September 2006