Union (American Civil War)
During the American Civil War, the Union known as the North, referred to the United States of America and to the national government of President Abraham Lincoln and the 20 free states, as well as 4 border and slave states that supported it. The Union was opposed by 11 southern slave states that formed the Confederate States of America known as "the Confederacy" or "the South". All of the Union's states provided soldiers for the United States Army, though the border areas sent tens of thousands of soldiers south into the Confederacy; the Border states were essential as a supply base for the Union invasion of the Confederacy, Lincoln realized he could not win the war without control of them Maryland, which lay north of the national capital of Washington, D. C.. The Northeast and upper Midwest provided the industrial resources for a mechanized war producing large quantities of munitions and supplies, as well as financing for the war; the Midwest provided soldiers, horses, financial support, training camps.
Army hospitals were set up across the Union. Most states had Republican Party governors who energetically supported the war effort and suppressed anti-war subversion in 1863–64; the Democratic Party supported the war at the beginning in 1861 but by 1862, was split between the War Democrats and the anti-war element led by the "Copperheads". The Democrats made major electoral gains in 1862 in state elections, most notably in New York, they lost ground in 1863 in Ohio. In 1864, the Republicans campaigned under the National Union Party banner, which attracted many War Democrats and soldiers and scored a landslide victory for Lincoln and his entire ticket against opposition candidate George B. McClellan, former General-in-Chief of the Union Army and its eastern Army of the Potomac; the war years were quite prosperous except where serious fighting and guerrilla warfare took place along the southern border. Prosperity was stimulated by heavy government spending and the creation of an new national banking system.
The Union states invested a great deal of money and effort in organizing psychological and social support for soldiers' wives and orphans, for the soldiers themselves. Most soldiers were volunteers, although after 1862 many volunteered in order to escape the draft and to take advantage of generous cash bounties on offer from states and localities. Draft resistance was notable in some larger cities New York City with its massive anti-draft riots of July 1863 and in some remote districts such as the coal mining areas of Pennsylvania. In the context of the American Civil War, the Union is sometimes referred to as "the North", both and now, as opposed to the Confederacy, "the South"; the Union never recognized the legitimacy of the Confederacy's secession and maintained at all times that it remained a part of the United States of America. In foreign affairs the Union was the only side recognized by all other nations, none of which recognized the Confederate government; the term "Union" occurs in the first governing document of the United States, the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union.
The subsequent Constitution of 1787 was issued and ratified in the name not of the states, but of "We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union...". Union, for the United States of America, is repeated in such clauses as the Admission to the Union clause in Article IV, Section 3. Before the war started, the phrase "preserve the Union" was commonplace, a "union of states" had been used to refer to the entire United States of America. Using the term "Union" to apply to the non-secessionist side carried a connotation of legitimacy as the continuation of the pre-existing political entity. Confederates saw the Union states as being opposed to slavery referring to them as abolitionists, as in reference to the U. S. Navy as the "Abolition fleet" and the U. S. Army as the "Abolition forces". Unlike the Confederacy, the Union had a large industrialized and urbanized area, more advanced commercial and financial systems than the rural South. Additionally, the Union states had a manpower advantage of 5 to 2 at the start of the war.
Year by year, the Confederacy shrank and lost control of increasing quantities of resources and population. Meanwhile, the Union turned its growing potential advantage into a much stronger military force. However, much of the Union strength had to be used to garrison conquered areas, to protect railroads and other vital points; the Union's great advantages in population and industry would prove to be vital long-term factors in its victory over the Confederacy, but it took the Union a long while to mobilize these resources. The attack on Fort Sumter rallied the North to the defense of American nationalism. Historian, Allan Nevins, says: The thunderclap of Sumter produced a startling crystallization of Northern sentiment... Anger swept the land. From every side came news of mass meetings, resolutions, tenders of business support, the muster of companies and regiments, the determined action of governors and legislatures. McClintock states: At the time, Northerners were right to wonder at the near unanimity that so followed long months of bitterness and discord.
It would not last throughout the protracted war to come – or through the year – but in that moment of unity was laid bare the common Northern nationalism hidden by the fierce battles more typical of the political arena." Historian Michael Smith, argues that, as the war grou
2nd Cavalry Regiment (United States)
The 2nd Cavalry Regiment known as the 2nd Dragoons, is an active Stryker infantry and cavalry regiment of the United States Army. The Second Cavalry Regiment is a unit of the United States Army Europe, with its garrison at the Rose Barracks in Vilseck, Germany, it can trace its lineage back to the early part of the 19th century. In addition to its two current names, former names are 2nd Riflemen, 2nd Dragoons, 2nd Constabulary Regiment, 2nd Armored Cavalry, 2nd Stryker Cavalry; the regiment has been known as 2nd Regiment of Dragoons. Description/Blazon Shield. Crest. Motto Toujours Prêt. Symbolism The color of the facings of the old dragoon regiment was orange, used for the field of the shield; the traditional episode in the regiment is the charge of Captain May's squadron on the Mexican artillery at Resaca de la Palma, commemorated by the principal charge on the shield. Background The coat of arms was approved for the 2d Cavalry Regiment on 6 August 1920, it was amended to change the 6 pointed stars to 8 pointed stars to conform to the old dragoon star on 28 April 1924.
The coat of arms was redesignated for the 2d Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron on 31 July 1944. On 26 November 1946, it was redesignated for the 2d Constabulary Squadron, it was redesignated for the 2d Armored Cavalry Regiment on 17 March 1949. The coat of arms was redesignated for the 2d Armored Cavalry on 1 September 1955; the insignia was redesignated effective 16 April 2005, for the 2d Cavalry Regiment. Description/Blazon A metal and enamel device one inch in height consisting of a gold eight pointed star of rays surmounted by a green palmetto leaf charged with a silver color fleur-de-lis, on a green ribbon scroll forming the base of the device, the regimental motto "Toujours Prêt" in gold metal letters. Symbolism The eight-pointed star insignia worn by dragoons, the 2d Cavalry having been formed as the Second Regiment of Dragoons in 1836; the palmetto leaf represents the Regiment's first action against the Seminole Indians in Florida, where the palmetto leaf grows in abundance. The fleur-de-lis is for combat service in France in both World War I and World War II.
The motto "Toujours Prêt" expresses the élan of the Regiment. Background The distinctive unit insignia was approved for the 2d Cavalry Regiment on 16 January 1923; the insignia was amended to change the 6 pointed star to an 8 pointed star to conform to the old dragoon star on 28 April 1924. On the 23 March 1931, it was amended to prescribe the method of wear, it was redesignated for the 2d Constabulary Squadron on 21 January 1948. The insignia was redesignated for the 2d Armored Cavalry Regiment on 17 March 1949, it was redesignated for the 2d Armored Cavalry Regiment on 1 September 1955. The distinctive unit insignia was amended to change the description on 20 August 1965, it was redesignated effective 16 April 2005, for the 2d Cavalry Regiment. In 1808, there was one regiment of light dragoons and during the War of 1812 another regiment was raised. Units of both regiments of dragoons served in engagements at the Mississineway River; these two regiments were consolidated on 30 March 1814 into the Regiment of Light Dragoons but this new unit was dissolved on 15 June 1815.
The precursor organization was established by President Andrew Jackson on 23 May 1836, as the Second Regiment of Dragoons of the US Army. A and I Companies were recruited in the Fort Myer, Virginia area, B Company recruited from Virginia and Louisiana, C Company drew recruits from Tennessee, E, F, G, H recruited from New York, K Company was drawn from New Orleans. D Company was served in Florida immediately. In April 1837, the regimental headquarters was moved to Jefferson Barracks, where the 400 new recruits and their instructors participated in the School of the Trooper, learned the tactics and ways of being a dragoon, while some of their compatriots were battling the Indians in Florida; the 2nd Dragoons saw their first combat during the Second Seminole War. Company D drew first blood on 10 June 1836 in an engagement at Welika Pond, close to Fort Defiance, Florida. In December 1836, A, B, C, E, I Companies arrived in South Carolina, moved south. In January 1837, the troopers were engaged by the Seminoles at Fort Mellon only two days after their arrival.
On 9 September 1837, three Dragoon companies and two companies of Florida militia surrounded and attacked a hostile village, capturing King Philip, an important chief. The 2nd Dragoons brought the fight to the hostile Seminoles, rather than wait to be ambushed inside a fort like other
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 15,250 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning, its history and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities; the Harvard Corporation is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, its curriculum and student body were secularized during the 18th century, by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites. Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot's long tenure transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university. A. Lawrence Lowell, who followed Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard's land holdings and physical plant.
James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College; the university is organized into eleven separate academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area: its 209-acre main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge 3 miles northwest of Boston. Harvard's endowment is worth $39.2 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large residential research university; the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the university's large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic and private library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding over 18 million items; the University is cited as one of the world's top tertiary institutions by various organizations.
Harvard's alumni include eight U. S. presidents, more than thirty foreign heads of state, 62 living billionaires, 359 Rhodes Scholars, 242 Marshall Scholars. As of October 2018, 158 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or researchers. In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes and 108 Olympic medals, have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his scholar's library of some 400 volumes; the charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650. A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust".
It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches; the leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president, not a clergyman, marking a turning of the college from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence. Throughout the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will became widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties; when the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year in 1804, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency of Harvard two years which signaled the changing of the tide from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas.
In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences". Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena; when it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time; the popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" also derived from other writings to which Harvard students
Cincinnati is a major city in the U. S. state of Ohio, is the government seat of Hamilton County. Settled in 1788, the city is located at the northern side of the confluence of the Licking and Ohio rivers, the latter of which marks the state line with Kentucky; the city drives the Cincinnati–Middletown–Wilmington combined statistical area, which had a population of 2,172,191 in the 2010 census making it Ohio's largest metropolitan area. With a population of 296,943, Cincinnati is the third-largest city in Ohio and 65th in the United States, its metropolitan area is the fastest growing economic power in the Midwestern United States based on increase of economic output and it is the 28th-largest metropolitan statistical area in the U. S. Cincinnati is within a day's drive of 49.70% of the United States populace. In the nineteenth century, Cincinnati was an American boomtown in the middle of the country. Throughout much of the 19th century, it was listed among the top 10 U. S. cities by population, surpassed only by New Orleans and the older, established settlements of the United States eastern seaboard, as well as being the sixth-biggest city for a period spanning 1840 until 1860.
As Cincinnati was the first city founded after the American Revolution, as well as the first major inland city in the country, it is regarded as the first purely "American" city. Cincinnati developed with fewer immigrants and less influence from Europe than East Coast cities in the same period. However, it received a significant number of German immigrants, who founded many of the city's cultural institutions. By the end of the 19th century, with the shift from steamboats to railroads drawing off freight shipping, trade patterns had altered and Cincinnati's growth slowed considerably; the city was surpassed in population by other inland cities Chicago, which developed based on strong commodity exploitation and the railroads, St. Louis, which for decades after the Civil War served as the gateway to westward migration. Cincinnati is home to three major sports teams: the Cincinnati Reds of Major League Baseball; the city's largest institution of higher education, the University of Cincinnati, was founded in 1819 as a municipal college and is now ranked as one of the 50 largest in the United States.
Cincinnati is home to historic architecture with many structures in the urban core having remained intact for 200 years. In the late 1800s, Cincinnati was referred to as the "Paris of America", due to such ambitious architectural projects as the Music Hall, Cincinnatian Hotel, Shillito Department Store. Cincinnati is the birthplace of the 27th President of the United States. Cincinnati began in 1788 when Mathias Denman, Colonel Robert Patterson, Israel Ludlow landed at a spot at the northern bank of the Ohio opposite the mouth of the Licking and decided to settle there; the original surveyor, John Filson, named it "Losantiville". In 1790, Arthur St. Clair, the governor of the Northwest Territory, changed the name of the settlement to "Cincinnati" in honor of the Society of the Cincinnati, made up of Revolutionary War veterans, of which he was a member; the introduction of steamboats on the Ohio River in 1811 opened up the city's trade to more rapid shipping, the city established commercial ties with St. Louis and New Orleans downriver.
Cincinnati was incorporated as a city on March 1, 1819. Exporting pork products and hay, it became a center of pork processing in the region. From 1810 to 1830 its population nearly tripled, from 9,642 to 24,831. Completion of the Miami and Erie Canal in 1827 to Middletown, Ohio further stimulated businesses, employers struggled to hire enough people to fill positions; the city had a labor shortage until large waves of immigration by Irish and Germans in the late 1840s. The city grew over the next two decades, reaching 115,000 people by the year 1850. Construction on the Miami and Erie Canal began on July 21, 1825, when it was called the Miami Canal, related to its origin at the Great Miami River; the first section of the canal was opened for business in 1827. In 1827, the canal connected Cincinnati to nearby Middletown. During this period of rapid expansion and prominence, residents of Cincinnati began referring to the city as the Queen City. After the steamboats, railroads were the next major form of commercial transportation to come to Cincinnati.
In 1836, the Little Miami Railroad was chartered. Construction began soon after, to connect Cincinnati with the Mad River and Lake Erie Railroad, provide access to the ports of the Sandusky Bay on Lake Erie. Cincinnati acted as a "border town" during the slave-owning period between 1810 and 1863, its location, on the border between the free state of Ohio and the slave state of Kentucky, made it a prominent location for slaves to escape the slave-owning south. Many prominent abolitionists called Cincinnati their home during this period, made it a popular stop on the Underground Railroad. In 2004, the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center was completed along Freedom Way in Downtown, honoring the city's past involvement in the Underground Railroad. In 1859, Cincinnati laid out six streetcar lines. By 1872, Cincinnatians could travel on the streetcars within the city and transfer to rail cars for travel to the hill communities; the Cincinnati Inclined Plane Company began transporting people t
Spring Grove Cemetery
Spring Grove Cemetery and Arboretum is a nonprofit garden cemetery and arboretum located at 4521 Spring Grove Avenue, Ohio. It is the second largest cemetery in the United States and is recognized as a US National Historic Landmark; the cemetery dates from 1844, when members of the Cincinnati Horticultural Society formed a cemetery association. They took their inspiration from contemporary rural cemeteries such as Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris, Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts; the numerous springs and groves suggested the name "Spring Grove". On December 1, 1844 Salmon P. Chase and others prepared the Articles of Incorporation; the cemetery was designed by Howard Daniels and formally chartered on January 21, 1845. The first burial took place on September 1, 1845. In 1855, Adolph Strauch, a renowned landscape architect, was hired to beautify the grounds, his sense and layout of the "garden cemetery" made of lakes and shrubs, is what visitors today still see. He created a more open landscape by setting limits on private enclosures and monument heights.
The results of the redesign earned Strauch praise in the U. S. and abroad, including from Frederick Law Olmsted and the French landscape architect Edouard André. On March 29, 2007, the cemetery was designated a National Historic Landmark; the Spring Grove Cemetery Chapel is listed separately on the National Register of Historic Places. On October 23, 2013, cemetery staff removed a large and disturbing SpongeBob SquarePants headstone from the grave of U. S. Army Corporal another for her still-living sister a day after her funeral; the family believed. In February 2014, both parties agreed to replace the statues with granite slabs hiding them from passersby. Spring Grove encompasses 733 acres of which 400 acres are landscaped and maintained, its grounds include 12 ponds, many fine tombstones and memorials, various examples of Gothic Revival architecture. As of 2005, its National Champion trees were Halesia diptera. See Category:Burials at Spring Grove Cemetery. Jacob Ammen, Civil War general Nicholas Longworth Anderson, Civil War colonel Joshua Hall Bates, Civil War general George K. Brady, United States Army officer.
Commander of the Department of Alaska Emma Lucy Braun, botanist Charles Elwood Brown, Civil War Brevet Brigadier General and U. S. Representative Sidney Burbank, Civil War colonel Jacob Burnet, US Senator Samuel Fenton Cary, prohibitionist Kate Chase, daughter of Salmon Chase and Washington, D. C. Civil War socialite Salmon P. Chase, Chief Justice of the United States Henry M. Cist, Civil War brevet brigadier general Levi Coffin, Quaker abolitionist Arthur F. Devereux, Brevet Brigadier General during the Civil War. S. Senator, American Civil War Captain Manning Force, Civil War Brevet Brigadier General, Medal of Honor recipient James Gamble, co-founder of Procter & Gamble Company Kenner Garrard, Civil War general Heinie Groh, Cincinnati Reds Hall of Fame third baseman Theodore Sommers Henderson, Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church Andrew Hickenlooper, Civil War general Joseph Hooker, Civil War general and commander of the Army of the Potomac at the Battle of Chancellorsville Waite Hoyt, professional baseball player.