Pluto is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune. It is the largest known plutoid. Pluto was discovered by Clyde Tombaugh in 1930 and was considered to be the ninth planet from the Sun. After 1992, its status as a planet was questioned following the discovery of several objects of similar size in the Kuiper belt. In 2005, Eris, a dwarf planet in the scattered disc, 27% more massive than Pluto, was discovered; this led the International Astronomical Union to define the term "planet" formally in 2006, during their 26th General Assembly. That definition excluded reclassified it as a dwarf planet. Pluto is the largest and second-most-massive known dwarf planet in the Solar System, the ninth-largest and tenth-most-massive known object directly orbiting the Sun, it is less massive than Eris. Like other Kuiper belt objects, Pluto is made of ice and rock and is small—about one-sixth the mass of the Moon and one-third its volume, it has a moderately eccentric and inclined orbit during which it ranges from 30 to 49 astronomical units or AU from the Sun.
This means that Pluto periodically comes closer to the Sun than Neptune, but a stable orbital resonance with Neptune prevents them from colliding. Light from the Sun takes about 5.5 hours to reach Pluto at its average distance. Pluto has five known moons: Charon, Nix and Hydra. Pluto and Charon are sometimes considered a binary system because the barycenter of their orbits does not lie within either body; the New Horizons spacecraft performed a flyby of Pluto on July 14, 2015, becoming the first spacecraft to do so. During its brief flyby, New Horizons made detailed measurements and observations of Pluto and its moons. In September 2016, astronomers announced that the reddish-brown cap of the north pole of Charon is composed of tholins, organic macromolecules that may be ingredients for the emergence of life, produced from methane and other gases released from the atmosphere of Pluto and transferred about 19,000 km to the orbiting moon. In the 1840s, Urbain Le Verrier used Newtonian mechanics to predict the position of the then-undiscovered planet Neptune after analyzing perturbations in the orbit of Uranus.
Subsequent observations of Neptune in the late 19th century led astronomers to speculate that Uranus's orbit was being disturbed by another planet besides Neptune. In 1906, Percival Lowell—a wealthy Bostonian who had founded Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona, in 1894—started an extensive project in search of a possible ninth planet, which he termed "Planet X". By 1909, Lowell and William H. Pickering had suggested several possible celestial coordinates for such a planet. Lowell and his observatory conducted his search until his death to no avail. Unknown to Lowell, his surveys had captured two faint images of Pluto on March 19 and April 7, 1915, but they were not recognized for what they were. There are fourteen other known precovery observations, with the earliest made by the Yerkes Observatory on August 20, 1909. Percival's widow, Constance Lowell, entered into a ten-year legal battle with the Lowell Observatory over her husband's legacy, the search for Planet X did not resume until 1929.
Vesto Melvin Slipher, the observatory director, gave the job of locating Planet X to 23-year-old Clyde Tombaugh, who had just arrived at the observatory after Slipher had been impressed by a sample of his astronomical drawings. Tombaugh's task was to systematically image the night sky in pairs of photographs examine each pair and determine whether any objects had shifted position. Using a blink comparator, he shifted back and forth between views of each of the plates to create the illusion of movement of any objects that had changed position or appearance between photographs. On February 18, 1930, after nearly a year of searching, Tombaugh discovered a possible moving object on photographic plates taken on January 23 and 29. A lesser-quality photograph taken on January 21 helped confirm the movement. After the observatory obtained further confirmatory photographs, news of the discovery was telegraphed to the Harvard College Observatory on March 13, 1930. Pluto has yet to complete a full orbit of the Sun since its discovery because one Plutonian year is 247.68 years long.
The discovery made headlines around the globe. Lowell Observatory, which had the right to name the new object, received more than 1,000 suggestions from all over the world, ranging from Atlas to Zymal. Tombaugh urged Slipher to suggest a name for the new object before someone else did. Constance Lowell proposed Zeus Percival and Constance; these suggestions were disregarded. The name Pluto, after the god of the underworld, was proposed by Venetia Burney, an eleven-year-old schoolgirl in Oxford, interested in classical mythology, she suggested it in a conversation with her grandfather Falconer Madan, a former librarian at the University of Oxford's Bodleian Library, who passed the name to astronomy professor Herbert Hall Turner, who cabled it to colleagues in the United States. Each member of the Lowell Observatory was allowed to vote on a short-list of three potential names: Minerva and Pluto. Pluto received every vote; the name was announced on May 1, 1930. Upon the announcement, Madan gave Venetia £5 as
County Longford is a county in Ireland. It is in the province of Leinster, it is named after the town of Longford. Longford County Council is the local authority for the county; the population of the county was 40,873 at the 2016 census. The county is based on the historic Gaelic territory of Annaly known as Teffia. With an area of 1,091 km2 and a population of 40,873, Longford is the fourth smallest of the 32 counties in area and second smallest in terms of population, it is the fourth smallest of Leinster's 12 counties by size and smallest by population. It borders counties Cavan to the northeast, Westmeath to the southeast, Roscommon to the southwest and Leitrim to the northwest. Most of Longford lies in the basin of the River Shannon with Lough Ree forming much of the county's western boundary; the north-eastern part of the county, drains towards the River Erne and Lough Gowna. Lakeland, bogland and wetland typify Longford's low-lying landscapes: the highest point of the county is in the north-west - Carn Clonhugh near Drumlish at 279 m.
Cairn Hill is the site of a television transmitter broadcasting to much of the Irish midlands. In the list of Irish counties by highest point, Longford ranks third lowest. Only Meath and Westmeath have lower maxima. In general, the northern third of the county is hilly, forming part of the drumlin belt and Esker Riada stretching across the northern midlands of Ireland; the southern parts of the county are low-lying, with extensive areas of raised bogland and the land being of better quality for grazing and tillage. The River Shannon marks the county's border with Roscommon while the Rivers Inny and Tang form much of the boundary with Westmeath; the Royal Canal flows through the south of the county terminating at Cloondara at the Shannon. The canal was refurbished and reopened in 2010. Notable lakes include Kinale Lough and Lough Gowna on the Cavan border, Lough Forbes on the Roscommon border and of course Lough Ree in the south where Longford and Roscommon meet. With a population of 10,310, Longford Town is the largest town in the county followed by Ballymahon, Edgeworthstown and Granard.
The county is one half of the Dáil constituency of Longford–Westmeath. The territory corresponding to County Longford was a frontier colony of the Kingdom of Meath in the first millennium. Between the fifth and twelfth centuries the territory was called the kingdom of Tethbae ruled by various tuath such as the Cairpre Gabra in the north. Tethbae referred to an area north of the River Inny approximating to present day County Longford. In the year AD 1070, Tethbae was conquered by the Ó Cuinns, Ó Fearghails, other Conmhaícne tribes, henceforth being known as Muintir Annaly, so named after "Anghaile" the great-grandfather of Fearghail O'Farrell. Furthermore County Longford was called Upper Conmaicne, to distinguish it from south Leitrim called Lower Conmaicne, because both districts were ruled by the descendants of Conmac, son of Fergus and Queen Meadbh of Connacht. Following the Norman invasion of the 12th century, Annaly was granted to Hugh de Lacy as part of the Liberty of Meath. An English settlement was established at Granard, with Norman Cistercian monasteries being established at Abbeylara and Abbeyshrule, Augustinian monasteries being established at Abbeyderg and at Saints' Island on the shore of Lough Ree.
Monastic remains at Ardagh, Abbeyderg, Inchcleraun Island in Lough Ree, Inchmore Island in Lough Gowna are reminders of the county's long Christian history. However, by the 14th century, English influence in Ireland was on the wane; the town of Granard was sacked by Edward Bruce's army in 1315, the O'Farrells soon recovered complete control over the territory. Annaly became Longphoirt, now Longford, after O'Farrell's fortress of this name; the county was shired in 1586 in the reign of Elizabeth I from the northern portion of Westmeath, but English control was not established until the aftermath of the Nine Years' War. County Longford was added to Leinster by James I in 1608, with the county being divided into six baronies and its boundaries being defined; the county was planted by English and Scottish landowners in 1620, with much of the O'Farrell lands being confiscated and granted to new owners. The change in control was completed during the Cromwellian plantations of the 1650s. On these lands in County Longford, are the historic ruins of the Coolamber Hall House, besieged by one of the Cromwells.
The county was a centre of the 1798 rebellion, when the French expeditionary force led by Humbert which had landed at Killala were defeated outside the village of Ballinamuck on 8 September by a British army led by Cornwallis. Considerable reprisals were inflicted by the British on the civilian inhabitants of the county in the aftermath of the battle. A revolutionary spirit was again woken in the county during the Irish War of Independence when the North Longford flying column, led by Seán Mac Eoin, became one of the most active units on the Irish side during that war. There are many national and secondary schools located in the county such as Moyne Community School, St. Mels and the Convent. Longford’s population growth during the period 2002-2006 has been stronger than the National average. Agriculture is an important facet for the economy in County Longford. There are 73,764 hectares of area farmed in the county. There are ap
Second Boer War
The Second Boer War was fought between the British Empire and two Boer states, the South African Republic and the Orange Free State, over the Empire's influence in South Africa. It is known variously as the Boer War, Anglo-Boer War, or South African War. Initial Boer attacks were successful, although British reinforcements reversed these, the war continued for years with Boer guerrilla warfare, until harsh British counter-measures brought them to terms; the war under-prepared. The Boers were well armed and struck first, besieging Ladysmith and Mahikeng in early 1900, winning important battles at Colenso and Stormberg. Staggered, the British fought back. General Redvers Buller was replaced by Lord Kitchener, they relieved the three besieged cities, invaded the two Boer republics in late 1900. The onward marches of the British Army, well over 400,000 men, were so overwhelming that the Boers did not fight staged battles in defense of their homeland; the British seized control of all of the Orange Free State and Transvaal, as the civilian leadership went into hiding or exile.
In conventional terms, the war was over. The British annexed the two countries in 1900. Back home, Britain's Conservative government wanted to capitalize on this success and use it to maneuver an early general election, dubbed a "khaki election" to give the government another six years of power in London. British military efforts were aided by Cape Colony, the Colony of Natal and some native African allies, further supported by volunteers from the British Empire, including Southern Africa, the Australian colonies, Canada and New Zealand. All other nations were neutral, but public opinion was hostile to the British. Inside the UK and its Empire there was significant opposition to the Second Boer War; the Boers refused to surrender. They reverted to guerrilla warfare under new generals Louis Botha, Jan Smuts, Christiaan de Wet and Koos de la Rey. Two years of surprise attacks and quick escapes followed; as guerrillas without uniforms, the Boer fighters blended into the farmlands, which provided hiding places and horses.
The UK's response to guerilla warfare was to set up complex nets of block houses, strong points, barbed wire fences, partitioning off the entire conquered territory. In addition, civilian farms and live stock were destroyed in the scorched earth strategy. Survivors were forced into concentration camps. Large proportions of these civilians died of hunger and disease the children. British mounted infantry units systematically tracked down the mobile Boer guerrilla units; the battles at this stage were small operations. Few died during combat, though many of disease; the war ended in surrender and British terms with the Treaty of Vereeniging in May 1902. Both former republics were incorporated into the Union of South Africa in 1910, as part of the British Empire; the conflict is referred to as the Boer War, since the First Boer War was a much smaller conflict. "Boer" is the common term for Afrikaans-speaking white South Africans descended from the Dutch East India Company's original settlers at the Cape of Good Hope.
It is known as the Anglo-Boer War among some South Africans. In Afrikaans it may be called the Anglo-Boereoorlog, Tweede Boereoorlog, Tweede Vryheidsoorlog or Engelse oorlog. In South Africa it is called the South African War; the complex origins of the war resulted from more than a century of conflict between the Boers and Britain, but of particular immediate importance was the question as to who would control and benefit most from the lucrative Witwatersrand gold mines. The first European settlement in South Africa was founded at the Cape of Good Hope in 1652, thereafter administered as part of the Dutch Cape Colony; the Cape was governed by the Dutch East India Company until its bankruptcy in the late 1700s, thereafter directly by the Netherlands. The British occupied the Cape three times during the Napoleonic Wars as a result of political turmoil in the Netherlands, the occupation became permanent after British forces defeated the Dutch at the Battle of Blaauwberg in 1806. At the time, the colony was home to about 26,000 colonists settled under Dutch rule.
A relative majority still represented old Dutch families brought to the Cape during the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. Cleavages were likelier to occur along socio-economic rather than ethnic lines and broadly speaking the colonists included a number of distinct subgroups, namely the Boers; the Boers were itinerant farmers who lived on the colony's frontiers, seeking better pastures for their livestock. Many Boers who were dissatisfied with aspects of British administration, in particular with Britain's abolition of slavery on 1 December 1834, elected to migrate away from British rule in what became known as the Great Trek. Around 15,000 trekking Boers followed the eastern coast towards Natal. After Britain annexed Natal in 1843, they journeyed further northwards into South Africa's vast eastern interior. There they established two independent Boer republics: the South African Republic and the Orange Free State. Britain recognised the two Boer republics in 1852 and 1854, but attempted British annexation of the Transvaal in 1877 led to the First Boer War in 1880–81
Royal Military Academy, Woolwich
The Royal Military Academy at Woolwich, in south-east London, was a British Army military academy for the training of commissioned officers of the Royal Artillery and Royal Engineers. It also trained officers of the Royal Corps of Signals and other technical corps. RMA Woolwich was known as "The Shop" because its first building was a converted workshop of the Woolwich Arsenal. An attempt had been made by the Board of Ordnance in 1720 to set up an academy within its Arsenal to provide training and education for prospective officers of its new Regiment of Artillery and Corps of Engineers. A new building was being constructed in readiness for the Academy and funds had been secured through investment in the South Sea Company. After this false start, the Academy was opened by authority of a Royal Warrant in 1741: it was intended, in the words of its first charter, to produce "good officers of Artillery and perfect Engineers". Its'gentlemen cadets' ranged in age from 10 to 30. To begin with they were attached to the marching companies of the Royal Artillery, but in 1744 they were formed into their own company, forty in number overseen by a Captain-Lieutenant.
To begin with the cadets were accommodated in lodgings in the town of Woolwich, but this arrangement was deemed unsatisfactory so in 1751 a Cadets' Barracks was built just within the south boundary wall of the Warren and the cadets had to adjust to a more strict military discipline. Education in the Academy focused at first on mathematics and the scientific principles of gunnery and fortification. In addition to their theoretical studies, the cadets shared in what was called'the Practice' of gunnery, bridge building, magazine technique and artillery work. While an Artillery officer attended each class to keep order, teaching in the Academy was provided by civilians: a First Master, a Second Master and additional tutors in French, Arithmetic and Drawing. In 1764 the Royal Academy had the word'Military' added to its title, at the same time a senior officer was appointed to serve as Lieutenant-Governor. Moreover, the institution was split: younger cadets entered the Lower Academy, where they were taught reading, arithmetic, Latin and drawing.
If they performed well in examinations they were allowed to proceed to the Upper Academy, where they learned military skills and sciences. The possibility of moving the Royal Military Academy out of the Warren was mooted as early as 1783, as it was fast outgrowing the available accommodation. At first costs precluded this possibility, but James Wyatt, the Board of Ordnance Architect, was commissioned to design a new complex of buildings to stand, on a site facing the Royal Artillery Barracks, at the southern edge of Woolwich Common. Wyatt's Academy was built of yellow brick in the Tudor Gothic style, it consisted of a central block flanked by a pair of accommodation blocks, linked by arcaded walkways. The central block contained a library and offices. Behind the central block Wyatt placed a large dining hall flanked by spacious quadrangles having service buildings around the sides.128 cadets moved to the new Academy: these comprised the four senior years. Of the younger cadets, sixty were kept at the Warren and another sixty were sent to a new college for junior cadets at Great Marlow.
Practical teaching continued to be given in the working context of the Arsenal. In 1810, military cadets of the East India Company, educated at the Academy, were moved to a new college at Addiscombe. During the years that followed the status of the cadets changed: rather than being considered military personnel, as had been the case, they were removed from the muster roll and they began to be charged fees for attendance. In this way the Academy took on something of the ethos of an English public school. In 1844 the Academy was described by Edward Mogg as accommodating: "about one hundred and thirty young gentlemen, the sons of military men, the more respectable classes, who are here instructed in mathematics, land-surveying, with mapping, engineering, the use of the musket and sword exercise, field-pieces; this department is under the direction of a lieutenant-general, an instructor, a professor of mathematics, a professor of fortification. Following the demise of the Board of Ordnance in the wake of the Crimean War the Academy was inspected by a commission which recommended changes: the minimum age for cadets was raised to fifteen and more specialist training was added.
As part of these reforms the Academy complex was enlarged in the 1860s, with a view to accommod
A red dwarf is a small and cool star on the main sequence, of M spectral type. Red dwarfs range in mass from about 0.075 to about 0.50 solar mass and have a surface temperature of less than 4,000 K. Sometimes K-type main-sequence stars, with masses between 0.50-0.8 solar mass, are included. Red dwarfs are by far the most common type of star in the Milky Way, at least in the neighborhood of the Sun, but because of their low luminosity, individual red dwarfs cannot be observed. From Earth, not one is visible to the naked eye. Proxima Centauri, the nearest star to the Sun, is a red dwarf, as are fifty of the sixty nearest stars. According to some estimates, red dwarfs make up three-quarters of the stars in the Milky Way. Stellar models indicate that red dwarfs less than 0.35 M☉ are convective. Hence the helium produced by the thermonuclear fusion of hydrogen is remixed throughout the star, avoiding helium buildup at the core, thereby prolonging the period of fusion. Red dwarfs therefore develop slowly, maintaining a constant luminosity and spectral type for trillions of years, until their fuel is depleted.
Because of the comparatively short age of the universe, no red dwarfs exist at advanced stages of evolution. The term "red dwarf" when used to refer to a star does not have a strict definition. One of the earliest uses of the term was in 1915, used to contrast "red" dwarf stars from hotter "blue" dwarf stars, it became established use. In terms of which spectral types qualify as red dwarfs, different researchers picked different limits, for example K8–M5 or "later than K5". Dwarf M star, abbreviated dM, was used, but sometimes it included stars of spectral type K. In modern usage, the definition of a red dwarf still varies; when explicitly defined, it includes late K- and early to mid-M-class stars, but in many cases it is restricted just to M-class stars. In some cases all K stars are included as red dwarfs, even earlier stars; the coolest true main-sequence stars are thought to have spectral types around L2 or L3, but many objects cooler than about M6 or M7 are brown dwarfs, insufficiently massive to sustain hydrogen-1 fusion.
Red dwarfs are very-low-mass stars. As a result, they have low pressures, a low fusion rate, hence, a low temperature; the energy generated is the product of nuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium by way of the proton–proton chain mechanism. Hence, these stars emit little light, sometimes as little as 1⁄10,000 that of the Sun; the largest red dwarfs have only about 10% of the Sun's luminosity. In general, red dwarfs less than 0.35 M☉ transport energy from the core to the surface by convection. Convection occurs because of opacity of the interior, which has a high density compared to the temperature; as a result, energy transfer by radiation is decreased, instead convection is the main form of energy transport to the surface of the star. Above this mass, a red dwarf will have a region around its core; because low-mass red dwarfs are convective, helium does not accumulate at the core, compared to larger stars such as the Sun, they can burn a larger proportion of their hydrogen before leaving the main sequence.
As a result, red dwarfs have estimated lifespans far longer than the present age of the universe, stars less than 0.8 M☉ have not had time to leave the main sequence. The lower the mass of a red dwarf, the longer the lifespan, it is believed that the lifespan of these stars exceeds the expected 10-billion-year lifespan of our Sun by the third or fourth power of the ratio of the solar mass to their masses. As the proportion of hydrogen in a red dwarf is consumed, the rate of fusion declines and the core starts to contract; the gravitational energy released by this size reduction is converted into heat, carried throughout the star by convection. According to computer simulations, the minimum mass a red dwarf must have in order to evolve into a red giant is 0.25 M☉. The less massive the star, the longer this evolutionary process takes, it has been calculated that a 0.16 M☉ red dwarf would stay on the main sequence for 2.5 trillion years, followed by five billion years as a blue dwarf, during which the star would have one third of the Sun's luminosity and a surface temperature of 6,500–8,500 kelvins.
The fact that red dwarfs and other low-mass stars still remain on the main sequence when more massive stars have moved off the main sequence allows the age of star clusters to be estimated by finding the mass at which the stars move off the main sequence. This provides a lower limit to the age of the Universe and allows formation timescales to be placed upon the structures within the Milky Way, such as the Galactic halo and Galactic disk. All observed red dwarfs contain "metals", which in astronomy are elements heavier than hydrogen and helium; the Big Bang model predicts that the first generation of stars should have only hydrogen and trace amounts of lithium, hence would be of low metallicity. With their extreme lifespans, any red dwarfs that were a part of that first generation should still exist today. Low metallicity red dwarfs, are rare. There are several explanations for the missing population of metal-poor red dwarfs; the preferred explanation is. Large stars burn out and exp
Egypt the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, across the Mediterranean lie Greece and Cyprus, although none share a land border with Egypt. Egypt has one of the longest histories of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 6th–4th millennia BCE. Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt saw some of the earliest developments of writing, urbanisation, organised religion and central government. Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of Memphis, Thebes and the Valley of the Kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of scientific and popular interest. Egypt's long and rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, which has endured, assimilated, various foreign influences, including Greek, Roman, Ottoman Turkish, Nubian.
Egypt was an early and important centre of Christianity, but was Islamised in the seventh century and remains a predominantly Muslim country, albeit with a significant Christian minority. From the 16th to the beginning of the 20th century, Egypt was ruled by foreign imperial powers: The Ottoman Empire and the British Empire. Modern Egypt dates back to 1922, when it gained nominal independence from the British Empire as a monarchy. However, British military occupation of Egypt continued, many Egyptians believed that the monarchy was an instrument of British colonialism. Following the 1952 revolution, Egypt expelled British soldiers and bureaucrats and ended British occupation, nationalized the British-held Suez Canal, exiled King Farouk and his family, declared itself a republic. In 1958 it merged with Syria to form the United Arab Republic, which dissolved in 1961. Throughout the second half of the 20th century, Egypt endured social and religious strife and political instability, fighting several armed conflicts with Israel in 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973, occupying the Gaza Strip intermittently until 1967.
In 1978, Egypt signed the Camp David Accords withdrawing from the Gaza Strip and recognising Israel. The country continues to face challenges, from political unrest, including the recent 2011 revolution and its aftermath, to terrorism and economic underdevelopment. Egypt's current government is a presidential republic headed by President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, described by a number of watchdogs as authoritarian. Islam is the official religion of Egypt and Arabic is its official language. With over 95 million inhabitants, Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa, the Middle East, the Arab world, the third-most populous in Africa, the fifteenth-most populous in the world; the great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 40,000 square kilometres, where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo and other major cities in the Nile Delta.
The sovereign state of Egypt is a transcontinental country considered to be a regional power in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world, a middle power worldwide. Egypt's economy is one of the largest and most diversified in the Middle East, is projected to become one of the largest in the world in the 21st century. In 2016, Egypt became Africa's second largest economy. Egypt is a founding member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab League, African Union, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. "Miṣr" is the Classical Quranic Arabic and modern official name of Egypt, while "Maṣr" is the local pronunciation in Egyptian Arabic. The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with other Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew "מִצְרַיִם"; the oldest attestation of this name for Egypt is the Akkadian "mi-iṣ-ru" related to miṣru/miṣirru/miṣaru, meaning "border" or "frontier". There is evidence of rock carvings in desert oases. In the 10th millennium BCE, a culture of hunter-gatherers and fishers was replaced by a grain-grinding culture.
Climate changes or overgrazing around 8000 BCE began to desiccate the pastoral lands of Egypt, forming the Sahara. Early tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River where they developed a settled agricultural economy and more centralised society. By about 6000 BCE, a Neolithic culture rooted in the Nile Valley. During the Neolithic era, several predynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Lower Egypt; the Badarian culture and the successor Naqada series are regarded as precursors to dynastic Egypt. The earliest known Lower Egyptian site, predates the Badarian by about seven hundred years. Contemporaneous Lower Egyptian communities coexisted with their southern counterparts for more than two thousand years, remaining culturally distinct, but maintaining frequent contact through trade; the earliest known evidence of Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions appeared during the predynastic period on Naqada III pottery vessels, dated to about 3200 BCE. A unified kingdom was founded c. 3150 BCE
Makemake is a dwarf planet and the second largest Kuiper belt object in the classical population, with a diameter two-thirds that of Pluto. Makemake has one known satellite, S/2015 1. Makemake's low average temperature, about 30 K, means its surface is covered with methane and nitrogen ices. Makemake was discovered on March 31, 2005, by a team led by Michael E. Brown, announced on July 29, 2005, it was known as 2005 FY9 and given the minor-planet number 136472. Makemake was recognized as a dwarf planet by the International Astronomical Union in July 2008, its name derives from Makemake in the mythology of the Rapa Nui people of Easter Island. Makemake was discovered on March 31, 2005, by a team at the Palomar Observatory, led by Michael E. Brown, was announced to the public on July 29, 2005; the team had planned to delay announcing their discoveries of the bright objects Makemake and Eris until further observations and calculations were complete, but announced them both on July 29 when the discovery of another large object they had been tracking, was controversially announced on July 27 by a different team in Spain.
Despite its relative brightness, Makemake was not discovered until after many much fainter Kuiper belt objects. Most searches for minor planets are conducted close to the ecliptic, due to the greater likelihood of finding objects there, it escaped detection during the earlier surveys due to its high orbital inclination, the fact that it was at its farthest distance from the ecliptic at the time of its discovery, in the northern constellation of Coma Berenices. Precovery images have been identified back to January 29, 1955. Besides Pluto, Makemake is the only other dwarf planet, bright enough that Clyde Tombaugh could have detected it during his search for trans-Neptunian planets around 1930. At the time of Tombaugh's survey, Makemake was only a few degrees from the ecliptic, near the border of Taurus and Auriga, at an apparent magnitude of 16.0. This position, was very near the Milky Way, Makemake would have been impossible to find against the dense background of stars. Tombaugh continued searching for some years after the discovery of Pluto, but he did not find Makemake or any other trans-Neptunian objects.
The provisional designation 2005 FY9 was given to Makemake. Before that, the discovery team used the codename "Easterbunny" for the object, because of its discovery shortly after Easter. In July 2008, in accordance with IAU rules for classical Kuiper belt objects, 2005 FY9 was given the name of a creator deity; the name of Makemake, the creator of humanity and god of fertility in the myths of the Rapa Nui, the native people of Easter Island, was chosen in part to preserve the object's connection with Easter. As of April 2019, Makemake is 52.5 AU from the Sun as far from the Sun as it reaches on its orbit. Makemake follows an orbit similar to that of Haumea: inclined at 29° and a moderate eccentricity of about 0.16. Makemake's orbit is farther from the Sun in terms of both the semi-major axis and perihelion, its orbital period is more than Pluto's 248 years and Haumea's 285 years. Both Makemake and Haumea are far from the ecliptic—the angular distance is 29°. Makemake is approaching its 2033 aphelion, whereas Haumea passed its aphelion in early 1992.
Makemake is a classical Kuiper belt object, which means its orbit lies far enough from Neptune to remain stable over the age of the Solar System. Unlike plutinos, which can cross Neptune's orbit due to their 2:3 resonance with the planet, the classical objects have perihelia further from the Sun, free from Neptune's perturbation; such objects have low eccentricities and orbit the Sun in much the same way the planets do. Makemake, however, is a member of the "dynamically hot" class of classical KBOs, meaning that it has a high inclination compared to others in its population. Makemake is coincidentally, near the 11:6 resonance with Neptune. Makemake is visually the second-brightest Kuiper belt object after Pluto, having a March opposition apparent magnitude of 17.0 in the constellation Coma Berenices. This is bright enough to be visible using a high-end amateur telescope. Combining the detection in infrared by the Spitzer Space Telescope and Herschel Space Telescope with the similarities of spectrum with Pluto yielded an estimated diameter from 1,360 to 1,480 km.
From the 2011 stellar occultation by Makemake, its dimensions have been measured to be × km. However, this analysis of the occultation data was reanalyzed, which led to the dimension estimate of × without a pole-orientation constraint. Makemake was the fourth dwarf planet recognized, because it has a bright V-band absolute magnitude of −0.44. Makemake has a high geometrical albedo of 0.81+0.01−0.02. The rotation period of Makemake is estimated at 22.83 hours. A rotation period of 7.77 hours published in 2009 turned out to be an alias of the actual rotation period. The possibility of this had been mentioned in the 2009 study, the data from that study agrees well with the 22.83 hour period. This rotation period is long for a dwarf planet. Part of this may be due to tidal acceleration from Makemake's satellite, it has been suggested that a second large, undiscovered satellite might better explain the dwarf planet's unusually long rotation. Makemake's lightcur