Paul Henry Ginsparg is a physicist. He developed the arXiv.org e-print archive. He is a graduate of Syosset High School in New York, he graduated from Harvard University with a Bachelor of Arts in physics and from Cornell University with a PhD in theoretical particle physics with a thesis titled Aspects of Symmetry Behavior in Quantum Field Theory. Ginsparg was a junior fellow and taught in the physics department at Harvard University until 1990; the pre-print archive was developed while he was a member of staff of Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1990–2001. Since 2001, Ginsparg has been a professor of Physics and Computing & Information Science at Cornell University, he has published physics papers in the areas of quantum field theory, string theory, conformal field theory, quantum gravity. He comments on the changing world of physics in the Information Age, he has been awarded the P. A. M. Award from the Special Libraries Association, named a Lingua Franca "Tech 20", elected as a Fellow of the American Physical Society, awarded a MacArthur Fellowship in 2002, received the Council of Science Editors Award for Meritorious Achievement, received the Paul Evans Peters Award from Educause, ARL, CNI.
He was a Radcliffe Institute Fellow in 2008–2009. He was named a White House Champion of Change June 2013, he has two children - a daughter, Miryam Ginsparg, a son, Noam Ginsparg. His wife is a mathematical biologist and researcher. "Creating a global knowledge network", UNESCO Expert Conference on Electronic Publishing in Science, Paris, 19–23 February 2001, Second Joint ICSU Press Fluctuating geometries in statistical mechanics and field theory, Editors François David, Paul Ginsparg, Jean Zinn-Justin, Elsevier, 1996, ISBN 978-0-444-82294-9 "First Steps toward Electronic Research Communication", Gateways to knowledge: the role of academic libraries in teaching and research, Editor Lawrence Dowler, MIT Press, 1997, ISBN 978-0-262-04159-1 Ginsparg, P.. "As We May Read". Journal of Neuroscience. 26: 9606–9608. Doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3161-06.2006. PMID 16988030. Ginsparg, P.. "Mapping subsets of scholarly information". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 101: 5236–5240. ArXiv:cs/0312018. Bibcode:2004PNAS..101.5236G.
Doi:10.1073/pnas.0308253100. PMC 387301. PMID 14766973. Bachrach, S.. "Who should own scientific papers?". Science. 281: 1459–1460. Bibcode:1998Sci...281.1459B. Doi:10.1126/science.281.5382.1459. PMID 9750115. Freedman, D.. "String-ghost interactions and the trace anomaly". Physical Review D. 36: 1800–1818. Bibcode:1987PhRvD..36.1800F. Doi:10.1103/physrevd.36.1800. PMID 9958364. Ginsparg, P.. "On toroidal compactification of heterotic superstrings". Physical Review D. 35: 648–654. Bibcode:1987PhRvD..35..648G. Doi:10.1103/physrevd.35.648. PMID 9957701. Eprints -authored by Ginsparg at arXiv.org "Paul Ginsparg", Berlin 6 Open Access Conference Quick Study: Paul Ginsparg ’77, JF ’81, RI ’09
In physics, the Kondo effect describes the scattering of conduction electrons in a metal due to magnetic impurities, resulting in a characteristic change in electrical resistivity with temperature. The effect was first described by Jun Kondo, who applied third-order perturbation theory to the problem to account for s-d electron scattering. Kondo's model predicted that the scattering rate of conduction electrons of the magnetic impurity should diverge as the temperature approaches 0 K. Extended to a lattice of magnetic impurities, the Kondo effect explains the formation of heavy fermions and Kondo insulators in intermetallic compounds those involving rare earth elements like cerium and ytterbium, actinide elements like uranium; the Kondo effect has been observed in quantum dot systems. The temperature dependence of the resistivity including the Kondo effect is written as: ρ = ρ 0 + a T 2 + c m ln μ T + b T 5, where ρ0 is the residual resistance, aT2 shows the contribution from the Fermi liquid properties, the term bT5 is from the lattice vibrations.
Jun Kondo derived the third term of the logarithmic dependence. Kondo's model was derived using perturbation theory, but methods used non-perturbative techniques to refine his result; these improvements produced a finite resistivity but retained the feature of a resistance minimum at a non-zero temperature. One defines the Kondo temperature as the energy scale limiting the validity of the Kondo results; the Anderson impurity model and accompanying Wilsonian renormalization theory were an important contribution to understanding the underlying physics of the problem. Based on the Schrieffer-Wolff transformation, it was shown that Kondo model lies in the strong coupling regime of the Anderson impurity model; the Schrieffer-Wolff transformation projects out the high energy charge excitations in Anderson impurity model, obtaining the Kondo model as an effective Hamiltonian. The Kondo effect can be considered as an example of asymptotic freedom, i.e. a situation where the coupling becomes non-perturbatively strong at low temperatures and low energies.
In the Kondo problem, the coupling refers to the interaction between the localized magnetic impurities and the itinerant electrons. Extended to a lattice of magnetic impurities, the Kondo effect explains the formation of heavy fermions and Kondo insulators in intermetallic compounds those involving rare earth elements like cerium and ytterbium, actinide elements like uranium. In heavy fermion materials, the nonperturbative growth of the interaction leads to quasi-electrons with masses up to thousands of times the free electron mass, i.e. the electrons are slowed by the interactions. In a number of instances they are superconductors. More it is believed that a manifestation of the Kondo effect is necessary for understanding the unusual metallic delta-phase of plutonium. More the Kondo effect has been observed in quantum dot systems. In such systems, a quantum dot with at least one unpaired electron behaves as a magnetic impurity, when the dot is coupled to a metallic conduction band, the conduction electrons can scatter off the dot.
This is analogous to the more traditional case of a magnetic impurity in a metal. In 2012, Beri and Cooper proposed a topological Kondo effect could be found with Majorana fermions, while it has been shown that quantum simulations with ultracold atoms may demonstrate the effect. In 2017, teams from the Vienna University of Technology and Rice University conducted experiments into the development of new materials and theoretical work experimenting with structures made from the metals cerium and palladium in specific combinations, respectively; the results of these experiments were published in December 2017, contributed to theoretical work being undertaken by Dr. Hsin-Hua Lai and his team at Rice University, who realized the potential to create an new material, they "stumbled upon" a model, found that "the mass had gone from like 1,000 times the mass of an electron to zero". This is a characteristic of a Weyl semimetal; the team dubbed this new quantum material Weyl-Kondo semimetal. Kondo Effect - 40 Years after the Discovery - special issue of the Journal of the Physical Society of Japan The Kondo Problem to Heavy Fermions - Monograph on the Kondo effect by A.
C. Hewson Exotic Kondo Effects in Metals - Monograph on newer versions of the Kondo effect in non-magnetic contexts Correlated electrons in δ-plutonium within a dynamical mean-field picture, Nature 410, 793. Nature article exploring the links of the Kondo effect and plutonium
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 15,250 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning, its history and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities; the Harvard Corporation is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, its curriculum and student body were secularized during the 18th century, by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites. Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot's long tenure transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university. A. Lawrence Lowell, who followed Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard's land holdings and physical plant.
James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College; the university is organized into eleven separate academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area: its 209-acre main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge 3 miles northwest of Boston. Harvard's endowment is worth $39.2 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large residential research university; the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the university's large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic and private library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding over 18 million items; the University is cited as one of the world's top tertiary institutions by various organizations.
Harvard's alumni include eight U. S. presidents, more than thirty foreign heads of state, 62 living billionaires, 359 Rhodes Scholars, 242 Marshall Scholars. As of October 2018, 158 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or researchers. In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes and 108 Olympic medals, have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his scholar's library of some 400 volumes; the charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650. A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust".
It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches; the leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president, not a clergyman, marking a turning of the college from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence. Throughout the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will became widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties; when the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year in 1804, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency of Harvard two years which signaled the changing of the tide from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas.
In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences". Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena; when it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time; the popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" also derived from other writings to which Harvard students
Murray Gell-Mann is an American physicist who received the 1969 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on the theory of elementary particles. He is the Robert Andrews Millikan Professor of Theoretical Physics Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology, a distinguished fellow and co-founder of the Santa Fe Institute, a professor of physics at the University of New Mexico, the Presidential Professor of Physics and Medicine at the University of Southern California. Gell-Mann has spent several periods at CERN, among others as a John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation fellow in 1972. Gell-Mann was born in lower Manhattan into a family of Jewish immigrants from the Austro-Hungarian Empire from Chernivtsi in present-day Ukraine, his parents were Arthur Isidore Gell-Mann, who taught English as a Second Language. Propelled by an intense boyhood curiosity and love for nature and mathematics, he graduated valedictorian from the Columbia Grammar & Preparatory School and subsequently entered Yale College at the age of 15 as a member of Jonathan Edwards College.
At Yale, he participated in the William Lowell Putnam Mathematical Competition and was on the team representing Yale University that won the second prize in 1947. Gell-Mann earned a bachelor's degree in physics from Yale in 1948 and a PhD in physics from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1951, his supervisor at MIT was Victor Weisskopf. In 1958, Gell-Mann and Richard Feynman, in parallel with the independent team of George Sudarshan and Robert Marshak, discovered the chiral structures of the weak interaction in physics; this work followed the experimental discovery of the violation of parity by Chien-Shiung Wu, as suggested by Chen Ning Yang and Tsung-Dao Lee, theoretically. Gell-Mann's work in the 1950s involved discovered cosmic ray particles that came to be called kaons and hyperons. Classifying these particles led him to propose that a quantum number called strangeness would be conserved by the strong and the electromagnetic interactions, but not by the weak interactions. Another of Gell-Mann's ideas is the Gell-Mann–Okubo formula, a formula based on empirical results, but was explained by his quark model.
Gell-Mann and Abraham Pais were involved in explaining several puzzling aspects of the physics of these particles. In 1961, this led him to introduce a classification scheme for hadrons, elementary particles that participate in the strong interaction; this scheme is now explained by the quark model. Gell-Mann referred to the scheme as the Eightfold Way, because of the octets of particles in the classification. In 1964, Gell-Mann and, George Zweig went on to postulate the existence of quarks, particles of which the hadrons of this scheme are composed; the name is a reference to the novel Finnegans Wake, by James Joyce. Zweig had referred to the particles as "aces". Quarks and gluons were soon established as the underlying elementary objects in the study of the structure of hadrons, he was awarded a Nobel Prize in physics in 1969 for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions. In 1972 he and Harald Fritzsch introduced the conserved quantum number "color charge", together with Heinrich Leutwyler, they coined the term quantum chromodynamics as the gauge theory of the strong interaction.
The quark model is a part of QCD, it has been robust enough to accommodate in a natural fashion the discovery of new "flavors" of quarks, which superseded the eightfold way scheme. He is the Robert Andrews Millikan Professor of Theoretical Physics Emeritus at California Institute of Technology as well as a University Professor in the Physics and Astronomy Department of the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque, New Mexico, the Presidential Professor of Physics and Medicine at the University of Southern California, he is a member of the editorial board of the Encyclopædia Britannica. In 1984 Gell-Mann co-founded the Santa Fe Institute—a non-profit theoretical research institute in Santa Fe, New Mexico—to study complex systems and disseminate the notion of a separate interdisciplinary study of complexity theory, he was a postdoctoral fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study in 1951, a visiting research professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign from 1952 to 1953. He was a visiting associate professor at Columbia University and an associate professor at the University of Chicago in 1954–55 before moving to the California Institute of Technology, where he taught from 1955 until he retired in 1993.
During the 1990s, Gell-Mann's interest turned to the emerging study of complexity. He played a central role in the founding of the Santa Fe Institute, where he continues to work as a distinguished professor, he wrote a popular science book about these matters, The Quark and the Jaguar: Adventures in the Simple and the Complex. The title of the book is taken from a line of a poem by Arthur Sze: "The world of the quark has everything to do with a jaguar circling in the night"; the author George Johnson has written a biography of Gell-Mann, Strange Beauty: Murray Gell-Mann, the Revolution in 20th-Century Physics, shortlisted for the Royal Society Book Prize. Gell-Mann has criticized it as inaccurate; the Nobel Prize–winning physicist Philip Anderson, in his chapter on Gell-Mann from a 2011 book, says that Johnson's biography is excellent. Both Anderso
Nobel Prize in Physics
The Nobel Prize in Physics is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who have made the most outstanding contributions for humankind in the field of physics. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895 and awarded since 1901; the first Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to physicist Wilhelm Röntgen in recognition of the extraordinary services he rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays. This award is administered by the Nobel Foundation and regarded as the most prestigious award that a scientist can receive in physics, it is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death. Through 2018, a total of 209 individuals have been awarded the prize. Only three women have won the Nobel Prize in Physics: Marie Curie in 1903, Maria Goeppert Mayer in 1963, Donna Strickland in 2018. Alfred Nobel, in his last will and testament, stated that his wealth be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in the fields of physics, peace, physiology or medicine, literature.
Though Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime, the last one was written a year before he died and was signed at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris on 27 November 1895. Nobel bequeathed 94% of his total assets, 31 million Swedish kronor, to establish and endow the five Nobel Prizes. Due to the level of skepticism surrounding the will, it was not until April 26, 1897 that it was approved by the Storting; the executors of his will were Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, who formed the Nobel Foundation to take care of Nobel's fortune and organise the prizes. The members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee who were to award the Peace Prize were appointed shortly after the will was approved; the prize-awarding organisations followed: the Karolinska Institutet on June 7, the Swedish Academy on June 9, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on June 11. The Nobel Foundation reached an agreement on guidelines for how the Nobel Prize should be awarded. In 1900, the Nobel Foundation's newly created statutes were promulgated by King Oscar II.
According to Nobel's will, The Royal Swedish Academy of sciences were to award the Prize in Physics. A maximum of three Nobel laureates and two different works may be selected for the Nobel Prize in Physics. Compared with other Nobel Prizes, the nomination and selection process for the prize in Physics is long and rigorous; this is a key reason why it has grown in importance over the years to become the most important prize in Physics. The Nobel laureates are selected by the Nobel Committee for Physics, a Nobel Committee that consists of five members elected by The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. In the first stage that begins in September, around 3,000 people – selected university professors, Nobel Laureates in Physics and Chemistry, etc. – are sent confidential forms to nominate candidates. The completed nomination forms arrive at the Nobel Committee no than 31 January of the following year; these nominees are scrutinized and discussed by experts who narrow it to fifteen names. The committee submits a report with recommendations on the final candidates into the Academy, where, in the Physics Class, it is further discussed.
The Academy makes the final selection of the Laureates in Physics through a majority vote. The names of the nominees are never publicly announced, neither are they told that they have been considered for the prize. Nomination records are sealed for fifty years. While posthumous nominations are not permitted, awards can be made if the individual died in the months between the decision of the prize committee and the ceremony in December. Prior to 1974, posthumous awards were permitted; the rules for the Nobel Prize in Physics require that the significance of achievements being recognized has been "tested by time". In practice, it means that the lag between the discovery and the award is on the order of 20 years and can be much longer. For example, half of the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar for his work on stellar structure and evolution, done during the 1930s; as a downside of this approach, not all scientists live long enough for their work to be recognized.
Some important scientific discoveries are never considered for a prize, as the discoverers die by the time the impact of their work is appreciated. A Physics Nobel Prize laureate earns a gold medal, a diploma bearing a citation, a sum of money; the Nobel Prize medals, minted by Myntverket in Sweden and the Mint of Norway since 1902, are registered trademarks of the Nobel Foundation. Each medal has an image of Alfred Nobel in left profile on the obverse; the Nobel Prize medals for Physics, Physiology or Medicine, Literature have identical obverses, showing the image of Alfred Nobel and the years of his birth and death. Nobel's portrait appears on the obverse of the Nobel Peace Prize medal and the Medal for the Prize in Economics, but with a different design; the image on the reverse of a medal varies according to the institution awarding the prize. The reverse sides of the Nobel Prize medals for Chemistry and Physics share the same design of Nature, as a Goddess, whose veil is held up by the Genius of Science.
These medals and the ones for Physiology/Medicine and Literature were designed by Erik Lindberg in 1902. Nobel laureates receive a diploma directly from the hands of the
Saco is a city in York County, United States. The population was 18,482 at the 2010 census, it is home to Ferry Beach State Park, Funtown Splashtown USA, Thornton Academy, as well as General Dynamics Armament Systems, a subsidiary of the defense contractor General Dynamics. Saco sees much tourism during summer months due to its amusement parks, Ferry Beach State Park, proximity to Old Orchard Beach. Saco is Maine metropolitan statistical area. Saco's twin-city is Biddeford; this was territory of the Abenaki tribe whose fortified village was located up the Sokokis Trail at Pequawket. In July 1607, 500 wariors led by sakmow of the Mi'kmaq First Nations Henri Membertou was revenge for murder and similar acts of hostility; the group raided on the Armouchiquois town, present-day Saco, killing 20 of their braves, including two of their leaders and Marchin. The township was granted in 1630 by the Plymouth Company to Thomas Lewis and Richard Bonython, extended 4 miles along the sea, by 8 miles inland. Settled in 1631 as part of Winter Harbor.
It would be reorganized in 1653 by the Massachusetts General Court as Saco, which would be renamed Biddeford in 1718. The settlement was attacked by Indians in 1675 during King Philip's War. Settlers moved to the mouth of the river, the houses and mills they left behind were burned. Saco lay in contested territory between New England and New France, which recruited the Indians as allies. In 1689 during King William's War, it was again attacked, with some residents taken captive. Hostilities intensified from 1702 until 1709 ceased in 1713 with the Treaty of Portsmouth; the community was in 1718 incorporated as Biddeford. Peace would not last and the town was again attacked in 1723 during Dummer's War, when it contained 14 garrisons. In August and September 1723, there were Indian raids on Saco and Dover, New Hampshire, but in 1724, a Massachusetts militia destroyed Norridgewock, an Abenaki stronghold on the Kennebec River organizing raids on English settlements. The region became less dangerous after the French defeat in 1745 at the Battle of Louisburg.
The French and Indian Wars ended with the 1763 Treaty of Paris. In 1762, the northeastern bank of Biddeford separated as the District of Pepperrellborough, named for Sir William Pepperrell, hero of the Battle of Louisburg and late proprietor of the town. Amos Chase was one of the pioneers of Pepperrellborough, he was chosen as a selectman at the first town meeting, served as the first deacon of the Congregational Church. Dea. Chase was one of the area's largest taxpayers, was prominent in civic affairs during the American Revolution, serving on the town's Committee of Correspondence and Committee of Inspection; the district was incorporated as the Town of Pepperellborough in 1775. Inhabitants found the name to be cumbersome, so in 1805 it was renamed Saco, it would be incorporated as a city in 1867. Saco became a center with log drives down the river from Little Falls Plantation. At Saco Falls, the timber was cut by 17 sawmills. In 1827, the community produced 21,000,000 feet of sawn lumber, some of, used for shipbuilding.
On Factory Island, the Saco Iron Works began operation in 1811. The Saco Manufacturing Company established a cotton mill in 1826, a canal was dug through rock to provide water power; the mill was replaced in 1831 by the York Manufacturing Company. With the arrival of the Portland and Portsmouth Railroad in 1842, Factory Island developed into a major textile manufacturing center, with extensive brick mills dominating the Saco and Biddeford waterfronts. Other businesses included foundries and harnessmaking, machine shops, but the New England textile industry faded in the 20th century, the York Manufacturing Company would close in 1958. The prosperous mill town era, left behind much fine architecture in the Georgian, Greek Revival and Victorian styles. Many buildings are now listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Saco has taken steps to make the city more environmentally friendly. In early 2007 a wind turbine was erected near the water treatment plant at the foot of Front street. Another wind turbine was erected on the top of York Hill in December 2007 to generate power for the new train station for Amtrak's Downeaster.
This is part of the project to restore Factory Island, including the renovation of several abandoned mills that have fallen into disrepair, the erection of new townhouses and a marina. Saco has two growing business parks and another one under development. Saco is located at 43°30′38″N 70°26′42″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 52.76 square miles, of which, 38.46 square miles of it is land and 14.30 square miles is water. Situated beside Saco Bay on the Gulf of Maine, Saco is drained by the Saco River. Saco borders the city of Biddeford, as well as the towns of Scarborough, Buxton and Old Orchard Beach. Saco contains a wide variety of landforms, including beaches, forests and urban areas; as of the census of 2010, there were 18,482 people, 7,623 households, 4,925 families residing in the city. The population density was 480.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 8,508 housing units at an average density of 221.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.7% White, 0.7% African American, 0.2% Native American, 1.7% Asian, 0.3% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races