Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels (Los Angeles)
The Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels, informally known as COLA or the Los Angeles Cathedral, is a cathedral of the Roman Catholic Church in Los Angeles, United States of America. Opened in 2002, it serves as the mother church for the Archdiocese of Los Angeles, as well as the seat of Archbishop José Horacio Gómez; the structure replaced the Cathedral of Saint Vibiana, damaged in the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Under Cardinal Roger Mahony, Our Lady of the Angels was begun in 1998 and formally opened in September 2002. There was considerable controversy over both its deconstructivist and modern design and exceptional costs incurred in its construction and furnishing, as well as the archdiocese's decision to build a crypt under the Cathedral; the Cathedral is named in honor of the Blessed Virgin Mary under the patronal title of Our Lady of the Angels, echoing the full name of the original settlement of Los Angeles. The Cathedral is known for enshrining the relics of Saint Vibiana and tilma piece of Our Lady of Guadalupe.
It is the mother church to five million professed Catholics in the archdiocese. The Cathedral of Saint Vibiana had served as the cathedral of the Los Angeles see since its completion in 1876. Soon after its completion, the diocese noted it to be of inferior construction quality and too small for Los Angeles' growing population. In 1904, Bishop Thomas James Conaty gained permission from the Holy See to build a new cathedral to be named after Our Lady of Guadalupe and purchased a site on which to build the cathedral. However, an economic downturn in 1907 put a stop to the project. In the 1940s, plans were drawn up for a new cathedral on Wilshire Boulevard that would seat 3,000 people, in 1945 Archbishop John Joseph Cantwell announced that the Holy See approved the name "Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels"; that cathedral was never built, however, as Cantwell died in 1947 and his successor, James Francis McIntyre, decided that building churches and schools was a more pressing need for the archdiocese.
McIntyre gained permission from donors to redirect money donated to Cantwell's cathedral fund to fund construction of churches and schools. The 1994 Northridge earthquake damaged the Cathedral of Saint Vibiana, which led the archdiocese to close the cathedral due to safety concerns. In January 1995 the archdiocese announced plans to build a new cathedral on the Saint Vibiana site, plans which necessitated the demolition of the old cathedral; this led to a lengthy legal battle between the archdiocese and preservationists, who argued that the cathedral was a city landmark and that it should be either incorporated into the new cathedral or otherwise saved. The archdiocese contended that restoring the old cathedral would cost $18–20 million, an amount that it contended no one would donate; this legal battle prompted the archdiocese to look to build the cathedral on a new site. In December 1996, the archdiocese announced it was purchasing a 5.6-acre site between Temple Street and the Hollywood Freeway from Los Angeles County at a cost of $10.85 million.
The archdiocese chose to retain the "Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels" name approved by the Vatican in the 1940s. The proposed budget for the project was $150 million, rising to a final cost of $189.7 million. The construction was supervised by Father Richard S. Vosko, a liturgical design consultant and priest of the Diocese of Albany who has overseen the design and renovation of numerous churches and cathedrals in the United States. Construction began in 1998 and was completed in September 2002. Meanwhile, the old cathedral was restored by developers Tom Gilmore and Richard Weintraub, who spent around $6 million converting it into an events center and performance venue; the architect was Pritzker Prize-winning Spaniard Rafael Moneo. Using elements of postmodern architecture, the church and the Cathedral Center feature a series of acute and obtuse angles while avoiding right angles. Contemporary statuary and appointments decorate the complex. Prominent of these appointments are the bronze doors and the statue called The Virgin Mary, all adorning the entrance and designed by Robert Graham.
In addition to the church, the cathedral grounds include a mausoleum, gift shop, conference center, clergy residences. The relics of Saint Vibiana are interred in the mausoleum, as are the remains of several past bishops and auxiliary bishops of Los Angeles; the size of the cathedral is 6,038 square metres. Cardinal Roger Mahony's decision to build so large and expensive a new cathedral in such non-traditional architecture drew great criticism, earning it such epithets as the "Taj Mahony" and the "Rog Mahal". Many argued that a church of that size and expense was unnecessary, overly-elaborate and the money could have been better spent on social programs. Many felt that either St. Vincent Church on West Adams Boulevard or St. Basil Church on South Kingsley Drive could perform the functions required of a cathedral with minimal additional cost -- except for the fact that neither church has adequate seating for a cathedral of an archdiocese the size of Los Angeles; some criticised the structure for being a "failed architecture" as it did not convey Christianity through its lack of iconography, iconography, aimed at being'inclusive' instead of Catholic.
But, the Cathedral and Cardinal Roger Mahony enjoyed staunch supporters such as Roy and Patty Disney and Meredith A. Disney and her sons Charles Elias Disney and Daniel H. Disney; the cost of and pri
South Park (Downtown Los Angeles)
South Park is a commercial district in southwestern Downtown Los Angeles, California. It is the location of the Los Angeles Convention Center, the Staples Center, the "L. A. Live" entertainment complex. "The District includes all property within a boundary that begins on the north at 9th Street and the 110 Freeway and runs east to Flower Street south to Olympic Boulevard, east on Olympic Boulevard to mid-block across Hill Street south to 11th Street east to mid-block across Broadway forming the northern boundary. From there the eastern boundary runs south across 12th Street, past Pico Boulevard, past 14th Street, past 15th Street, across Venice Boulevard to the centerline of 17th Street. From there the southern boundary runs west along 17th Street/Santa Monica Freeway across Broadway, past Hill Street, past Olive Street, past Grand Avenue, past Hope Street, past Flower Street, across Figueroa Street to behind the Convention Center along Convention Center Drive. From there the western boundary runs north along L.
A. Live Way across Pico Boulevard, past 12th Street, past Chick Hearn Court across Olympic Boulevard to 9th Street and the Harbor Freeway." Bordering the district are Pico-Union on the west, West Adams on the southwest, South Los Angeles district on the southeast, the Warehouse District on the southeast, the Financial District on the northeast. Major thoroughfares include Venice and Olympic Boulevards, Grand Avenue, Figueroa Street; the Blue Line light rail line and Expo Line light rail line stop in the district at the Pico/Chick Hearn station. At the beginning of 21st century the area began to transform with infill development. Luxury apartments and condominiums with ground floor retail began construction in the 2000s; the district's proximity to the University of Southern California, as well as the Blue Line and Expo Line light rail lines, have made it an attractive area for young professionals. As with many neighborhood transformations, this change in demographics has a few concerned about displacement and gentrification issues
Civic Center, Los Angeles
The Civic Center neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, is the administrative core of the City of Los Angeles, County of Los Angeles, a complex of city, county and federal government offices and courthouses. The Civic Center is located in the northern part of Downtown Los Angeles, bordering Bunker Hill, Little Tokyo and the Historic Core of the old Downtown. Depending on various district definitions, either the Civic Center or Bunker Hill contains the Music Center and adjacent Walt Disney Concert Hall; the Civic Center has the distinction of containing the largest concentration of government employees in the United States outside of Washington, D. C; the reason for the high concentration is simple: Los Angeles is the most populous county in the United States and its second largest city, houses several state and federal functions for the region. The Civic Center is served by numerous Metro buses, most of which run to adjacent Union Station, the 101 and 110 freeways, the Metro Red Line and Purple Line's Civic Center/Grand Park Station are in the vicinity.
OCTA, Foothill Transit, DASH shuttles, Commuter Express and other municipal bus lines serve the area. The Regional Connector under construction, will serve this area with two stations at Second/Flower and Second/Broadway station; the Civic Center area is part of the ongoing Grand Avenue Project, which aims to develop existing parking lots in the area for residential and commercial use as well as create a Grand Park between the Los Angeles Music Center and City Hall. In March 2017, the Los Angeles City Council approved a new Civic Center Master Plan, it details a full build out around city hall by the year 2032 the east facing front. The CCMP schedules for a full tear down of Parker Center, L. A. City Hall's "south" building, the Los Angeles Mall; the CCMP is to connect City Hall with Little Tokyo. The CCMP calls for active ground-floor uses, to stimulate the pedestrian traffic that the Civic Center lacks. Four new government and office towers are described in the plan as well as the planned Park 101 recreational area.
A design approach idea to cover U. S. Highway 101 as a trench with green space above. Connecting with Union Station and Olvera Street. Los Angeles City Hall Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels Dorothy Chandler Pavilion Grand Park Houdon Statue of George Washington Los Angeles Music Center Triforium Union Station Walt Disney Concert Hall Los Angeles City Hall Kenneth Hahn Hall of Administration Stanley Mosk L. A. Courthouse Hall of Records Law Library Federal Court House Parker Center Caltrans District 7 Headquarters Alameda St. Detention Facility John Ferraro Building, Los Angeles Department of Water and Power Clara Shortridge Foltz Criminal Justice Center The Los Angeles County Department of Health Services operates the Central Health Center in Downtown Los Angeles, serving the Civic Center
Los Angeles Music Center
The Music Center is one of the largest performing arts centers in the United States. Located in downtown Los Angeles, The Music Center is home to the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion, Ahmanson Theater, Mark Taper Forum and Edna Disney / CalArts Theatre, Walt Disney Concert Hall; each year, The Music Center welcomes more than 1.3 million people to performances by its four internationally renowned resident companies: Los Angeles Philharmonic, Los Angeles Opera, Los Angeles Master Chorale, Center Theatre Group as well as performances by the dance series Glorya Kaufman Presents Dance at The Music Center. The center is home to on-going community events, arts festivals, outdoor concerts, participatory arts activities and workshops, educational programs. In April 1955, Dorothy Chandler, wife of Los Angeles Times publisher Norman Chandler, began fundraising toward a permanent home for the Philharmonic. Mrs. Chandler raised $20 million in private donations; the rest of the complex was completed in April 1967.
The additional venues, the Mark Taper Forum and Ahmanson Theatre, were dedicated on April 19 and 12, 1967, respectively. When the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion opened its doors on December 6, 1964, the twenty-eight-year-old Zubin Mehta led the Los Angeles Philharmonic in a program that included violinist Jascha Heifetz and performances of Strauss' Fanfare and Beethoven's Violin Concerto in D Major; the Mark Taper Forum, "scandalizing the power structure of Los Angeles," according to its artistic director Gordon Davidson, with its provocative opening production of John Whiting's The Devils. The Ahmanson Theatre opened with a performance of the Man of La Mancha by the Civic Light Opera; the first dramatic season at the Ahmanson featured Ingrid Bergman in O'Neill's More Stately Mansions, signaling its intent to marry big-name playwrights with big-name stars. Since its opening in 1964, The Music Center has seen the American debuts of Simon Rattle and Esa-Pekka Salonen, the world premieres of The Shadow Box, Zoot Suit, Children of a Lesser God, Angels in America at the Taper, performances by Jessica Tandy, Hume Cronyn, Katharine Hepburn, Maggie Smith at the Ahmanson.
The Philharmonic and L. A. Master Chorale joined forces to provide the accompaniment to Eisenstein's restored silent film classic Alexander Nevsky. While the Civic Light Opera's last season at The Music Center was in 1987, the Los Angeles Music Center Opera was formed in 1986, its productions have included Wagner's Tristan and Isolde directed by Jonathan Miller and designed by David Hockney. On October 23, 2003 The Music Center opened the Frank-Gehry-designed Walt Disney Concert Hall, expanding the campus to 11 acres; the 2,265-seat Concert Hall is home to the Los Angeles Philharmonic and the Los Angeles Master Chorale. Walt Disney Concert Hall includes the 266-seat Roy and Edna Disney/CalArts Theater and outdoor program areas including the W. M. Keck Foundation Children’s Amphitheatre, seating 250-300 and the Nadine and Ed Carson amphitheatre seating 120; the main venues of the complex are: Dorothy Chandler Pavilion: 3,197 seats Mark Taper Forum: 739 seats Ahmanson Theatre: 1,600 to 2,007 seats, depending on configuration Walt Disney Concert Hall: 2,265 seats Roy and Edna Disney/CalArts Theatre: 266 seats "Peace on Earth" by Jacques Lipchitz was dedicated on Sunday afternoon, May 4, 1969.
His sculpture portrays a dove descending to earth with the spirit of peace, symbolized by the Madonna standing inside a tear shaped canopy, supported by a base of reclining lambs. Lawrence E. Deutsch and Lloyd Rigler donated $250,000 to commission a work for the fountain; the architects of The Music Center, Welton Becket and Associates, opposed placing sculpture in the plaza between the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion and the Mark Taper Forum. However, after a two-year search, the Art Committee of The Music Center commissioned Lipchitz; the sculpture was moved to the west side of the plaza as part of a $40 million renovation project in July 2018. The project doubles the plaza's capacity from 2,500 to 5,000 people; the Dance Door, a bronze sculpture, was created in 1978 by Robert Graham and donated to The Music Center in 1982 by Frederick and Marcia Weisman. Dance Door consists of an ornamented life-size bronze door, hinged on a bronze frame and locked in an open position; the door itself is hollow centered and composed of 7 welded case panels on each side.
Abstracted figures of dancers are cast in low relief on the door panels. The complex has four resident companies: Los Angeles Philharmonic Los Angeles Opera Los Angeles Master Chorale Center Theatre Group Since its inception in 1979, The Music Center and its family programs has served more than 16 million and serves nearly 1 million students and teachers each year; the Music Center believes the arts enhance the lives of all people and are crucial to the development of every child. The Music Center-designed curriculum materials are included in art textbooks published by McGraw Hill in use across the country and are available on The Music Center's website. Education and family programs include "World City", the "Blue Ribbon Children's Festival", the "Very Special Arts Festival" and the "Spotlight Awards". Launched in July 2004 and designed to expand the public's experience associated with the performing arts, Active Arts at The Music Center extends beyond the more formal experience associated with performing arts centers.
Active Arts programs engage people from diverse backgrounds and experiences and establishes an ongoing series of admission-free or low-cost recreational art-making events that enco
Los Angeles Convention Center
The Los Angeles Convention Center is a convention center in the southwest section of downtown Los Angeles. The LACC hosts multiple annual conventions and has been used as a filming location in TV show and movies; the Convention Center, designed by architect Charles Luckman, opened in 1971 and expanded in 1981, 1993 and 1997. It was built as a rectanglular building, between Pico Boulevard and 11th Street on Figueroa Street; the northeast portion of the Center was demolished in 1997 to make way for the Staples Center. The Convention Center Annex of green glass and white steel frames on the south side of Pico, was designed by architect James Ingo Freed; the area in front of the Convention Center is known as the Gilbert Lindsay Plaza, named for the late councilman who represented the Downtown area of Los Angeles for many years. A 10-foot -high monument honoring "The Emperor of the Great 9th District" was unveiled in 1995; the drive between Figueroa Street and the Convention Center building is named after Councilman Lindsay.
On March 1, 1983, a tornado caused damages to upper-level panels. The building was repaired and new Convention Center lettering signs were installed at a total cost of $3 million. On September 15, 2008, the Los Angeles Convention Center became the first U. S. convention center and first Los Angeles City building of its age and size in the U. S. to be Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design certified for Existing Buildings from the United States Green Building Council. In 2013, the Los Angeles City Council voted to let Anschutz Entertainment Group manage the Convention Center; the LACC hosts annual events such as the Los Angeles Auto Show, the Abilities Expo, the Anime Expo, is best known to video game fans as host to the Electronic Entertainment Expo known as E3. During the week leading up to the annual Grammy Awards, the convention center hosts several Grammy week events. Since 2005, the convention center has hosted the MusiCares Person of the Year tribute, which takes place two days prior to the Grammy Awards.
It hosted the pre-telecast portion of the Grammy Awards until 2013, when the pre-telecast was moved to the Nokia Theatre. Following the annual Primetime Emmy Awards ceremony, the convention center hosts the Governors Ball, one of the major Emmy after-parties. During the 2028 Summer Olympics, the convention center will host six sports, it will host women's Basketball Preliminaries, Fencing, Table Tennis and BMX Freestyle. It will be a part of the Live Site Olympic Zone down Figueroa St; the LACC is one of the largest convention centers in the United States with over 720,000 sq ft of exhibition space, 147,000 sq ft of meeting space, 1,960,000 sq ft of parking, a 299-seat theater. The lobby floors in the north half of the building feature two large 140,000 sq ft multicolor maps of inlaid terrazzo; the project was installed by artist Alexis Smith in 1993. A map of the world centered on the Pacific Rim covers the entire floor of the main lobby, while a map of the constellations around the north celestial pole covers the floor of the upstairs lobby.
South Hall Kentia Hall West Hall Neil Petree Hall Concourse 3 food courts On-site parking for 5,600 vehicles including electrical charge stations In 2010, the Anschutz Entertainment Group and businessman Casey Wasserman proposed construction of Farmers Field, a US$1 billion combination football stadium and convention center, meant to attract the return of a National Football League team to the Los Angeles area. The development proposal was abandoned in March 2015. A new proposal was developed in 2015, approved by city hall and a design team was chosen. A new convention hall, called "LACOEX", would be built, with a connection to the south hall. Construction and approval is set to commence by 2019. William M. Hughes, Los Angeles City Council member, 1927–1929, urged conventions to come to Los Angeles List of convention centers in the United States Los Angeles Convention Center website Los Angeles Convention Center Twitter @ConventionLA Los Angeles Convention Center Facebook @ConventionLA Los Angeles Convention Center Instagram @Conventioncenterla Los Angeles Convention Center TripAdvisor Los Angeles Convention Center Yelp
Bunker Hill, Los Angeles
Bunker Hill is a historic prominence that traditionally separated Downtown Los Angeles from the rest of the city to the west before the hill was tunneled through at Second Street in 1924. In the late 20th century, the hill was lowered in elevation, the entire area was redeveloped to supplant old frame and concrete buildings with modern high-rises and other structures for residences, commerce and education. In 1867, two wealthy developers, Prudent Beaudry, a French-Canadian Immigrant, Stephen Mott purchased a majority of the hill's land. Beaudry's land purchase ranged from present time Hill St. to Olive St. and 4th St. and 2nd St. Mott's land purchase ranged between 4th St. to Temple and Figueroa and Grand. Because of the hill's excellent views of the Los Angeles Basin and the Los Angeles River, he knew that it would make for an opulent subdivision. Beaudry employed surveyor George Hansom to help divide up the land into 80 plots to sell to individual buyers. Beaudry's started to build his house on the top of a modest two-story structure.
He needed the infrastructure set up to reach the top such as the water pipes. He asked the Los Angeles Water Company. Due to the nature of the hill and their initial concerns about the plan they denied his plea; as result, he built his own pipes and formed the Canal and Reservoir Company He developed the peak of Bunker Hill with lavish two-story Victorian houses that became famous as homes for the upper-class residents of Los Angeles. The dominant architecture of the community of the houses of Bunker Hill was Queen Anne and Eastlake style; the geography of the Hill allowed these residents to escape the hustle and bustle of the city as it grew around at the flatland at the bottom of the hill. Some notable residents during these times are: Prudent Beaudry - 13th Mayor of Los Angeles, developer of Bunker Hill L. J. Rose: Arrived from Iowa, due to the death of his son to serious bronchial trouble during a harsh winter. Wine maker and entrepreneur Dr. Edmund Hildreth: Retired Clergyman from Chicago D.
F. Donigan: Self-made man. Owned his own contracting business, the contractor for the construction of the first railroad which led from Los Angeles to Pasadena, he became an indispensable adviser to Beaudry when it came to beginning the development of Bunker Hill in its early stages. Colonel Louis W. Bradbury and his wife - Made their fortune from a silver mine in Southern California. Original owner of the Bradbury Building in Downtown LA Judge Robert M. Widney - Founder of University of Southern California. Helped create the first transportation for the residents up a horse-drawn carriage. After the introduction of the horse carriage to the Bunker Hill neighborhood, the iconic Angel's Flight was proposed. Angel's Flight, now dubbed "The World's Shortest Railway", took residents homeward from the bottom of the 33% grade and down again. Colonel J. W. Eddy petitioned the Los Angeles City Council to establish an electric cable railway, approved ten days signed by the mayor at the time, Meredith P. Snyder.
The first railways, established and operational was on Third St, from Hill st. to Olive st. A residential suburb, Bunker Hill retained its exclusive character through the end of World War I. Around the 1920s and the 1930s, with the advent of the Pacific Electric Railway and the construction of the freeway, the increased urban growth fed by an extensive streetcar system, its wealthy residents began leaving for enclaves Westward in Beverly Hills and Pasadena. Bunker Hill's houses were subdivided to accommodate renters. Still, Bunker Hill was at this time "Los Angeles's most crowded and urban neighborhood". By World War II, the Pasadena Freeway, built to bring shoppers downtown, was taking more residents out. Additional postwar freeway construction left downtown comparatively empty of both people and services; the once-grand Victorian mansions of Bunker Hill became the home of impoverished pensioners. These tenements became more prominent, apartment buildings started being built on alongside these houses.
As more and more people crowded into these cheap housing units, the population of the hill increased 19%. The increase was due to these new residents that landed on the lower income spectrum, which had moved into the existing living accommodations; as the once extravagant and elaborate Victorian buildings began to fade and deteriorate, the community had an uptake of crime which led to the community being called blighted and the slums of downtown Los Angeles. This led the district to gain its notoriety in the genre of Film Noir. In 1955, Los Angeles city planners decided that Bunker Hill required a massive slum clearance project. There were a couple of major political events which led to the "removal of the blight" and redevelopment of Bunker hill; the California Community Redevelopment Law of 1945, the Federal Housing Act of 1946 and 1949, the creation of the Community Redevelopment Agency in 1948, the Bunker Hill Urban Renewal Project in 1959. The California Community Redevelopment law of 1945 allowed counties and cities to create and implement these agencies to help deal with the redevelopment of local cities.
Until 2011, these Agencies held much power and were still around, until Governor Jerry Brown signed into law two bills to dissolve them. Along with those political factors, other things which led to the conclusion of the blighted neighborhood came from some of the government offices; the LAPD called the area a "high frequency crime area", due to the fact that the area's apartments catered to known offenders. The Health department of Los Angeles called the area a health hazard for its city, it wasn't until the CRA had won an ongoing court case agai
Skid Row, Los Angeles
Skid Row is an area of Downtown Los Angeles. As of the 2000 census, the population of the district was 17,740. Skid Row was defined in a decision in Jones v. City of Los Angeles as the area east of Main Street, south of Third Street, west of Alameda Street, north of Seventh Street. Skid Row contains one of the largest stable populations of homeless people in the United States; the term "skid row" or "skid road," referring to an area of a city where people live who are "on the skids," derives from a logging term. Loggers would transport their logs to a nearby river by sliding them down roads made from greased skids. Loggers who had accompanied the load to the bottom of the road would wait there for transportation back up the hill to the logging camp. By extension, the term began to be used for places where people with no money and nothing to do gathered, becoming the generic term for a depressed street in a city. At the end of the 19th century, a number of residential hotels opened in the area as it became home to a transient population of seasonal laborers.
By the 1930s, Skid Row was home to as many as 10,000 homeless people and others on the margins of society. It supported saloons, residential hotels, social services, which drew people from the populations they served to congregate in the area. In June 1947, LAPD chief Clemence B. Horrall ordered. Over 350 people were arrested. Assistant Chief Joseph Reed, who claimed that "at least 50 percent of all the crime in Los Angeles originates in the Skid Row area," stated that there had been no "strong arm robberies" on Skid Row as late as one week after the raid. Long time residents, were skeptical that the changes would last. In 1956, the city of Los Angeles was in the midst of a program to "rehabilitate" Skid Row through the clearance of decaying buildings; the program was presented to property owners in the area as an economy measure. Gilbert Morris superintendent of building, said that at that point the provision of free social services to the one square mile of Skid Row cost the city over $5 million per year as opposed to the city average of $110,000 per square mile annually.
The city used administrative hearings to compel the destruction of nuisance properties at the expense of the owner. By July 1960, the clearance program was said to be 87% complete in the Skid Row area. In the 1970s, two Catholic Workers — Catherine Morris, a former nun, her husband, Jeff Dietrich — founded the "Hippie Kitchen" in the back of a van. Forty years in April 2014, aged 80 and 68, they remained active in their work feeding Skid Row residents. In February 1987, LAPD chief Daryl Gates, backed by then-Mayor Tom Bradley, announced plans for another crackdown on the homeless on Skid Row. Police and firefighters conducted a number of sweeps through the area but the plan was abandoned due to opposition by advocates for the homeless; when Gates announced in May that the crackdown would resume, Los Angeles City Attorney James K. Hahn responded that he would not prosecute people arrested in the planned sweeps. Hahn stated. I will not prosecute people for being poor and unable to find a place to sleep until I'm convinced that a viable alternative to sleeping on the streets exists."
Gates, still backed by Bradley, responded: "As the elected city attorney of Los Angeles, Mr. Hahn has a responsibility to file prosecutable cases which are presented to him by the Los Angeles Police Department."A few days then-Councilman Zev Yaroslavsky introduced a proposal that the city stop enforcing its anti-camping laws on Skid Row until adequate housing could be found for all its residents. The council rejected Yaroslavsky's proposal, but after hearing testimony from Assistant Police Chief David Dotson describing the LAPD's intended crackdown methodology, the council passed a motion asking Gates not to enforce the anti-camping laws until adequate housing could be found for the area's residents. In September 2005, hospitals and law enforcement agencies were discovered to be "dumping" homeless people on Skid Row. Then-Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa ordered an investigation and William Bratton, LAPD chief at the time, claimed that the department was not targeting homeless people but only people who violate city ordinances.
The Los Angeles City Attorney investigated more than 50 of about 150 reported cases of dumping. By early 2007, the city attorney had filed charges against Kaiser Permanente; because there were no laws covering the hospital's actions, it was charged, in an untested strategy, with false imprisonment. In response to the lack of legal recourse available to fight patient dumping, California state senator Gil Cedillo sponsored legislation against it in February 2007. In 2002, newly appointed LAPD chief William Bratton announced a plan to clean up Skid Row by, among other things, aggressively enforcing an old anti-camping ordinance. Robert Lee Purrie, for instance, was cited twice for violating the ordinance in December 2002 and January 2003 and his possessions: "blankets, cooking utensils, a hygiene kit," and so on, were confiscated by the police. In April 2006, United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit ruled in favor of the ACLU in its suit against the city of Los Angeles, filed on behalf of Purrie and five other homeless people, finding that the city was in violation of the 8th and 14th Amendments to the U.
S. Constitution and sections of the California Constitution guaranteeing due process and equal protection and prohibiting cruel and unusual punishment; the court stated that "the LAPD cannot arrest people for sitting, lying, or sleeping on