The Church Committee, a U. S. Senate select committee chaired by Idaho Senator Frank Church in 1975; the committee investigated abuses by the Central Intelligence Agency, National Security Agency, Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Internal Revenue Service. The committee was part of a series of investigations into intelligence abuses in 1975, dubbed the "Year of Intelligence", including its House counterpart, the Pike Committee, the presidential Rockefeller Commission; the committee's efforts led to the establishment of the permanent U. S. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. By the early years of the 1970s, a series of troubling revelations had appeared in the press concerning intelligence activities. First came the revelations by Army intelligence officer Christopher Pyle in January 1970 of the U. S. Army's spying on the civilian population and Senator Sam Ervin's Senate investigations produced more revelations. On December 22, 1974, The New York Times published a lengthy article by Seymour Hersh detailing operations engaged in by the CIA over the years, dubbed the "family jewels".
Covert action programs involving assassination attempts on foreign leaders and covert attempts to subvert foreign governments were reported for the first time. In addition, the article discussed efforts by intelligence agencies to collect information on the political activities of US citizens; the creation of the Church Committee was approved on January 27, 1975, by a vote of 82 to 4 in the Senate. The Church Committee's final report was published in April 1976 in six books. Published were seven volumes of Church Committee hearings in the Senate. Before the release of the final report, the committee published an interim report titled "Alleged Assassination Plots Involving Foreign Leaders", which investigated alleged attempts to assassinate foreign leaders, including Patrice Lumumba of Zaire (now known as, Rafael Trujillo of the Dominican Republic, Ngo Dinh Diem of Vietnam, Gen. René Schneider of Chile and Fidel Castro of Cuba. President Gerald Ford urged the Senate to withhold the report from the public, but failed, under recommendations and pressure by the committee, Ford issued Executive Order 11905 to ban U.
S. sanctioned assassinations of foreign leaders. In addition, the committee produced seven case studies on covert operations, but only the one on Chile was released, titled "Covert Action in Chile: 1963-1973"; the rest were kept secret at CIA's request. According to declassified documents by the National Security Archive, the Church Committee helped to uncover the NSA's Watch List; the information for the list was compiled into the so-called "Rhyming Dictionary" of biographical information, which at its peak held millions of names - thousands of which were US citizens. Some prominent members of this list were Joanne Woodward, Thomas Watson, Walter Mondale, Art Buchwald, Arthur F. Burns, Gregory Peck, Otis G. Pike, Tom Wicker, Whitney Young, Howard Baker, Frank Church, David Dellinger, Ralph Abernathy, others, but among the most shocking revelations of the committee was the discovery of Operation SHAMROCK, in which the major telecommunications companies shared their traffic with the NSA from 1945 to the early 1970s.
The information gathered in this operation fed directly into the Watch List. In 1975, the committee decided to unilaterally declassify the particulars of this operation, against the objections of President Ford's administration. Together, the Church Committee's reports have been said to constitute the most extensive review of intelligence activities made available to the public. Much of the contents were classified, but over 50,000 pages were declassified under the President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection Act of 1992. Members of the Church Committee The Church Committee learned that, beginning in the 1950s, the CIA and Federal Bureau of Investigation had intercepted and photographed more than 215,000 pieces of mail by the time the program was shut down in 1973; this program was all done under the "mail covers" program. The Church report found that the CIA was careful about keeping the United States Postal Service from learning that government agents were opening mail. CIA agents moved mail to a private room to open the mail or in some cases opened envelopes at night after stuffing them in briefcases or in coat pockets to deceive postal officials.
On May 9, 1975, the Church Committee decided to call acting CIA director William Colby. That same day Ford's top advisers drafted a recommendation that Colby be authorized to brief only rather than testify, that he would be told to discuss only the general subject, with details of specific covert actions to be avoided except for realistic hypotheticals, but the Church Committee had full authority to require Colby's testimony. Ford and his top advisers met with Colby to prepare him for the hearing. Colby testified, "These last two months have placed American intelligence in danger; the hysterical excitement surrounding any news story mentioning CIA or referring to a legitimate activity of CIA has raised a question whether secret intelligence operations can be conducted by the United States." On August 17, 1975 Senator Frank Church appeared on
Henry Alfred Kissinger is an American elder statesman, political scientist and geopolitical consultant who served as United States Secretary of State and National Security Advisor under the presidential administrations of Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. A Jewish refugee who fled Nazi Germany with his family in 1938, he became National Security Advisor in 1969 and U. S. Secretary of State in 1973. For his actions negotiating a ceasefire in Vietnam, Kissinger received the 1973 Nobel Peace Prize under controversial circumstances, with two members of the committee resigning in protest. Kissinger sought, unsuccessfully, to return the prize after the ceasefire failed. A practitioner of Realpolitik, Kissinger played a prominent role in United States foreign policy between 1969 and 1977. During this period, he pioneered the policy of détente with the Soviet Union, orchestrated the opening of relations with the People's Republic of China, engaged in what became known as shuttle diplomacy in the Middle East to end the Yom Kippur War, negotiated the Paris Peace Accords, ending American involvement in the Vietnam War.
Kissinger has been associated with such controversial policies as U. S. involvement in the 1973 Chilean military coup, a "green light" to Argentina's military junta for their Dirty War, U. S. support for Pakistan during the Bangladesh War despite the genocide being perpetrated by his allies. After leaving government, he formed Kissinger Associates, an international geopolitical consulting firm. Kissinger has written over one dozen books on international relations. Kissinger remains regarded as a controversial figure in American politics, has been condemned as a war criminal by journalists, political activists, human rights lawyers. According to a 2014 survey by Foreign Policy magazine 32.21% of "America's top International Relations scholars" considered Henry Kissinger the most effective U. S. Secretary of State since 1965. Kissinger was born Heinz Alfred Kissinger in Fürth, Germany in 1923 to a family of German Jews, his father, Louis Kissinger, was a schoolteacher. His mother, Paula Kissinger, from Leutershausen, was a homemaker.
Kissinger has Walter Kissinger. The surname Kissinger was adopted in 1817 by his great-great-grandfather Meyer Löb, after the Bavarian spa town of Bad Kissingen. In youth, Kissinger enjoyed playing soccer, played for the youth wing of his favorite club, SpVgg Fürth, one of the nation's best clubs at the time. In 1938, when Kissinger was 15 years old, fleeing Nazi persecution, his family emigrated to London, before arriving in New York on September 5. Kissinger spent his high school years in the Washington Heights section of Upper Manhattan as part of the German Jewish immigrant community that resided there at the time. Although Kissinger assimilated into American culture, he never lost his pronounced German accent, due to childhood shyness that made him hesitant to speak. Following his first year at George Washington High School, he began attending school at night and worked in a shaving brush factory during the day. Following high school, Kissinger enrolled in the City College of New York, he excelled academically as a part-time student.
His studies were interrupted in early 1943, when he was drafted into the U. S. Army. Kissinger underwent basic training at Camp Croft in South Carolina. On June 19, 1943, while stationed in South Carolina, at the age of 20 years, he became a naturalized U. S. citizen. The army sent him to study engineering at Lafayette College, but the program was canceled, Kissinger was reassigned to the 84th Infantry Division. There, he made the acquaintance of Fritz Kraemer, a fellow Jewish immigrant from Germany who noted Kissinger's fluency in German and his intellect, arranged for him to be assigned to the military intelligence section of the division. Kissinger saw combat with the division, volunteered for hazardous intelligence duties during the Battle of the Bulge. During the American advance into Germany, only a private, was put in charge of the administration of the city of Krefeld, owing to a lack of German speakers on the division's intelligence staff. Within eight days he had established a civilian administration.
Kissinger was reassigned to the Counter Intelligence Corps, where he became a CIC Special Agent holding the enlisted rank of sergeant. He was given charge of a team in Hanover assigned to tracking down Gestapo officers and other saboteurs, for which he was awarded the Bronze Star. In June 1945, Kissinger was made commandant of the Bensheim metro CIC detachment, Bergstrasse district of Hesse, with responsibility for de-Nazification of the district. Although he possessed absolute authority and powers of arrest, Kissinger took care to avoid abuses against the local population by his command. In 1946, Kissinger was reassigned to teach at the European Command Intelligence School at Camp King and, as a civilian employee following his separation from the army, continued to serve in this role. Henry Kissinger received his BA degree summa cum laude, Phi Beta Kappa in political science from Harvard College in 1950, where he lived in Adams House and studied under William Yandell Elliott, he received his PhD degrees at Harvard University in 1951 and 1954, respectively.
In 1952, while still a graduate student at Harvard, he served as a consultant to the director of the Psychological Strategy Board. His doctoral dissertation was titled "Peace and the Equilibrium". Kissinger remained at Harvard as a member of
Bolivia the Plurinational State of Bolivia is a landlocked country located in western-central South America. The capital is Sucre; the largest city and principal industrial center is Santa Cruz de la Sierra, located on the Llanos Orientales a flat region in the east of Bolivia. The sovereign state of Bolivia is a constitutionally unitary state, divided into nine departments, its geography varies from the peaks of the Andes in the West, to the Eastern Lowlands, situated within the Amazon Basin. It is bordered to the north and east by Brazil, to the southeast by Paraguay, to the south by Argentina, to the southwest by Chile, to the northwest by Peru. One-third of the country is within the Andean mountain range. With 1,098,581 km2 of area, Bolivia is the fifth largest country in South America, the 27th largest in the world and the largest landlocked country in the Southern Hemisphere; the country's population, estimated at 11 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans and Africans.
The racial and social segregation that arose from Spanish colonialism has continued to the modern era. Spanish is the official and predominant language, although 36 indigenous languages have official status, of which the most spoken are Guarani and Quechua languages. Before Spanish colonization, the Andean region of Bolivia was part of the Inca Empire, while the northern and eastern lowlands were inhabited by independent tribes. Spanish conquistadors arriving from Cuzco and Asunción took control of the region in the 16th century. During the Spanish colonial period Bolivia was administered by the Royal Audiencia of Charcas. Spain built its empire in large part upon the silver, extracted from Bolivia's mines. After the first call for independence in 1809, 16 years of war followed before the establishment of the Republic, named for Simón Bolívar. Over the course of the 19th and early 20th century Bolivia lost control of several peripheral territories to neighboring countries including the seizure of its coastline by Chile in 1879.
Bolivia remained politically stable until 1971, when Hugo Banzer led a coup d'état which replaced the socialist government of Juan José Torres with a military dictatorship headed by Banzer. Banzer's regime cracked down on leftist and socialist opposition and other forms of dissent, resulting in the torture and deaths of a number of Bolivian citizens. Banzer was ousted in 1978 and returned as the democratically elected president of Bolivia from 1997 to 2001. Modern Bolivia is a charter member of the UN, IMF, NAM, OAS, ACTO, Bank of the South, ALBA and USAN. For over a decade Bolivia has had one of the highest economic growth rates in Latin America, it is a developing country, with a medium ranking in the Human Development Index, a poverty level of 38.6%, one of the lowest crime rates in Latin America. Its main economic activities include agriculture, fishing and manufacturing goods such as textiles, refined metals, refined petroleum. Bolivia is rich in minerals, including tin and lithium. Bolivia is named after Simón Bolívar, a Venezuelan leader in the Spanish American wars of independence.
The leader of Venezuela, Antonio José de Sucre, had been given the option by Bolívar to either unite Charcas with the newly formed Republic of Peru, to unite with the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata, or to formally declare its independence from Spain as a wholly independent state. Sucre opted to create a brand new state and on 6 August 1825, with local support, named it in honor of Simón Bolívar; the original name was Republic of Bolívar. Some days congressman Manuel Martín Cruz proposed: "If from Romulus comes Rome from Bolívar comes Bolivia"; the name was approved by the Republic on 3 October 1825. In 2009, a new constitution changed the country's official name to "Plurinational State of Bolivia" in recognition of the multi-ethnic nature of the country and the enhanced position of Bolivia's indigenous peoples under the new constitution; the region now known as Bolivia had been occupied for over 2,500 years. However, present-day Aymara associate themselves with the ancient civilization of the Tiwanaku culture which had its capital at Tiwanaku, in Western Bolivia.
The capital city of Tiwanaku dates from as early as 1500 BC when it was a small, agriculturally based village. The community grew to urban proportions between AD 600 and AD 800, becoming an important regional power in the southern Andes. According to early estimates, the city covered 6.5 square kilometers at its maximum extent and had between 15,000 and 30,000 inhabitants. In 1996 satellite imaging was used to map the extent of fossilized suka kollus across the three primary valleys of Tiwanaku, arriving at population-carrying capacity estimates of anywhere between 285,000 and 1,482,000 people. Around AD 400, Tiwanaku went from being a locally dominant force to a predatory state. Tiwanaku expanded its reaches into the Yungas and brought its culture and way of life to many other cultures in Peru and Chile. Tiwanaku was not a violent culture in many respects. In order to expand its reach, Tiwanaku exercised great political astuteness, creating colonies, fostering trade agree
National Library of Australia
The National Library of Australia is the largest reference library in Australia, responsible under the terms of the National Library Act for "maintaining and developing a national collection of library material, including a comprehensive collection of library material relating to Australia and the Australian people." In 2012–13, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, an additional 15,506 metres of manuscript material. It is located in Parkes, Canberra, ACT; the National Library of Australia, while formally established by the passage of the National Library Act 1960, had been functioning as a national library rather than a Parliamentary Library since its inception. In 1901, a Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was established to serve the newly formed Federal Parliament of Australia. From its inception the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was driven to development of a national collection. In 1907 the Joint Parliamentary Library Committee under the Chairmanship of the Speaker, Sir Frederick William Holder defined the objective of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library in the following words: The Library Committee is keeping before it the ideal of building up, for the time when Parliament shall be established in the Federal Capital, a great Public Library on the lines of the world-famed Library of Congress at Washington.
The present library building was opened on 15 August 1968 by Prime Minister John Gorton. The building was designed by the architectural firm of Bunning and Madden in the Late Twentieth Century Stripped Classical style; the foyer is decorated in marble, with stained-glass windows by Leonard French and three tapestries by Mathieu Matégot. The building was listed on the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004. In 2012–13 the Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, with an estimated additional 2,325,900 items held in the manuscripts collection; the Library's collections of Australiana have developed into the nation's single most important resource of materials recording the Australian cultural heritage. Australian writers and illustrators are sought and well represented—whether published in Australia or overseas; the Library's collection includes all formats of material, from books, journals and manuscripts to pictures, maps, oral history recordings, manuscript papers and ephemera.
92.1% of the Library's collection has been catalogued and is discoverable through the online catalogue. The Library has digitized over 174,000 items from its collection and, where possible, delivers these directly across the Internet; the Library is a world leader in digital preservation techniques, maintains an Internet-accessible archive of selected Australian websites called the Pandora Archive. The Library collects material produced by Australians, for Australians or about the Australian experience in all formats—not just printed works—books, newspapers, posters and printed ephemera—but online publications and unpublished material such as manuscripts and oral histories. A core Australiana collection is that of John A. Ferguson; the Library has particular collection strengths in the performing arts, including dance. The Library's considerable collections of general overseas and rare book materials, as well as world-class Asian and Pacific collections which augment the Australiana collections.
The print collections are further supported by extensive microform holdings. The Library maintains the National Reserve Braille Collection; the Library houses the largest and most developing research resource on Asia in Australia, the largest Asian language collections in the Southern hemisphere, with over half a million volumes in the collection, as well as extensive online and electronic resources. The Library collects resources about all Asian countries in Western languages extensively, resources in the following Asian languages: Burmese, Persian, Japanese, Korean, Manchu, Thai and Vietnamese; the Library has acquired a number of important Western and Asian language scholarly collections from researchers and bibliophiles. These collections include: Australian Buddhist Library Collection Braga Collection Claasz Collection Coedes Collection London Missionary Society Collection Luce Collection McLaren-Human Collection Otley Beyer Collection Sakakibara Collection Sang Ye Collection Simon Collection Harold S. Williams Collection The Asian Collections are searchable via the National Library's catalogue.
The National Library holds an extensive collection of manuscripts. The manuscript collection contains about 26 million separate items, covering in excess of 10,492 meters of shelf space; the collection relates predominantly to Australia, but there are important holdings relating to Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and the Pacific. The collection holds a number of European and Asian manuscript collections or single items have been received as part of formed book collections; the Australian manuscript collections date from the period of maritime exploration and settlement in the 18th century until the present, with the greatest area of strength dating from the 1890s onwards. The collection includes a large number of outstanding single items, such as the 14th century Chertsey Cartulary, the journal of James Cook on the HM Bark Endeavour, inscribed on t
Assassination of Orlando Letelier
The assassination of Orlando Letelier refers to the September 21, 1976, car bombing, in Washington, D. C. of Orlando Letelier, a leading opponent of Chilean dictator Gen. Augusto Pinochet. Letelier, living in exile in the United States, was killed along with Ronni Karpen Moffitt, in the car along with her husband Michael, who worked for Letelier; the assassination was carried out by agents of the Chilean secret police, was one among many carried out as part of Operation Condor. Declassified U. S. intelligence documents confirm. In 1971, Letelier was appointed ambassador to the United States by Salvador Allende, the socialist president of Chile. Letelier had lived in Washington, D. C. during the 1960s and had supported Allende's campaign for the presidency. Allende believed Letelier's experience and connections in international banking would be beneficial to developing US–Chile diplomatic relations. During 1973, Letelier served successively as Minister of Foreign Affairs Interior Minister, Defense Minister.
After the Chilean coup of 1973 that brought Augusto Pinochet to power, Letelier was one of the first members of the Allende administration to be arrested by the Chilean government and sent to a political prison in Tierra del Fuego. He was held for 12 months in different concentration camps suffering severe torture: first at the Tacna Regiment at the Military Academy, he was sent to a political prison for eight months at Dawson Island. From there he was transferred to the basement of the Air Force War Academy, was sent to the concentration camp of Ritoque. International diplomatic pressure from Diego Arria Governor of Distrito Federal of Venezuela, United States Secretary of State Henry Kissinger resulted in the sudden release of Letelier on the condition that he leave Chile to Venezuela, he was told by the officer in charge of his release that "the arm of DINA is long, General Pinochet will not and does not tolerate activities against his government." This was a clear warning to Letelier. After his release in 1974, he moved to Washington, D.
C. where he became a senior fellow of the Institute for Policy Studies, an independent international policy studies think tank. He plunged into writing and lobbying the US Congress and European governments against Augusto Pinochet's regime, soon he became the leading voice of the Chilean resistance, in the process preventing several loans from being awarded to the military government, he was described by his colleagues as being "the most respected and effective spokesman in the international campaign to condemn and isolate" Pinochet's dictatorship. Letelier was assisted at the Institute for Policy Studies by Ronni Moffitt, a 25-year-old fundraiser who ran a "Music Carryout" program that produced musical instruments for the poor, campaigned for democracy in Chile. Letelier soon became a person of interest for Operation Condor, a campaign initiated by right-wing dictatorships in South America to gather intelligence on opposition movements and to assassinate the leaders of these movements. Former General and political figure Carlos Prats, who had become a vocal opponent of the Pinochet government, was killed by a radio-controlled car bomb on September 30, 1974, in an assassination planned and executed by members of DINA.
Letelier's pro-democracy campaign and his vehement criticisms of Pinochet had been under watch by the Chilean government. Letelier became a target in DINA director Manuel Contreras' efforts to eliminate resistance to the Pinochet government. In October 1975, Letelier became the Director of Planning and Development for the International Political Economy Programme of the Transnational Institute, an international think tank for progressive politics affiliated with the Institute for Policy Studies. Through the institute's operations in the Netherlands, Letelier convinced the Dutch government not to invest US$63 million in the Chilean mining industry. On September 10, 1976, the Chilean government revoked Letelier's Chilean citizenship. Pinochet signed a decree declaring that the former ambassador's citizenship be canceled for his interference "with normal financial support to Chile" and his efforts "to hinder or prevent the investment of Dutch capital in Chile"; that day, in a speech he delivered at the Felt Forum in Madison Square Garden, Letelier proclaimed: Today Pinochet has signed a decree in which it is said that I am deprived of my nationality.
This is an important day for me. A dramatic day in my life in which the action of the fascist generals against me makes me feel more Chilean than ever; because we are the true Chileans, in the tradition of O'Higgins, Allende, Gabriela Mistral, Claudio Arrau and Victor Jara, they—the fascists—are the enemies of Chile, the traitors who are selling our country to foreign investments. I was born a Chilean, I am a Chilean and I will die a Chilean, they were born traitors, they live as traitors and they will be known forever as fascist traitors. Orlando Letelier was traveling to work in Washington DC on September 21, 1976, with Ronni Moffitt and her husband of four months, Michael. Letelier was driving, while Moffitt was in the front passenger seat and Michael was in the rear behind his wife; as they rounded Sheridan Circle in Embassy Row at 9:35 am EDT, an explosion erupted under the car, lifting it off the ground. When the car came to a halt after colliding with a Volkswagen illegally parked in front of the Irish Embassy, Michael was able to escape from the rear end of the car by crawling out of the back window.
He saw his wife stumbling away from the ca
The Southern Cone is a geographic and cultural region composed of the southernmost areas of South America, south of and around the Tropic of Capricorn. Traditionally, it covers Argentina and Uruguay, bounded on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the south by the junction between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, the continental area closest to Antarctica. In terms of social and political geography, the Southern Cone comprises Argentina, Chile and the Southern and Southeastern of Brazil. In its broadest definition, the Southern Cone includes southern Bolivia and Paraguay. High life expectancy, the highest Human Development Index of Latin America, high standard of living, low fertility rates, significant participation in the global markets and the emerging economy of its members make the Southern Cone the most prosperous macro-region in Latin America; the climates are temperate, but include humid subtropical, highland tropical, maritime temperate, sub-Antarctic temperate, highland cold and semi-arid temperate regions.
Except for northern regions of Argentina, the whole country of Paraguay, the Argentina-Brazil border and the interior of the Atacama desert, the region suffers from heat. In addition to that, the winter presents cool temperatures. Strong and constant wind and high humidity is; the Atacama is the driest place on Earth. One of the most peculiar plants of the region is the Araucaria tree, which can be found in Brazil and Argentina; the only native group of conifers found in the southern hemisphere had its origin in the Southern Cone. Araucaria angustifolia, once widespread in Southern Brazil, is now a critically endangered species, protected by law; the prairies region of central Argentina and southern Brazil is known as the Pampas. Central Chile has grading southward into oceanic climate; the Atacama and Monte deserts form a diagonal of arid lands separating the woodlands and pastures of La Plata basin from Central and Southern Chile. Apart from the desert diagonal, the north-south running Andes form a major divide in the Southern Cone and constitute, for most of its part in the southern cone, the Argentina–Chile border.
In the east the river systems of the La Plata basin form natural barriers and sea-lanes between Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Besides sharing languages and colonial heritage, the residents of the states of the Southern Cone are avid players and fans of football, with top-notch teams competing in the sport. Argentina and Uruguay have both won the FIFA World Cup twice. Argentina, Chile and Brazil have all hosted the World Cup. Additionally, national teams from the region have won several Olympic medals in football. Football clubs from the Southern Cone countries have won large numbers of club competitions in South-American competitions, Pan-American competitions, world-FIFA Club World Cup-level competitions; the asado barbecue is a culinary tradition typical of the Southern Cone. The asado developed from the horsemen and cattle culture of the region, more from the gauchos of Argentina and Southern Brazil and the huasos of Chile. In the Southern Cone, horsemen are considered icons of national identity.
Mate is popular throughout the Southern Cone. In this area, there was extensive European immigration during the 19th- and 20th-centuries, with their descendants, have influenced the culture, social life and politics of these countries. In a social survey, residents rated their countries as'good places for gay or lesbian people to live. By contrast, fewer people in the following countries agreed: Bolivia and Peru; the overwhelming majority, including those of recent immigrant background, speak Spanish or Portuguese in the case of Southern Brazil. The Spanish-speaking countries of the Southern Cone are divided into two main dialects: Castellano Rioplatense, spoken in Argentina and Uruguay, where the accent and daily language is influenced by 19th-20th century Italian immigrants, has a particular intonation famously recognized by Spanish speakers from around the world, it is sometimes erroneously referred to as "Castellano Argentino/Argentinean Spanish" due to the majority of the speakers being Argentinians.
Preliminary research has shown that Rioplatense Spanish, has intonation patterns that resemble those of Italian dialects in the Naples region, differ markedly from the patterns of other forms of Spanish. Buenos Aires and Montevideo had a massive influx of Italian immigrant settlers from the mid-19th until mid-20th centuries. Researchers note that the development of this dialect is a recent phenomenon, developing at the beginning of the 20th century with the main wave of Italian immigration. Castellano Chileno These dialects share common traits, such as a number of Lunfardo and Quechua words. Other minor languages and dialects include Portuñol, a hybrid between Rioplatense and Brazilian Portuguese, spoken in Uruguay on the border with Brazil; some Native American groups in rural areas, continue to speak autochthonous languages, including Mapudungun, Quechua and Guarani. The first is
American Enterprise Institute
The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, known as the American Enterprise Institute, is a Washington, D. C.-based conservative think tank that researches government, politics and social welfare. AEI is an independent nonprofit organization supported by grants and contributions from foundations and individuals. Founded in 1938, AEI's stated mission is "to defend the principles and improve the institutions of American freedom and democratic capitalism—limited government, private enterprise, individual liberty and responsibility and effective defense and foreign policies, political accountability, open debate". AEI is associated with conservatism and neoconservatism, although it is non-partisan. Arthur C. Brooks has served as president of AEI since January 2009. AEI current scholars and fellows include Kevin Hassett, Ayaan Hirsi Ali, Michael Barone, Nicholas Eberstadt, Jonah Goldberg, Phil Gramm, Glenn Hubbard, Frederick Kagan, Leon Kass, Jon Kyl, Charles Murray, Norman Ornstein, Mark J. Perry, Danielle Pletka, Michael Rubin, Gary Schmitt, Christina Hoff Sommers, Jim Talent, Peter J. Wallison, Michael R. Strain, Bill Lenner, W. Bradford Wilcox.
Former AEI scholars or affiliates notably include President Gerald Ford, William J. Baroody Jr. William J. Baroody Sr. Robert Bork, Arthur F. Burns, Ronald Coase, Dinesh D'Souza, Alfred de Grazia, Christopher DeMuth, Martin Feldstein, Milton Friedman, David Frum, Reuel Marc Gerecht, David Gergen, Newt Gingrich, James K. Glassman, Jeane Kirkpatrick, Irving Kristol, Michael Ledeen, Seymour Martin Lipset, John Lott, James C. Miller III, Joshua Muravchik, Michael Novak, Richard Perle, Roscoe Pound, Laurence Silberman, Antonin Scalia, Ben Wattenberg, James Q. Wilson; some AEI staff members are considered to be among the leading architects of the Bush administration's public and foreign policy. More than twenty staff members served either in a Bush administration policy post or on one of the government's many panels and commissions. Among the prominent former government officials now affiliated with AEI are: AEI Board of Trustees member Dick Cheney, vice president of the United States under George W. Bush.
AEI describes itself as nonpartisan and its website includes a statement on political advocacy: "Legal requirements aside, AEI has important reasons of its own for abstaining from any form of policy advocacy as an institution... AEI takes no institutional positions on policy issues or on any other issues." This distinguishes AEI from other think tanks, such as The Heritage Foundation and the Center for American Progress. Although the institute is cited as a right-leaning counterpart to the left-leaning Brookings Institution, the two entities have collaborated. From 1998 to 2008, they co-sponsored the AEI-Brookings Joint Center for Regulatory Studies, in 2006 they launched the AEI-Brookings Election Reform Project. In 2015, a working group consisting of members from both institutions coauthored a report entitled Opportunity and Security: A Consensus Plan for Reducing Poverty and Restoring the American Dream. AEI is the most prominent think tank associated with American neoconservatism, in both the domestic and international policy arenas.
Irving Kristol considered to be one of the founding fathers of neoconservatism, was a senior fellow at AEI and many prominent neoconservatives—including Jeane Kirkpatrick, Ben Wattenberg, Joshua Muravchik—spent the bulk of their careers at AEI. AEI staff member Norman J. Ornstein, a self-identified centrist, criticizes commentators who label him a "neocon" and says that "the intellectual openness and lack of orthodoxy at AEI exceeds what I have seen on any college campus... ven though my writings have ticked off conservative ideologues and business interests—especially my deep involvement in campaign finance reform—I have never once been told,'You can't say that' or'You better be careful'". AEI staff have taken strong stances against agricultural subsidies. A 2007 document authored by Bruce Gardner claimed that "There is no need for farm subsidies, it would not hurt anyone if we eliminated them". According to the 2011 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report, AEI is number 17 in the "Top Thirty Worldwide Think Tanks" and number 10 in the "Top Fifty United States Think Tanks".
AEI grew out of the American Enterprise Association, founded in 1938 by a group of New York businessmen led by Lewis H. Brown. AEA's original mission was to promote a "greater public knowledge and understanding of the social and economic advantages accruing to the American people through the maintenance of the system of free, competitive enterprise". AEI's founders included executives from Eli Lilly, General Mills, Bristol-Myers, Chemical Bank and Paine Webber. In 1943, AEA's main offices were moved from New York City to Washington during a time when Congress's portfolio had vastly increased during World War II. AEA opposed the New Deal, aimed to propound classical liberal arguments for limited government. In 1944, AEA convened an Economic Advisory Board to set a high standard for research.