Winter of Discontent
The Winter of Discontent was the winter of 1978–79 in the United Kingdom, during which there were widespread strikes by public sector trade unions demanding larger pay rises, following the ongoing pay caps of the Labour Party government led by James Callaghan against Trades Union Congress opposition to control inflation, during the coldest winter for 16 years. The strikes were a result of the Labour government's attempt to control inflation by a forced departure from their social contract with the unions by imposing rules on the public sector that pay rises be kept below 5%, to control inflation in itself and as an example to the private sector. However, some employees' unions conducted their negotiations within mutually agreed limits above this limit with employers. While the strikes were over by February 1979, the government's inability to contain the strikes earlier helped lead to Margaret Thatcher's Conservative victory in the 1979 general election and legislation to restrict unions. Public sector employee strike actions included an unofficial strike by gravediggers working in Liverpool and Tameside, strikes by refuse collectors.
Additionally, NHS ancillary workers formed picket lines to blockade hospital entrances with the result that many hospitals were reduced to taking emergency patients only. The phrase "Winter of Discontent" is from the opening line of William Shakespeare's Richard III: "Now is the winter of our discontent / Made glorious summer by this sun of York", was first applied to the events of the winter by Robin Chater, a writer at Incomes Data Report, it was subsequently used in a speech by James Callaghan and translated to define a crisis by tabloids – including The Sun. The weather turned cold in the early months of 1979 with blizzards and deep snow, the coldest since 1962–63, rendering some jobs impossible, reducing retail spending and worsening the economy. In 1969, Labour politician James Callaghan led a cabinet revolt which led to the abandonment of a proposed reform of trade union law outlined in a Barbara Castle white paper called In Place of Strife. Britain's economy during the 1970s was so weak that Callaghan warned his fellow Cabinet members in 1974 of the possibility of "a breakdown of democracy", telling them that "If I were a young man, I would emigrate."
The Labour governments of Harold Wilson and Callaghan continued a fight begun in 1972 against inflation upon election in February 1974. Inflation had peaked at 26.9% in the 12 months to August 1975, but while demonstrating to markets fiscal responsibility they wished to avoid large increases in unemployment. As part of the campaign to bring down inflation, the government had agreed a "social contract" with the Trades Union Congress which allowed for a voluntary incomes policy in which the pay rises for workers were held down to limits set by the government. Previous governments had brought in incomes policies backed by Acts of Parliament, but the social contract agreed that this would not happen. Phase I of the pay policy was announced on 11 July 1975 with a white paper entitled The Attack on Inflation; this proposed a limit on wage rises of £6 per week for all earning below £8,500 annually. The TUC General Council had accepted these proposals by 19 votes to 13. On 5 May 1976 the TUC accepted a new policy for 1976 increases, beginning 1 August, of between £2.50 and £4 per week with further years outlined.
At the Annual Congress on 8 September 1976 the TUC rejected a motion which called for a return to free collective bargaining once Phase I expired on 1 August 1977. This new policy was Phase II of the incomes policy. On 15 July 1977, the Chancellor of the Exchequer Denis Healey announced Phase III of the incomes policy in which there was to be a phased return to free collective bargaining, without "a free-for-all". After prolonged negotiations, the TUC agreed to continue with the modest increases recommended for 1977–78 under Phase II limits and not to try to reopen pay agreements made under the previous policy, while the Government agreed not to intervene in pay negotiations; the Conservative Party criticised the power of the unions and lack of any stronger policy to cover the period from the summer of 1978. The inflation rate continued to fall through 1977 and by 1978 the annual rate fell below 10%. Having prepared for the imminent end of the incomes policy, global inflation supervened and was coming towards record levels during the 1978–82 period on 21 July 1978 Denis Healey introduced a new White Paper which set a guideline for pay rises of 5% in the year from 1 August.
The TUC voted overwhelmingly on 26 July to reject the limit and insist on a return to free collective bargaining as they were promised. Unexpectedly, on 7 September, Prime Minister James Callaghan announced that he would not be calling a general election that autumn but seeking to go through the winter with continued pay restraint so that the economy would be in a better state in preparation for a spring election; the pay limit was termed "Phase IV" but most referred to it as "the 5% limit". Although the government did not make the 5% limit a legal requirement, it decided to impose penalties on private and public government contractors who broke the limit. Although not an official guideline, the pay rise set by Ford of Britain was accepted throughout private industry as a benchmark for negotiations. Ford had enjoyed a good year, could afford to offer a large pay rise to its workers; the company was, however a major government contractor. Ford's management therefore made a pay offer within the 5% guidelines.
In response, 15,000 Ford workers from the Transport and General Workers Union, began an unofficial strik
Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the linear, historiographical approach to the time frame after post-classical history. Modern history can be further broken down into periods: The early modern period began in the early 16th century; the late modern period began in the mid-18th century. It took all of human history up to 1804 for the world's population to reach 1 billion. Contemporary history is the span of historic events from 1945 that are relevant to the present time; this article covers the 1800–1950 time period with a brief summary of 1500–1800. For a more in depth article on modern times before 1800, see Early Modern period. In the pre-modern era, many people's sense of self and purpose was expressed via a faith in some form of deity, be it that in a single God or in many gods. Pre-modern cultures have not been thought of creating a sense of distinct individuality, though. Religious officials, who held positions of power, were the spiritual intermediaries to the common person.
It was only through these intermediaries. Tradition was sacred to ancient cultures and was unchanging and the social order of ceremony and morals in a culture could be enforced; the term modern was coined in the 16th century to indicate recent times. The European Renaissance, which marked the transition between the Late Middle Ages and Early Modern times, started in Italy and was spurred in part by the rediscovery of classical art and literature, as well as the new perspectives gained from the Age of Discovery and the invention of the telescope and microscope, expanding the borders of thought and knowledge. In contrast to the pre-modern era, Western civilization made a gradual transition from pre-modernity to modernity when scientific methods were developed which led many to believe that the use of science would lead to all knowledge, thus throwing back the shroud of myth under which pre-modern peoples lived. New information about the world was discovered via empirical observation, versus the historic use of reason and innate knowledge.
The term Early Modern was introduced in the English language in the 1930s to distinguish the time between what has been called the Middle Ages and time of the late Enlightenment. It is important to note. In usage in other parts of the world, such as in Asia, in Muslim countries, the terms are applied in a different way, but in the context with their contact with European culture in the Age of Discovery. In the Contemporary era, there were various socio-technological trends. Regarding the 21st century and the late modern world, the Information Age and computers were forefront in use, not ubiquitous but present in everyday life; the development of Eastern powers was with China and India becoming more powerful. In the Eurasian theater, the European Union and Russian Federation were two forces developed. A concern for Western world, if not the whole world, was the late modern form of terrorism and the warfare that has resulted from the contemporary terrorist acts; the modern period has been a period of significant development in the fields of science, politics and technology.
It has been an age of discovery and globalization. During this time, the European powers and their colonies, began a political and cultural colonization of the rest of the world. By the late 19th and 20th centuries, modernist art, politics and culture has come to dominate not only Western Europe and North America, but every civilized area on the globe, including movements thought of as opposed to the west and globalization; the modern era is associated with the development of individualism, urbanization and a belief in the possibilities of technological and political progress. Wars and other perceived problems of this era, many of which come from the effects of rapid change, the connected loss of strength of traditional religious and ethical norms, have led to many reactions against modern development. Optimism and belief in constant progress has been most criticized by postmodernism while the dominance of Western Europe and Anglo-America over other continents has been criticized by postcolonial theory.
One common conception of modernity is the condition of Western history since the mid-15th century, or the European development of movable type and the printing press. In this context the "modern" society is said to develop over many periods, to be influenced by important events that represent breaks in the continuity; the modern era includes the early period, called the early modern period, which lasted from c. 1500 to around c. 1800. Particular facets of early modernity include: The Renaissance in Italy The Reformation and Counter Reformation The Age of Discovery The Columbian Exchange and Colonization of the Americas The rise of mercantilism and capitalism The Golden Age of PiracyImportant events in the early modern period include: The spread of the printing press The Thirty Years' War and the Peace of Westphalia in Europe The English Civil War, the Glorious Revolution, the union
Anthony Neil Wedgwood Benn known as Anthony Wedgwood Benn, but as Tony Benn, was a British politician and diarist. He was a Member of Parliament for 47 years between the 1950 and 2001 general elections and a Cabinet minister in the Labour governments of Harold Wilson and James Callaghan in the 1960s and 1970s. A moderate, he was identified as being on the party's hard left from the early 1980s, was seen as a key proponent of democratic socialism within the party. Benn inherited a peerage on his father's death, which prevented his continuing as an MP, he fought to remain in the House of Commons, campaigned for the ability to renounce the title, a campaign which succeeded with the Peerage Act 1963. He was an active member of the Fabian Society and was its Chairman from 1964 until 1965. In the Labour Government of 1964–70 he served first as Postmaster General, where he oversaw the opening of the Post Office Tower, as a "technocratic" Minister of Technology, he served as Chairman of the Labour Party in 1971–72 while in opposition, in the Labour Government of 1974–1979, he returned to the Cabinet as Secretary of State for Industry, before being made Secretary of State for Energy, retaining his post when James Callaghan replaced Wilson as Prime Minister.
When the Labour Party was again in opposition through the 1980s, he emerged as a prominent figure on its left wing and the term "Bennite" came into currency as someone associated with radical left-wing politics. He unsuccessfully challenged Neil Kinnock for the Labour leadership in 1988. Benn was described as "one of the few UK politicians to have become more left-wing after holding ministerial office". After leaving Parliament, Benn was President of the Stop the War Coalition from 2001 until his death in 2014. Benn was born in Westminster, London on 3 April 1925, he had two brothers, killed in the Second World War, David, a specialist in Russia and Eastern Europe. After the Thames flood in January 1928 their house was uninhabitable so the Benn family moved to Scotland for over 12 months, their father, William Wedgwood Benn, was a Liberal Member of Parliament from 1906 who crossed the floor to the Labour Party in 1928 and was appointed Secretary of State for India by Ramsay MacDonald in 1929, a position he held until the Labour Party's landslide electoral defeat in 1931.
William Benn was elevated to the House of Lords and Tony Benn was subsequently titled with the honorific prefix, The Honourable. William Benn was given the title of Viscount Stansgate in 1942: the new wartime coalition government was short of working Labour peers in the upper house. In 1945–46, William Benn was the Secretary of State for Air in the first majority Labour Government. Benn's mother, Margaret Wedgwood Benn, was a theologian and the founder President of the Congregational Federation, she was a member of the League of the Church Militant, the predecessor of the Movement for the Ordination of Women. His mother's theology had a profound influence on Benn, as she taught him that the stories in the Bible were based around the struggle between the prophets and the kings and that he ought in his life to support the prophets over the kings, who had power, as the prophets taught righteousness. Benn asserted that the teachings of Jesus Christ had a "radical political importance" on his life, made a distinction between the historical Jesus as "a carpenter of Nazareth" who advocated social justice and egalitarianism and "the way in which he's presented by some religious authorities.
He believed that it was a "great mistake" to assume that the teachings of Christianity are outdated in modern Britain, Higgins wrote in The Benn Inheritance that Benn was "a socialist whose political commitment owes much more to the teaching of Jesus than the writing of Marx". In his life, Benn emphasised issues regarding morality and righteousness, as well as various ethical principles of Nonconformism. "I've never thought we can understand the world we lived in unless we understood the history of the church", Benn said to the Catholic Herald. "All political freedoms were won, first of all, through religious freedom. Some of the arguments about the control of the media today, which are big arguments, are the arguments that would have been fought in the religious wars. You have the satellites coming in now—well, it is the multinational church all over again. That's why Mrs Thatcher pulled Britain out of UNESCO: she was not prepared, any more than Ronald Reagan was, to be part of an organisation that talked about a New World Information Order, people speaking to each other without the help of Murdoch or Maxwell."According to Peter Wilby in the New Statesman, Benn "decided to do without the paraphernalia and doctrine of organised religion but not without the teachings of Jesus".
Although Benn became more agnostic as he became older, he was intrigued by the interconnections between Christianity and socialism. Wilby wrote in The Guardian that although former Chancellor Stafford Cripps described Benn as "as keen a Christian as I am myself", Benn wrote in 2005 that he was "a Christian agnostic" who believed "in Jesus the prophet, not Christ the king" rejecting the label of "humanist". Both of Benn's grandfathers were Liberal Party MPs.
Swansea University is a public research university located in Swansea, United Kingdom. It was chartered as University College of Swansea in 1920, as the fourth college of the University of Wales. In 1996, it changed its name to the University of Wales Swansea following structural changes within the University of Wales; the title of Swansea University was formally adopted on 1 September 2007 when the University of Wales became a non-membership confederal institution and the former members became universities in their own right. Swansea University has 7 colleges spread across its two campuses which are located on the coastline of Swansea Bay; the Singleton Park Campus is set in the grounds of Singleton Park to the west of Swansea city centre. The £450 million Bay Campus, which opened in September 2015, is located adjacent to Jersey Marine Beach to the east of Swansea city centre, it is the third largest university in Wales in terms of number of students. It offers about 330 undergraduate courses and 120 post-graduate courses to 19,160 undergraduate and postgraduate students.
In 2014 Swansea was named University of the Year in the WhatUni.com Student Choice Awards and shortlisted in the same category in the Times Higher Education awards. In 2016, Swansea University was named as the best university in Wales by The Times and The Sunday Times Good University Guide 2017 League Table, it was awarded the inaugural Welsh University of the Year title. In 2017, Hillary Rodham Clinton received an honorary doctorate at Swansea University and unveiled a commemorative stone to mark the renaming of the College of Law to the Hillary Rodham Clinton School of Law; the University College, was established in 1920, opening its doors on 5 October. At the time, it was the youngest of the four colleges of the University of Wales, it was established on the recommendations of a Royal Commission set up in 1916. The college was founded on what were perceived as the needs and the wants of the local area, Swansea's main industries in particular; the Park Campus houses the oldest parts of the university's estate, including Singleton Abbey, a large eighteenth-century mansion, the ancestral home of the Vivian family, having been bought by the prominent industrialist, John Henry Vivian.
Swansea University's foundation stone was laid in 1920 by King George V in July 1920, welcoming 89 students, of whom eight were female. Subjects taught from the beginning of the College were the Sciences, Mathematics and Engineering; the professors were A. R. Richardson, E. J. Evans, J. E. Coates, A. E. Trueman, C. A. Edwards and F. Bacon; the university was granted a coat of arms by the College of Heralds in 1921 with the motto Gweddw Crefft Heb Ei Dawn, translated as Technical Skill is Bereft Without Culture. Arts subjects were not taught in 1920, but started in the following'session', 1921–22; the first professors in those initial departments were D. Emrys Evans, W. D. Thomas, Henry Lewis, E. Ernest Hughes, F. A. Cavenagh and Mary Williams. Williams was the first woman to be appointed to a Chair in the United Kingdom; this met with some reaction from senior men at the College, one of whom she would marry. Saunders Lewis, the well-known Welsh language writer and activist, became a member of staff in 1922 although he ran up against controversy in 1936/37 for trying to set fire to a Royal Air Force bombing school on the Llyn Peninsula.
He was sent to prison for nine months. When Singleton Abbey and its surrounding land was handed to the college in 1923, Arts subjects were moved there from the College's temporary site in Mount Pleasant. Student numbers remained small until the Second World War. Swansea acquired departments of Philosophy 1925, German in 1931, economics in 1937, Social Policy in 1947, Political Theory and Government in 1954 – the same year that a civil engineering and a Geography department were added. In 1961 Swansea became a centre for Russian and East European Studies, whilst Italian and Spanish joined the Department of French. There were many notable staff members at the University in the period, including the long-serving female professor of Botany, Florence Mockeridge. Another was Professor Glanmor Williams who retired in 1982. Other well-known staff members were the author of novels such as Lucky Jim and That Uncertain Feeling, Kingsley Amis, who lectured in English in the 1950s and early 1960s. In 1947, John Fulton, Baron Fulton, the University Principal, had designs on creating the UK's first contained university campus.
Located in the vast expanse of Singleton Park, the university only had 2 permanent buildings. The 1960s saw the university embark on a large campus development programme, aiming to fulfill Fulton's plan of becoming a self-contained community within the city. Along with new halls of residence, a Maths and Science Tower was built, with College House – renamed Fulton House. For most of its history, Swansea University operated from the Singleton Park Campus. However, owing to rapid expansion, the university developed a 65-acre, £450 million beachfront science and innovation Bay Campus which opened in September 2015. Since 2015, Swansea University has operated as a dual-campus university with the'Park Campus' located in its traditional Singleton Park grounds, the Bay Campus, at Crymlyn Burrows; the Bay campus has been developed on a 65
Aberdyfi is a village and community on the north side of the estuary of the River Dyfi in Gwynedd, on the west coast of Wales. The Community had a population of 878 as of the 2011 census; the electoral ward having a larger population of 1282. The village was founded around the harbour and shipbuilding industry, but is now best known as a seaside resort with a high quality beach; the town centre is on the river and seafront, around the original harbour and beach but it stretches back from the coast and up the steep hillside in the midst of typical Welsh coastal scenery of steep green hills and sheep farms. Penhelig, with its own railway station, is the eastern part of the town. Aberdyfi is a popular tourist attraction, with many returning holidaymakers from the metropolitan areas of England, such as the West Midlands, less than 100 miles to the east. A large proportion of houses in the village are now holiday homes, resulting in high house prices; the town is located within the Snowdonia National Park.
In the 2011 census, 38.5% of the population of Aberdyfi ward identified themselves as Welsh. An alternative, anglicised spelling of the village name is Aberdovey; this is historical but still used e.g. for the railway station. Local tradition suggests that the Romans established a track into Aberdyfi as part of the military occupation of Wales around AD78; the strategic location in mid-Wales was the site of several conferences between north and south Wales princes in 540, 1140, for the Council of Aberdyfi in 1216. The hill in the centre of Aberdyfi, Pen-y-Bryn, has been claimed to be the site of fortifications in the 1150s, which were soon destroyed; the site of Aberdyfi Castle however is said to be at the motte earthworks further up the river near Glandyfi. During the Spanish Armada of 1597, a Spanish ship, the Bear of Amsterdam missed her objective at Milford Haven and ended up having entered the Dyfi estuary, she was unable to leave for 10 days because of the wind and could not be boarded as no suitable boats were available.
An attempt to burn her was frustrated by winds and when she did leave she ended up being captured by a waiting English fleet off the Cornish coast. In the 1700s, the village grew with the appearance of several of the inns still in current use. Copper was mined in the present Copperhill Street, lead in Penhelig. An electoral ward in the same name exists; this ward includes Pennal community. The total population of the ward taken at the 2011 census was 1,282. In the 1800s, Aberdyfi was at its peak as a port. Major exports were oak bark. Ship building was based in seven shipyards in Penhelig where 45 sailing ships were built between 1840 and 1880; the railway came to Aberdyfi in 1863 built by the Welsh Coast Railway. The first train was ferried across the River Dyfi, as the line to Dovey Junction and Machynlleth was not completed until 1867. Due to public demand, this section had to use a long tunnel behind Aberdyfi, further major earthworks and tunnels were needed along the bank of the river; this line, which became part of the Cambrian Railways, the Great Western Railway, is scenic.
A jetty was built with railway lines connecting it with the wharf and the main line. The Aberdyfi & Waterford Steamship Company imported livestock from Ireland which were taken further by the railway. Coal and timber were imported. Local coastal shipping links with Liverpool were strong, with many Aberdyfi men sailing on international voyages from Liverpool; the S. S. Dora was one of the last ships trading between Aberdyfi and Liverpool and was scuttled, with no loss of life, by a German submarine in 1917; the jetty and wharf continued in commercial use for coal until 1959. After prolonged negotiations, redevelopments from 1968–1971, including rebuilding the jetty, led to their present use for recreational purposes; some local fishing still occurs. The first Outward Bound centre was opened in Aberdyfi in 1941. Many of their activities involve the river and jetty; the first Aberdyfi lifeboat was bought in 1837. Run by the RNLI since 1853, it has taken part in many rescues, sometimes with loss of life of crew members.
The current lifeboat, an Atlantic 75, is housed in the boathouse by the jetty and is launched using a lifeboat tractor. It is averaging about 25 emergency launches each year. Chapels in Aberdyfi include the Welsh Calvinistic Methodist chapel, the English Presbyterian chapel, the Wesleyan Methodist chapel, the Welsh Independent congregational chapel; the Church in Wales is St Peter's. Road access to Aberdyfi is by the A493, with Tywyn four miles to the north and Machynlleth 11 miles to the east. Aberdyfi is on the Cambrian Coast railway line; the village of Aberdyfi has two railway stations and Penhelig. Trains on the Cambrian Line are operated by Transport for Wales; the local bus service is operated by Lloyds Coaches with services to Tywyn, where a connection can be made for Dolgellau, to Machynlleth, where connections are available to Aberystwyth. A ferry used to operate across the Dyfi river to Ynyslas; the last ferryman was Ellis Williams. Popular recreational activities focus on the beach and watersports, such as windsurfing, fishing, crabbing and canoeing on the estuary.
Activities in Aberdyfi The Dovey Yacht Club has a prominent position on the river front of the village. It was helped develop the popularity of the GP14 dinghy class, it organises races for dinghies throughout the season on the estuary of the River Dyfi. The Aberdovey Golf Club, founded in 1892, is a famous 18
History of the British Isles
The British Isles have witnessed intermittent periods of competition and cooperation between the people that occupy the various parts of Great Britain, the Isle of Man, the Bailiwick of Guernsey, the Bailiwick of Jersey and the smaller adjacent islands. Today, the British Isles contain two sovereign states: the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom. There are three Crown dependencies: Guernsey and the Isle of Man; the United Kingdom comprises England, Northern Ireland and Wales, each country having its own history, with all but Northern Ireland having been independent states at one point. The history of the formation of the United Kingdom is complex; the British monarch was head of state of all of the countries of the British Isles from the Union of the Crowns in 1603 until the enactment of the Republic of Ireland Act in 1949, although the term "British Isles" was not used in 1603. Additionally, since the independence of most of Ireland, historians of the region avoid the term British Isles due to the complexity of relations between the peoples of the archipelago.
The Palaeolithic and Mesolithic known as the Old and Middle Stone Ages, were characterised by a hunter-gatherer economy and a reliance on stone tool technologies. The Lower Palaeolithic period in the British Isles saw the region's first known habitation by early hominids the extinct Homo heidelbergensis. One of the most prominent archaeological sites dating to this period is that of Boxgrove Quarry in West Sussex, southern England. By the Mesolithic, Homo sapiens, or modern humans, were the only hominid species to still survive in the British Isles. British Isles were linked to continental Europe by a territory named Doggerland. In the British Isles, the Neolithic and Bronze Ages saw the transformation of British and Irish society and landscape, it saw the adoption of agriculture, as communities gave up their hunter-gatherer modes of existence to begin farming. As its name suggests, the British Iron Age is characterised by the adoption of iron, a metal, used to produce a variety of different tools and weapons.
In the course of the first millennium BC, earlier, some combination of trans-cultural diffusion and immigration from continental Europe resulted in the establishment of Celtic languages in the islands giving rise to the Insular Celtic group. What languages were spoken in the islands before is unknown, though they are assumed to have been Pre-Indo-European. In 55 and 54 BC, Roman general and future dictator Gaius Julius Caesar launched two separate invasions of the British Isles, though neither resulted in a full Roman occupation of the island. In 43 AD, southern Britain became part of the Roman Empire. On Nero's accession Roman Britain extended as far north as Lindum. Gaius Suetonius Paulinus, the conqueror of Mauretania became governor of Britain, where he spent most of his governorship campaigning in Wales. In 60 AD he penned up the last resistance and the last of the druids in the island of Mona. Paulinus led his army across the Menai Strait and massacred the druids and burnt their sacred groves.
At the moment of triumph, news came of the Boudican revolt in East Anglia. The suppression of the Boudican revolt was followed by a period of expansion of the Roman province, including the subjugation of south Wales. Between 77 and 83 AD the new governor Gnaeus Julius Agricola led a series of campaigns which enlarged the province taking in north Wales, northern Britain, most of Caledonia; the Celts fought with determination and resilience, but faced a superior, professional army, it is that between 100,000 and 250,000 may have perished in the conquest period. The Early medieval period saw a series of invasions of Britain by the Germanic-speaking Saxons, beginning in the 5th century. Anglo-Saxon kingdoms were formed and, through wars with British states came to cover the territory of present-day England. Around 600, seven principal kingdoms had emerged, beginning the so-called period of the Heptarchy. During that period, the Anglo-Saxon states were Christianised. In the 9th century, Vikings from Denmark and Norway conquered most of England.
Only the Kingdom of Wessex under Alfred the Great survived and managed to re-conquer and unify England for much of the 10th century, before a new series of Danish raids in the late 10th century and early 11th century culminated in the wholesale subjugation of England to Denmark under Canute the Great. Danish rule was overthrown and the local House of Wessex was restored to power under Edward the Confessor for about two decades until his death in 1066. In 1066, Duke of Normandy said he was the rightful heir to the English throne, invaded England, defeated King Harold II at the Battle of Hastings. Proclaiming himself to be King William I, he strengthened his regime by appointing loyal members of the Norman elite to many positions of authority, building a system of castles across the country and ordering a census of his new kingdom, the Domesday Book; the Late Medieval period was characterised by many battles between England and France, coming to a head in the Hundred Years' War from which France emerged victorious.
The monarchs throughout the Late Medieval period belonged to the houses of Plantaganet and York. Major historical events in the early modern period include the English Renaissance, the English Reformation and Scottish Reformation, the English Civil War, the Restoration of Charles II, the Glorious Revolution, the Treaty of Union, the Scottish Enlightenment and the formation of the First British Empire; the Kingdom of
University of Wales
The University of Wales was a confederal university based in Cardiff, Wales, UK. Founded by Royal Charter in 1893 as a federal university with three constituent colleges – Aberystwyth and Cardiff – the university was the first and oldest university in Wales, one of the four countries in the United Kingdom; the university was the second largest university in the UK. A federal university similar to the University of London, the University of Wales was in charge of examining students, while its colleges were in charge of teaching; the University of Wales was the only university in Wales until the establishment of the University of Glamorgan in 1992. Former colleges under the University of Wales included most universities in Wales: Aberystwyth University, Bangor University, St David's University College, Cardiff University, Swansea University, Cardiff Metropolitan University and University of Wales, Newport. In 2007, the University of Wales changed from a federal structure to a confederal one and many of the constituent colleges became independent universities.
Following a number of controversies in the late 2000s involving overseas affiliates and student visas, a decision was made to abolish the university as it existed. From August 2017 it has been functionally integrated with the University of Wales Trinity Saint David although a legal merger has not been finalised; the University of Wales was founded in Wales in 1893 as a federal university with three foundation colleges: University College Wales, founded in 1872. The last two had been founded following the Aberdare Report in 1881. Prior to the foundation of the federal university, these three colleges had prepared students for the examinations of the University of London. A fourth college, was added in 1920 and in 1931 the Welsh National School of Medicine was incorporated. In 1967 the Welsh College of Advanced Technology entered the federal university as the University of Wales Institute of Science and Technology in Cardiff. In 1971 St David's College, Wales' oldest degree-awarding institution, suspended its own degree-awarding powers and entered the University of Wales.
A financial crisis in the late eighties caused UWIST and University College Cardiff to merge in 1988, forming the University of Wales College Cardiff. In 1992 the university lost its position as the only university in Wales when the Polytechnic of Wales became the University of Glamorgan; the university was composed of colleges until 1996, when the university was reorganised with a two-tier structure of member institutions in order to absorb the Cardiff Institute of Higher Education and the Gwent College of Higher Education. The existing colleges became constituent institutions and the two new member institutions became university colleges. In 2003, both of these colleges became full constituent institutions and in 2004 UWCN received permission from the Privy Council to change its name to the University of Wales, Newport. Cardiff University and the University of Wales College of Medicine merged on 1 August 2004; the merged institution, known as Cardiff University, ceased to be a constituent institution and joined a new category of'Affiliated/Linked Institutions'.
While the new institution continued to award University of Wales degrees in medicine and related subjects, students joining Cardiff from 2005 to study other subjects were awarded Cardiff University degrees. At the same time, the university admitted four new institutions. Thus, North East Wales Institute of Higher Education, Swansea Institute of Higher Education and Trinity College, Carmarthen along with the Royal Welsh College of Music & Drama were admitted as full members of the university on 27 July 2004; the Royal Welsh College of Music & Drama subsequently left the university in January 2007. More changes followed in September 2007 when the university changed from a federal structure to a confederation of independent institutions, allowing those individual institutions which had gained the status of universities in their own right to use the title of university – these institutions are Aberystwyth University, Bangor University, Glyndŵr University, Swansea Metropolitan University and Swansea University.
In November 2008, Aberystwyth and Swansea Universities decided to exercise their right to register students to study for their own awarded degrees. In 2010 the university broke its links with a Malaysian college after it was discovered its director had bogus qualifications, while a Thai institution linked to the university was found to be operating illegally. In June 2011, a report from the Quality Assurance Agency found that the university had not run the necessary checks on institutes delivering courses it validated, instructed it to review all of its