Erastus Otis Haven
Erastus Otis Haven was an American bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church, elected in 1880, the president of several universities. Haven was born in Boston, Massachusetts to Jotham Haven, Jr. and Elizabeth Haven, having descended from early colonists from Massachusetts Bay Colony, including Edmund Rice one of the founders of Sudbury, Massachusetts. He is a descendant of John Alden of the Mayflower, he graduated from Wesleyan University in 1842. He had charge of a private academy at Sudbury, while at the same time pursuing a course of theological and general study, he became Principal of Amenia Seminary, New York, in 1846. He entered the Methodist ministry in the New York Annual Conference in 1848. Five years he accepted the professorship of Latin at the University of Michigan; the following year he became the Chair of English language and history. He resigned in 1856 and returned to Boston, where he served as the editor of Zion's Herald for seven years. During this time he served two terms in the Massachusetts State Senate, part of the time as an overseer of Harvard University.
In 1863 he became the second President of the University of Michigan. He became the sixth President of Methodist-related Northwestern University, Illinois. In 1872 he was chosen Secretary of the Board of Education of the M. E. Church. In 1874 he became the Chancellor of Methodist-related Syracuse University in New York. In 1880 he was elected a bishop. Bishop Haven was a man of great versatility of talent; as a preacher he was able and earnest and hortatory rather than oratorical. As an administrator he was judicious and successful, but wearied among the details of perceptoral duties, his religious convictions were positive and controlling in all his life, while ardently devoted to his own denomination, he was broadly and generously catholic toward all other Christian bodies. He was given the degree of D. D. by Union College in 1854, a few years that of LL. D. by Ohio Wesleyan University. Prior to his election to the Episcopacy, he served five times in the General Conference of the M. E. Church, in 1879 visited Great Britain as a delegate of the M.
E. Church to the parent Wesleyan body. A street in Evanston, Illinois is named in his memory and an endowed chair held by Carole LaBonne and Luís Amaral, was established by Northwestern University, he died in Salem and was buried at Lee Mission Cemetery in Salem. American Progress The Young Man Advised, New York, 1855. Pillars of Truth, 1866. Rhetoric Autobiography of Erastus O. Haven, D. D. LL. D. 1883 List of Bishops of the United Methodist Church Presidents of Northwestern University Works by or about Erastus Otis Haven at Internet Archive Erastus Otis Haven on LocalWiki A Classic Town: The Story of Evanston By Frances Elizabeth Willard
Purdue University is a public research university in West Lafayette and the flagship campus of the Purdue University system. The university was founded in 1869 after Lafayette businessman John Purdue donated land and money to establish a college of science and agriculture in his name; the first classes were held on September 1874, with six instructors and 39 students. The main campus in West Lafayette offers more than 200 majors for undergraduates, over 69 masters and doctoral programs, professional degrees in pharmacy and veterinary medicine. In addition, Purdue has more than 900 student organizations. Purdue is a member of the Big Ten Conference and enrolls the second largest student body of any university in Indiana, as well as the fourth largest foreign student population of any university in the United States. In 1865, the Indiana General Assembly voted to take advantage of the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act of 1862, began plans to establish an institution with a focus on agriculture and engineering.
Communities throughout the state offered their facilities and money to bid for the location of the new college. Popular proposals included the addition of an agriculture department at Indiana State University or at what is now Butler University. By 1869, Tippecanoe County’s offer included $150,000 from Lafayette business leader and philanthropist John Purdue, $50,000 from the county, 100 acres of land from local residents. On May 6, 1869, the General Assembly established the institution in Tippecanoe County as Purdue University, in the name of the principal benefactor. Classes began at Purdue on September 1874, with six instructors and 39 students. Professor John S. Hougham was Purdue’s first faculty member and served as acting president between the administrations of presidents Shortridge and White. A campus of five buildings was completed by the end of 1874. Purdue issued its first degree, a Bachelor of Science in chemistry, in 1875 and admitted its first female students that fall. Emerson E. White, the university’s president from 1876 to 1883, followed a strict interpretation of the Morrill Act.
Rather than emulate the classical universities, White believed Purdue should be an "industrial college" and devote its resources toward providing a liberal education with an emphasis on science and agriculture. He intended not only to prepare students for industrial work, but to prepare them to be good citizens and family members. Part of White's plan to distinguish Purdue from classical universities included a controversial attempt to ban fraternities; this ban was overturned by the Indiana Supreme Court and led to White's resignation. The next president, James H. Smart, is remembered for his call in 1894 to rebuild the original Heavilon Hall "one brick higher" after it had been destroyed by a fire. By the end of the nineteenth century, the university was organized into schools of agriculture and pharmacy, former U. S. President Benjamin Harrison was serving on the board of trustees. Purdue's engineering laboratories included testing facilities for a locomotive and a Corliss steam engine, one of the most efficient engines of the time.
The School of Agriculture was sharing its research with farmers throughout the state with its cooperative extension services and would undergo a period of growth over the following two decades. Programs in education and home economics were soon established, as well as a short-lived school of medicine. By 1925 Purdue had the largest undergraduate engineering enrollment in the country, a status it would keep for half a century. President Edward C. Elliott oversaw a campus building program between the world wars. Inventor and trustee David E. Ross coordinated several fundraisers, donated lands to the university, was instrumental in establishing the Purdue Research Foundation. Ross's gifts and fundraisers supported such projects as Ross–Ade Stadium, the Memorial Union, a civil engineering surveying camp, Purdue University Airport. Purdue Airport was the country's first university-owned airport and the site of the country's first college-credit flight training courses. Amelia Earhart joined the Purdue faculty in 1935 as a consultant for these flight courses and as a counselor on women's careers.
In 1937, the Purdue Research Foundation provided the funds for the Lockheed Electra 10-E Earhart flew on her attempted round-the-world flight. Every school and department at the university was involved in some type of military research or training during World War II. During a project on radar receivers, Purdue physicists discovered properties of germanium that led to the making of the first transistor; the Army and the Navy conducted training programs at Purdue and more than 17,500 students and alumni served in the armed forces. Purdue set up about a hundred centers throughout Indiana to train skilled workers for defense industries; as veterans returned to the university under the G. I. Bill, first-year classes were taught at some of these sites to alleviate the demand for campus space. Four of these sites are now degree-granting regional campuses of the Purdue University system. Purdue's on-campus housing became racially desegregated in 1947, following pressure from Purdue President Frederick L. Hovde and Indiana Governor Ralph F. Gates.
After the war, Hovde worked to expand the academic opportunities at the university. A decade-long construction program emphasized research. In the late 1950s and early 1960s the university established programs in veterinary medicine, industrial management, nursing, as well as the first computer science department in the United States. Undergraduate humanities courses were strengthened
Syracuse University is a private research university in Syracuse, New York, United States. The institution's roots can be traced to the Genesee Wesleyan Seminary, founded in 1831 by the Methodist Episcopal Church in Lima, New York. After several years of debate over relocating the college to Syracuse, the university was established in 1870, independent of the college. Since 1920, the university has identified itself as nonsectarian, although it maintains a relationship with The United Methodist Church; the campus is in the University Hill neighborhood of Syracuse and southeast of downtown, on one of the larger hills. Its large campus features an eclectic mix of buildings, ranging from nineteenth-century Romanesque Revival structures to contemporary buildings. SU is organized into 13 schools and colleges, with nationally recognized programs in information studies and library science, communications, business administration, inclusive education and wellness, sport management, public administration and the College of Arts and Sciences.
Syracuse University athletic teams, known as the Orange, participate in 20 intercollegiate sports. SU is a member of the Atlantic Coast Conference, or ACC for all NCAA Division I athletics, except for the men's rowing and women's ice hockey teams. SU is a member of the Eastern College Athletic Conference; the Genesee Wesleyan Seminary was founded in 1831 by the Genesee Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Lima, New York, south of Rochester. In 1850, it was resolved to enlarge the institution from a seminary into a college, or to connect a college with the seminary, becoming Genesee College. However, the location was soon thought by many to be insufficiently central, its difficulties were compounded by the next set of technological changes: the railroad that displaced the Erie Canal as the region's economic engine bypassed Lima completely. The trustees of the struggling college decided to seek a locale whose economic and transportation advantages could provide a better base of support.
The college began looking for a new home at the same time Syracuse, ninety miles to the east, was engaged in a search to bring a university to the city, having failed to convince Ezra Cornell and Andrew Dickson White to locate Cornell University there rather than in Ithaca. Syracuse resident White pressed that the new university should locate on the hill in Syracuse due to the city's attractive transportation hub, which would ease the recruitment of faculty and other persons of note. However, as a young carpenter working in Syracuse, Cornell had been twice robbed of his wages, thereafter considered Syracuse a Sodom and Gomorrah insisting the university be in Ithaca on his large farm on East Hill, overlooking the town and Cayuga Lake. Meanwhile, there were several years of dispute between the Methodist ministers and contending cities across the state, over proposals to move Genesee College to Syracuse. At the time, the ministers wanted a share of the funds from the Morrill Land Grant Act for Genesee College.
They agreed to a quid pro quo donation of $25,000 from Senator Cornell in exchange for their support for his bill. Cornell insisted the bargain be written into the bill and Cornell became New York State's Land Grant University in 1865. In 1869, Genesee College obtained New York State approval to move to Syracuse, but Lima got a court injunction to block the move, Genesee stayed in Lima until it was dissolved in 1875. By that time, the court injunction had been made moot by the founding of a new university on March 24, 1870. On that date the State of New York granted the new Syracuse University its own charter, independent of Genesee College; the City of Syracuse had offered $100,000 to establish the school. Bishop Jesse Truesdell Peck had donated $25,000 to the proposed school and was elected the first president of the Board of Trustees. Rev. Daniel Steele, a former Genesee College president, served as the first administrative leader of Syracuse until its chancellor was appointed; the university opened in September 1871 in rented space downtown.
George F. Comstock, a member of the new university's board of trustees, had offered the school 50 acres of farmland on a hillside to the southeast of the city center. Comstock intended the hill to develop as an integrated whole; the university was founded as coeducational. President Peck stated at the opening ceremonies, "The conditions of admission shall be equal to all persons... There shall be no invidious discrimination here against woman.... Brains and heart shall have a fair chance... " Syracuse implemented this policy with a high proportion of women students. In the College of Liberal Arts, the ratio between male and female students during the 19th century was even; the College of Fine Arts was predominantly female, a low ratio of women enrolled in the College of Medicine and the College of Law. Men and women were taught together in the same courses, many extra-curricular activities were coeducational as well. Syracuse developed "women-only" organizations and clubs. Coeducation at Syracuse traced its roots to the early days of Genesee College where educators and students like Frances Willard and Belva Lockwood were influenced by the Women's movement in nearby Seneca Falls, NY.
However, the progressive "co-ed" policies practiced at Genesee would soon find controversy at the new university in Syracuse. C
James Roscoe Day
The Rev. James Roscoe Day, D. D. L. L. D. was an American Methodist minister and chancellor of Syracuse University. Day was born in Whitneyville, Maine, on June 7, 1845, he was in 1872 ordained a minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church. He was pastor at Bath, from 1872 to 1874. Day became chancellor of Syracuse University in 1893, he declined the post to stay at Syracuse. Day is credited with helping to expand the University as several important buildings were constructed during his tenure including the Archbold Gymnasium, Bowne Hall, Carnegie Library, Goldstein Faculty Center, Lyman Hall, Machinery Hall, Slocum Hall, Sims Hall, Smith Hall, Steel Hall and the Tolley Administration Building. Day wrote The Raid on Prosperity and My Neighbor the Workingman. Day died in Atlantic City, New Jersey, on March 13, 1923. Archbold Stadium John Dustin Archbold List of Chancellors of Syracuse University List of Syracuse University buildings This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C..
"article name needed". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. "Chancellor James Roscoe Day Papers," Syracuse University Archives Obituary, The New York Times, March 13, 1923
Granite City, Illinois
Granite City is a city in Madison County, United States, within the Greater St. Louis metropolitan area; the population was 29,849 at the 2010 census, making it the second-largest city in the Metro East and Southern Illinois regions, behind Belleville. Founded in 1896, Granite City was named by the Niedringhaus brothers and Frederick, who established it as a steel making company town for the manufacture of kitchen utensils made to resemble granite; the area was settled much earlier than Granite City's official founding. In the early 19th century, settlers began to farm the rich fertile grounds to the east of St. Louis. Around 1801, the area saw the establishment of Six Mile Settlement, a farming area that occupied the area of present-day Granite City, six miles from St. Louis. Soon after, around 1806, the National Road was to be constructed through the area, but it was never completed. By 1817, the area became to distinguish it from Six Mile Township. By 1854, the first railroad was built. In 1856, the area known as Six Mile would be changed to Kinder.
Granite City was founded in 1896 to be a planned company city similar to Pullman, Illinois, by German immigrant brothers Frederick G. and William Niedringhaus for their Granite ware kitchen supplies factory. Since 1866, the brothers had been operating the St. Louis Stamping Company, an iron works company, that made kitchen utensils in St. Louis, Missouri. In the 1870s, William discovered an enamelware process in Europe whereby metal utensils could be coated with enamel to make them lighter and more resistant to oxidation. At the time, most enamelware was just one color as the additions of any colors to the process was inefficient. On June 1, 1878, William applied for Patent 207543 to improve the efficiency whereby a pattern could be applied to enamelware while the enamel was still wet by placing a thin piece of paper with an oxidized pattern on top of it; the paper would fall off in the drying process and the pattern was embedded. The brothers' pattern made; the resulting product was enormously popular.
The brothers opened the Granite Iron Rolling Mills in St. Louis to provide tin to its prospering kitchen supplies manufacturer; the imported tin had a $22 per ton tariff. Frederick ran for Congress in Missouri in 1888. During his one term in the 51st Congress, he urged the passage of a new tariff of 50 percent of value on imported iron and tin. With the increased tariff, the U. S. steel industry took off. As they planned expansion of their Bessemer process steel works, they were blocked by the city of St. Louis which did not want the expansion; as well, the Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis planned to tax coal crossing the Mississippi River into Missouri. In 1891, the brothers bought 3,500 acres from business tycoon Lars Kovala; this land extended from the Mississippi River across the Chicago and Quincy Railroad tracks for their new Granite City. With the help of the St. Louis City Engineer, a street grid was laid out with streets listed in alphabetic order plus numbered streets, the only exception being Niedringhaus Avenue.
The Niedringhaus family required. Houses were purchased with Niedringhaus mortgages. Unlike Pullman, they did not exert major control over the day-to-day lives of their employees and left the government of the city up to the residents. African-Americans were not instead congregated in Brooklyn, Illinois; the plant would grow to occupy 1,250,000 square feet and employ more than 4,000 people. The plant prospered until the 1950s when aluminum, stainless steel, pyrex replaced iron-based utensils; the granite pattern in kitchen utensils in roasting pans, remains popular. In 1896, Granite City was incorporated as a City within Madison County, Illinois; the first seven years went as planned with rapid growth. Henry Fossiek was hired as the first policeman, a School Board of Directors was appointed by the Mayor, four schools opened, the 1st Church of the Concordian Lutheran Church was built, Stamping Company changed its name to National Enameling & Stamping Company, lots were sold for a new subdivision to be named ‘Granite Park’.
In 1903, a massive flood covered all of West Granite while the rest of the town stayed dry. In 1906, a different kind of flood occurred. Ten thousand persons emigrated to Granite City from Macedonia, Bulgaria and other parts of Central and Eastern Europe, during a two-year period; the majority of these immigrants those from the country of Hungary, moved to present-day Lincoln Place. At the time, this area was called ‘Hungary Hollow’. During the Panic of 1907, the neighborhood of Hungary Hollow was nicknamed ‘Hungry Hollow’, as many immigrants starved during this period; the following year, one of the founding fathers of the city and of NESCO, William Niedringhaus, would die, leading to the beginning of a new era in both the company and the city's future. It was during this period that St. Joseph Catholic Church was organized and a canal and levee system were built. Methody Bulgarian Church in America was built in Hungary Hollow for the large number of Macedonians and Bulgarians living there. At the time, Granite City had the largest concentration of Bulgarians in the country and boasted the only American newspaper printed in the Bulgarian language.
Around 1903, Granite City expelled its African American residents. In 1967, the Congress of Racial Equality alleged. Mayor Donald Partney acknowledged that the city was understood to
University of Wisconsin System
The University of Wisconsin System is a university system of public universities in the state of Wisconsin. It is one of the largest public higher-education systems in the country, enrolling more than 174,000 students each year and employing 39,000 faculty and staff statewide; the University of Wisconsin System is composed of two doctoral research universities, eleven comprehensive universities, thirteen freshman-sophomore branch campuses. The present-day University of Wisconsin System was created on October 11, 1971, by Chapter 100, Laws of 1971, which combined the former University of Wisconsin and Wisconsin State Universities systems into an enlarged University of Wisconsin System; the merger was supposed to take effect in 1973. The merger took effect on July 1974, combining two chapters of the Wisconsin statutes; the former Chapter 36 and Chapter 37 were merged to create a new Chapter 36. The University of Wisconsin was created by the state constitution in 1848, held its first classes in Madison in 1849.
In 1956, pressed by the growing demand for a large public university that offered graduate programs in Wisconsin's largest city, Wisconsin lawmakers merged Wisconsin State College of Milwaukee and the University of Wisconsin–Extension's Milwaukee division as the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee. The new campus consisted of both the WSCM campus near the lakefront and the UW extension in downtown Milwaukee. Starting in the 1940s, freshman-sophomore centers were opened across the state. In 1968, the Green Bay center was upgraded to a full-fledged four-year institution as the University of Wisconsin–Green Bay, while the Kenosha and Racine centers were merged as the University of Wisconsin–Parkside. By 1971, the University of Wisconsin system consisted of campuses at Madison, Green Bay and Kenosha/Somers, along with 10 freshman-sophomore centers and the statewide University of Wisconsin–Extension; the total enrollment of the University of Wisconsin system at that time was 69,554. The Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin system consisted of ten members, nine of whom were appointed by the governor and confirmed by the senate for nine-year terms.
The tenth was the State Superintendent of Public Instruction who served ex officio on both the University of Wisconsin and Wisconsin State University boards. In 1866, the state legislature established a normal school at Platteville—the first of eight teacher-training schools across the state. In 1911, the legislature permitted the normal schools to offer two years of post-high school work in art, liberal arts and sciences, pre-law, pre-medicine; the broadened curriculum proved popular and soon accounted for over one-third of the normal schools' enrollment. In 1920, the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching issued a report on "The Professional Education of Teachers of American Public Schools", which attacked such programs, arguing that normal schools should not deviate from their purpose as trainers of teachers; when the Milwaukee Normal School persisted with its popular enhanced curriculum, the regents of the Normal School system, the legislature, the governor all became involved.
MNS President Carroll G. Pearse was forced to resign in 1923, the regents ordered the discontinuation of non-teacher-education programs; the issue was not settled, though. In 1926, the regents repurposed the Normal Schools as "State Teachers Colleges", offering a four-year course of study leading to a Bachelor of Education degree that incorporated significant general education at all levels; the thousands of returning World War II veterans in Wisconsin needed more college choices for their studies under the G. I. Bill, popular demand pushed the State Teachers College system Regents to once again allow the teacher training institutions to offer bachelor's degrees in liberal arts and fine arts. In 1951 the state teachers colleges were redesignated as "Wisconsin State Colleges," offering a full four-year liberal-arts curriculum. In 1955, the Stout Institute in Menomonie, founded as a private engineering school in 1891 and was sold to the state in 1911, was merged into the Wisconsin State Colleges system.
The state colleges were all granted university status as "Wisconsin State Universities" in 1964. As of 1971, the Wisconsin State Universities comprised nine public universities and four freshman-sophomore branch campuses, with a total enrollment of 64,148; the board was made up of 14 members, 13 of whom were appointed by the governor and confirmed by the senate for five-year terms. The 14th was the State Superintendent of Public Instruction; the University of Wisconsin system merged with the Wisconsin State University system in 1971 to create today's University of Wisconsin System. The 1971 merger law approved by the State Senate combined the two higher education systems in Wisconsin under a single Board of Regents, creating a system with 13 universities, 14 freshman-sophomore centers, a statewide extension with offices in all 72 counties; each university is named "University of Wisconsin–" followed by the location or name. Each two-year college was named "University of Wisconsin
Alexander Winchell was a United States geologist who contributed to this field as an educator and a popular lecturer and author. His views on evolution aroused controversy among his contemporaries. Winchell graduated from the Wesleyan University of Middletown, Connecticut, in 1847, he taught at Pennington Male Seminary of New Jersey, Amenia Seminary of New York, an academy in Newbern and the Mesopotamia Female Seminary of Eutaw, the last of, founded by him. He became president of the Masonic University at Selma, Alabama, in 1853. In 1854 Winchell entered the service of the University of Michigan as professor of physics and civil engineering, he became professor of geology and paleontology at Michigan. In 1859, Winchell was appointed as State Geologist of Michigan for the newly formed second geological survey of the state, he held the post until 1863. The survey was resumed in 1869, Winchell was reappointed in April. Owing to conflicting opinions between Winchell and his superiors, he resigned in 1871.
He stayed at Michigan until 1872. In 1863 Winchell took up a lease on a cotton plantation near Vicksburg, under a plan devised by Gen. Lorenzo Thomas to lease plantations along the Mississippi River to loyal men from the North, who would hire black laborers on terms prescribed by the army. Winchell organized the Ann Arbor Cotton Company and sold stock to the university's president, whereupon he received a leave of absence to engage in cotton planting. General Thomas set wages at a low level. Many lessees defrauded the freedmen of their earnings. In the winter of 1863–64, the Treasury Department assumed control of the Mississippi Valley labor system, mandated a substantial increase in black wages, contemplated leasing the plantations directly to the freedmen. Winchell complained that the Treasury's regulations were "framed in the exclusive interest of the negro and in the non-recognition of the moral sense and patriotism of the white man."Needless to say, the venture brought him nothing but problems, after Winchell returned to Michigan in 1864, his brother Martin, managing the plantation, was killed by guerrillas.
In 1872, he was appointed chancellor of Syracuse University. The depression of 1873 affected both his personal finances and those of Syracuse, these troubles led him to resign this position in 1874. In 1875 he worked as a professor of zoology at Vanderbilt University. There, his views on evolution, as expressed in his book Adamites and Preadamites: or, A Popular Discussion, were not acceptable to the University administration because they diverged from Biblical teaching. Today the views on the "inferiority of the Negro" would have been the focus of controversy. In any case, he was obligated to resign in 1878, he returned to the University of Michigan, where he was professor of geology and paleontology. His work in geology was not so significant as his teaching and popular lectures and writing in this field, he was much concerned with reconciling religion. He was an advocate of theistic evolution. Sketches of Creation The Doctrine of Evolution The Geology of the Stars Reconciliation of Science and Religion Adamites and Preadamites Preadamites Or, a Demonstration of the Existence of Men Before Adam Sparks from a Geologist's Hammer World-Life: a Comparative Geology Geological Excursions Geological Studies Proof of Negro inferiority Works by Alexander Winchell at Faded Page Works by or about Alexander Winchell at Internet Archive