An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. The actor performs "in the flesh" in the traditional medium of the theatre or in modern media such as film and television; the analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής "one who answers". The actor's interpretation of their role—the art of acting—pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs when the actor is "playing themselves", as in some forms of experimental performance art. In ancient Greece and Rome, the medieval world, the time of William Shakespeare, only men could become actors, women's roles were played by men or boys. After the English Restoration of 1660, women began to appear on stage in England. In modern times in pantomime and some operas, women play the roles of boys or young men. After 1660 in England, when women first started to appear on stage, the terms actor or actress were used interchangeably for female performers, but influenced by the French actrice, actress became the used term for women in theater and film.
The etymology is a simple derivation from actor with -ess added. When referring to groups of performers of both sexes, actors is preferred. Actor is used before the full name of a performer as a gender-specific term. Within the profession, the re-adoption of the neutral term dates to the post-war period of the 1950 and'60s, when the contributions of women to cultural life in general were being reviewed; when The Observer and The Guardian published their new joint style guide in 2010, it stated "Use for both male and female actors. The guide's authors stated that "actress comes into the same category as authoress, manageress,'lady doctor','male nurse' and similar obsolete terms that date from a time when professions were the preserve of one sex.". "As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper:'An actress can only play a woman. I'm an actor – I can play anything.'" The UK performers' union Equity has no policy on the use of "actor" or "actress". An Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the "...subject divides the profession".
In 2009, the Los Angeles Times stated that "Actress" remains the common term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. With regard to the cinema of the United States, the gender-neutral term "player" was common in film in the silent film era and the early days of the Motion Picture Production Code, but in the 2000s in a film context, it is deemed archaic. However, "player" remains in use in the theatre incorporated into the name of a theatre group or company, such as the American Players, the East West Players, etc. Actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as "players". In 2015, Forbes reported that "...just 21 of the 100 top-grossing films of 2014 featured a female lead or co-lead, while only 28.1% of characters in 100 top-grossing films were female...". "In the U. S. there is an "industry-wide in salaries of all scales. On average, white women get paid 78 cents to every dollar a white man makes, while Hispanic women earn 56 cents to a white male's dollar, Black women 64 cents and Native American women just 59 cents to that."
Forbes' analysis of US acting salaries in 2013 determined that the "...men on Forbes' list of top-paid actors for that year made 21/2 times as much money as the top-paid actresses. That means that Hollywood's best-compensated actresses made just 40 cents for every dollar that the best-compensated men made." The first recorded case of a performing actor occurred in 534 BC when the Greek performer Thespis stepped onto the stage at the Theatre Dionysus to become the first known person to speak words as a character in a play or story. Prior to Thespis' act, Grecian stories were only expressed in song, in third person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are called Thespians; the male actors in the theatre of ancient Greece performed in three types of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Western theatre developed and expanded under the Romans; the theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, acrobatics, to the staging of situation comedies, to high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies.
As the Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, scenes or recitations from tragedies and comedies and other entertainments were popular. From the 5th century, Western Europe was plunged into a period of general disorder. Small nomadic bands of actors traveled around Europe throughout the period, performing wherever they could find an audience. Traditionally, actors were not of high status. Early Middle Ages actors were denounced by the Church during the Dark Ages, as they were viewed as dangerous and pagan. In many parts of Europe, traditional beliefs of the region and time period meant actors could not receive a Christian burial. In the Early Middle Ages, churches in Europe began staging dramatized versions of biblical events. By the middle of the 11th century, liturgical drama had spread from Russia to Scandinavia
Charles Dennis is a Canadian actor, radio actor, author and screenwriter. Dennis is the third son of Sade Dennis, he attended Cedarvale Public School, Vaughan Road Collegiate, University College at the University of Toronto, where he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in 1968. He is on the Great Alumni List for the University of Toronto, he is a member of the Playwrights/Directors Unit of The Actors Studio. He is married to publisher Ulrika Vingsbo-Dennis, he was Artistic Director of the University College Players Guild from 1967–68, received the McAndrew Award for his contributions to campus drama. Dennis made his acting debut at 8 years old in 1954 on Marjorie Purvey's radio series and the Dwarf and performed on the series for five years, he has written a number of radio plays for BBC, CBC, including Leslie and Lajos, Long Time Ago, To an Early Grave. In 2009 his play, The Alchemist of Cecil Street, starring Ron Orbach, Bryan Cranston and Edward Asner was produced by The Famous Radio Ranch. In 2010 The Famous Radio Ranch followed up with a production of Dennis's play "Tolstoy Was Never There" starring Kevin Dunn, Ross Benjamin, Ron Orbach, Rose Abdoo, Ed Begley, Jr. John O'Hurley, Leila Birch, Kim Eveleth, Becky Bonar.
Patrick Pinney and Ethne Bliss. In 1963, Dennis made his stage debut at the Red Barn Theatre in Jackson's Point, Ontario playing Dr. Einstein in Arsenic and Old Lace and Simon Bliss in Hay Fever; that year he adapted and played Holden Caulfield in J. D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye at the Coach House Theatre in Toronto. While attending the University of Toronto he appeared in Hart House productions of "Heartbreak House", "Ondine", "The Devils". In 1968, he wrote and appeared in his play, "Everyone Except Mr. Fontana", at the Colonnade Theatre in Toronto. In 1971, he traveled to England, where he directed the Walter Scharf-Don Black- Lionel Chetwynd musical Maybe That's Your Problem at the Roundhouse Theatre in London. Returning to Canadian stage in 1980, he played Sidney Bruhl in Deathtrap opposite Anna Russell at London's Grand Theatre, his play, Altman's Last Stand, was produced at the National Arts Center in Ottawa in 1982. In 1985, he wrote and directed the play Significant Others at the Beverly Hills Playhouse in Los Angeles.
In 1989, he co-starred in his play, Going On, directed by Edward Hardwicke at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe. In 1990, Dennis recreated the role of Alfred in Going On opposite Maria O'Brien at the Callboard Theatre in Los Angeles, in 1997 wrote and starred in the play SoHo Duo, directed by Kenneth Welsh at the West Bank Theatre in New York. In 2003, Dennis created the role of Fred Ross in the Ed Begley, Jr. musical Cesar and Ruben at the El Portal Theater in Los Angeles, in 2005, played George Sanders in the play High Class Heel, at The National Arts Club in New York. In 2011, he returned to the boards playing Gregory Wagner for the Open Fist Theater Company in their production of "Room Service" by Murray and Boretz, which the Los Angeles Times described as a "superb revival"; that year he played Carlton Fitzgerald opposite Catherine Hicks and Michael Laskin in Moss Hart's "Light Up the Sky" at the JRTN in Las Vegas. In 2016, Dennis revised his play "Altman's Last Stand", it was directed by Charles Haid and produced by Racquel Lehrman at the Zephyr Theater in Los Angeles with Michael Laskin as Franz Altman.
The production received great critical acclaim. 2016 Altman's Last Stand 2005, High Class Heel 1997, SoHo Duo 1989, Going On 1985, Significant Others 1982, Altman's Last Stand 1974, Crazy Joan 1968, Everyone Except Mr. Fontana Author George Anthony wrote that Charles Dennis "was a talented young hotshot who wanted to do it all: write, direct, star", that he "worked as an entertainment writer for Toronto Telegram", he was a film and theatre critic for them until his first play, Everyone Except Mr. Fontana presented in 1968. In 2002, Dennis wrote three articles for the Calendar section of the Los Angeles Times about Ivor Novello, Phil Gersh, Julian Fellowes. In February 2010 he wrote an article on Christopher Plummer in The Hollywood Reporter, his first novel, Stoned Cold Soldier was published in 1973. In 1997, Dennis wrote the novels "Given the Crime" and "Given the Evidence", his works have received favorable response from Kirkus Reviews. His new novel, "Hollywood Raj", was self-published by Vingsbo Press in February 2018.
2018. "Hollywood Raj" ISBN 978-0-9997683-0-3 2013 "The Magiker" ISBN 978-1 -940412-02-3 1998, Given the Evidence ISBN 0-671-00153-1 1998, Given the Crime ISBN 0-671-00151-5 1987, Shar-Li ISBN 0-515-08974-5 1975, This War Is Closed Until Spring ISBN 0-8600-71812 1981, The Dealmakers ISBN 0-440-11852-2 1979, Bonfire ISBN 0-440-10659-1 1978, The Periwinkle Assault ISBN 0-7701-0027-9 1977, A Divine Case of Murder ISBN 0-7701-0050-3 1975, Somebody Just Grabbed Annie! ISBN 0-312-74375-0 1974, The Next-to-Last Train Ride ISBN 0-312-57225-5 1973, Stoned Cold Soldier ISBN 0-86007-019-0 In 1969 while living in London Dennis adapted his play and Orange Juice, for ATV and appeared in it opposite Derek Fowlds and Cheryl Kennedy. In 1973, he created Thames Television's first daytime drama, Marked Personal starring Stephanie Beacham, he wrote the Television movies Mirror, Mirror in 1979 and The Jayne Mansfield Story in 1980. He wrote and appeared in the 1984 movie Covergirl opposite Kenneth Welsh, William Hutt and August Schellenberg.
In 1984, he wrote and direct
Adi Da Samraj, born Franklin Albert Jones, was an American spiritual teacher and artist. He was the founder of a new religious movement known as Adidam, he changed his name numerous times throughout his life. From 1991 until his death, he was known as Adi Da Love-Ananda Adi Da. Adi Da became known in the spiritual counterculture of the 1970s for his books and public talks, for the activities of his religious community, his philosophy was similar to many eastern religions which see spiritual enlightenment as the ultimate priority of human life. Distinguishing his from other religious traditions, Adi Da declared that he was a uniquely historic avatar; as such, Adi Da stated that henceforth devotional worship of him would be the sole means of spiritual enlightenment for anyone else. Adi Da wrote many books about his spiritual philosophy and related matters, founding a publishing house to print them, he gained praise from authorities in spirituality and philosophy, but was criticized for what were perceived as his isolation, controversial behavior, claims toward exclusive realization, cult-like community.
In the mid-1980s, allegations by former followers of false imprisonment, sexual abuse and involuntary servitude received international media attention. These allegations resulted in lawsuits or threatened suits on both sides Adi Da was born Franklin Albert Jones on November 3, 1939, in Queens, New York and raised on Long Island, his father was his mother a housewife. A sister, was born when he was eight years old, he served as an acolyte in the Lutheran church during his adolescence and aspired to be a minister, though after leaving for college in the autumn of 1957 he expressed doubts about the religion to his Lutheran pastor. He graduated in 1961 with a bachelor's degree in philosophy from Columbia University and went on to complete a master's degree in English literature at Stanford University in 1963. After graduating from Columbia, Adi Da began using a variety of hallucinogenic and other drugs, sometimes heavily. In 1963, after finishing at Stanford, for 6 weeks he was a paid test subject in drug trials of mescaline, LSD, psilocybin that were conducted at a Veterans Administration hospital in California.
He wrote that he found these experiences "self-validating" in that they mimicked ecstatic states of consciousness from his childhood, but problematic as they resulted in paranoia, anxiety, or disassociation. For over a year, Adi Da lived with his girlfriend Nina Davis in the hills of Palo Alto. While she worked to support them, he wrote, took drugs, meditated informally, studied books on hermeticism in order to make sense of his experiences. Responding to an intuitive impulse, they left California in June 1964 in search of a spiritual teacher in New York City. Settling in Greenwich Village, Adi Da became a student of Albert Rudolph known as "Rudi", an oriental art dealer and self-styled spiritual guru. Having studied a number of spiritual traditions, including "The Work" of G. I. Gurdjieff and Subud, Rudolph was a follower of Siddha Yoga founder Swami Muktananda, who gave Rudi the name "Swami Rudrananda". Rudi taught an eclectic blend of techniques he called "kundalini yoga" Adi Da's father told Rudi of his son's onetime aspiration to become a Lutheran minister.
Feeling that he needed better grounding, in 1965 Rudi insisted that he marry Nina, find steady employment, lose weight, end his drug use, begin preparatory studies to enter the seminary. As a student at Philadelphia's Lutheran Theological Seminary in 1967, Adi Da described undergoing a terrifying breakdown. Taken to a hospital emergency room, a psychiatrist diagnosed it as an anxiety attack, it was the first in a series of such episodes he would experience throughout his life, each followed by what he explained to be profound awakenings or insights. Feeling none of his Lutheran professors understood this experience, Adi Da left and attended St. Vladimir's Russian Orthodox Seminary in Tuckahoe, New York. Disillusioned, he moved back to New York City and got a job working for Pan American Airlines, in hopes this would facilitate his being able to visit Swami Muktananda's ashram in India, he did so for four days in April 1968. Swami Muktananda encouraged Adi Da to study with himself directly. Back in New York, Adi Da and wife Nina became members and employees of the Church of Scientology.
Following Scientology protocol, he wrote Rudi a letter severing all contact. After a little more than a year of involvement, Adi Da left Scientology, he returned to India for a month-long visit in early 1969, during which Swami Muktananda authorized him to initiate others into Siddha Yoga. In May 1970, Adi Da, a friend from Scientology named Pat Morley gave away their belongings and traveled to India for what they believed would be an indefinite period living at Swami Muktananda's ashram. However, Adi Da was disappointed by his experience there by the numbers of other Americans who had arrived since his previous visit. Three weeks after arriving, Adi Da said that visions of the Virgin Mary directed him to make a pilgrimage to Christian holy sites. After two weeks in Europe and the middle east, all three returned to New York before moving to Los Angeles in August. In September 1970, Adi Da said that while sitting in the Vedanta Society Temple in Hollywood, he permanently realized "The Bright", his te
Heartburn is a 1986 American comedy-drama film directed and produced by Mike Nichols, starring Meryl Streep and Jack Nicholson. The screenplay, written by Nora Ephron, is based on her novel of the same name, a semi-biographical account of her marriage to Carl Bernstein; the song "Coming Around Again" was performed and written by Carly Simon, became one of her Billboard hits, reaching #18 on the Hot 100 and #5 on the Adult Contemporary chart. The film was released in the United States on July 25, 1986. Manhattan food writer Rachel Samstat and Washington, D. C. political columnist Mark Forman meet at a mutual friend's wedding. Both have been married before and Mark has a reputation for being a serial womanizer. After a whirlwind courtship, the two marry, despite Rachel's reservations, they purchase a dilapidated Georgetown townhouse and Rachel struggles to adapt to being a wife in Washington's political high society. The ongoing renovations of their house create some stress in Mark and Rachel's marriage, but they are brought closer together when Rachel discovers she is pregnant.
Rachel experiences a difficult labor in which the baby's life is threatened, but she gives birth to a healthy baby girl named Annie. Soon after, Rachel discovers evidence of Mark's extramarital affair with socialite Thelma Rice during her pregnancy with her second child, she leaves him and takes their daughter to New York, where she moves in with her father and gets her job back as a food writer. Although she insists that she has left him for good, Rachel is dismayed when he fails to call her after several days, she inadvertently leads a burglar to a group therapy session she is attending in her therapist's apartment. Just after, Mark asks her to come back, insisting he will never see Thelma again. Rachel gives birth to their second child, but struggles to forgive Mark, she is caught out by Mark. The New York police return; when she takes it to the jeweler's to get the stone tightened, she discovers that Mark has bought a expensive necklace, which coincides with Thelma's birthday. Realizing that he has returned to the affair, Rachel sells her wedding ring and leaves with both her children for New York, this time for good.
The film was shot on location in Manhattan, Washington, D. C. and Alexandria, Virginia. Jack Nicholson replaced Mandy Patinkin after a day of shooting. Nora Ephron's screenplay is based on her 1983 autobiographical novel of the same name, inspired by her tempestuous second marriage to Carl Bernstein and his affair with Margaret Jay, the daughter of former British Prime Minister James Callaghan; the film's music was composed by Carly Simon. Her songs, "Coming Around Again" and "Itsy Bitsy Spider", are included in the 1987 Grammy nominated album Coming Around Again. On review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 47% based on 17 reviews, with an average rating of 5.2/10. On Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 49 out of 100, based on 11 critics, indicating "mixed or average reviews". Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times called it "a bitter, sour movie about two people who are only marginally interesting" and placed much of the blame on screenwriter Nora Ephron, who "should have based her story on somebody else's marriage.
That way, she could have provided the distance and perspective that good comedy needs." He felt "she had too much anger to transform the facts into entertaining fiction."Variety thought it was "a beautifully crafted film with flawless performances and many splendid moments, yet the overall effect is a bit disappointing" and added, "While the day-to-day details are drawn with a striking clarity, Ephron's script never goes much beyond the mannerisms of middle-class life. With the sketchy background information, it's hard to tell what these people are feeling or what they want."Pauline Kael of The New Yorker wrote: "The movie is full of talented people, who are fun to watch, but after a while the scenes that don't point anywhere begin to add up, you start asking yourself:'What is this movie about?' You are still asking when it's over, by a flatness, a disappointment, is to have settled over the fillips you'd enjoyed," noting that "hough Ephron is a gifted and a witty light essayist, her novel is no more than a variant of a princess fantasy: Rachel, the wife, is blameless.
And, reading the book, you don't have to take Rachel the bratty narrator seriously. The film opened in 843 theaters in the United States on July 25, 1986, earned $5,783,079 during its opening weekend, ranking number two at the box office behind Aliens, it grossed a total of $25,314,189 in the US. Streep was named Best Actress at the Valladolid International Film Festival for her performance. Heartburn on IMDb Heartburn at Box Office Mojo Heartburn at Rotten Tomatoes
And Then You Die
And Then You Die is a novel by Michael Dibdin, is the eighth entry in the popular Aurelio Zen series. Aurelio Zen is back, but nobody's supposed to know it... After months in hospital recovering from a bomb attack on his car, Zen is lying low under a false name at a beach resort on the Tuscan coast, waiting to testify in an imminent high profile Mafia trial, he has clear instructions: to enjoy the classic Italian beach holiday. But Zen is getting restless, despite a developing romance with a mysterious and alluring occupant of a nearby sunbed, as an alarming number of people seem to be dropping dead around him. Abruptly, the pleasant monotony of beach life is cut short as the word comes and he finds himself transported to a remote and strange world far from home...where he belatedly comes to appreciate both the reach of those who want him dead and that the corpses were all supposed to be his. As in the Zen chronicles, the real story turns out to be much more complex. Confronted by an unexpected and unconsidered adversary, he resolves the immediate situation at the cost of involving his new girlfriend in a plot to dispose of an inconvenient corpse.
It appears, Michael Dibdin's few years' sojourn in Italy reflects in his book as he writes about Italian culture, regions and people. The country, in fact, becomes a part of the story; the shortness of the book compared to his other Zen thrillers makes. The eighth book in Dibdin's Aurelio Zen series, the short novel promises to be a crafted and witty chronicle of the Venice-born detective's latest adventures, an rewarding sequel to the last Zen thriller, the Blood Rain. "And Then You Die". Italianmysteries.com. Retrieved 2 October 2013
Radio Days is a 1987 American comedy-drama film written and directed by Woody Allen, who narrates. The film looks back on an American family's life during the Golden Age of Radio using both music and memories to tell the story, it stars an ensemble cast. Joe, the narrator, relates, he goes on to explain. During the late 1930s and early 1940s young Joe lived in a modest Jewish-American family in Rockaway Beach, his mother always listened to Breakfast with Roger. His father, who gave him a beating, kept his occupation secret. Joe found out that he was ashamed of being a taxi driver. Other family members were Uncle Abe and Aunt Ceil and grandma, Aunt Bea; the latter was a serial dater, always on the lookout for a potential husband. Joe's own favourite radio show was The Masked Avenger, it made. In Joe's fantasy the Masked Avenger looked like a hero, but in reality the voice actor was short and bald. Other radio memories are stories about sporting heroes, news bulletins about World War II, a report of an extraterrestrial invasion, a live report of the search for a little girl who fell into a well.
With his friends from school Joe was searching for German aircraft, but instead they saw a woman undressing in her bedroom. She turned out to be their substitute teacher. Alone on the coast Joe saw a German U-boat, but he decided not to tell anyone because they wouldn't believe him. Joe was fascinated by the glamour of Manhattan, where the radio broadcasts were made, he visited the Radio City Music Hall, described it as the most beautiful thing he saw. Joe collected stories of radio stars, including that of Sally White, whose dreams of becoming famous were hampered by her bad voice and accent. Starting as a cigar salesgirl she got stuck on the roof of the radio building with Roger, cheating on Irene. After she witnessed a crime the gangster Rocco wanted to kill her, but following his mother's advice he ended up using his connections to further her career, she became a reporter of celebrity gossip. On New Year's Eve Joe was brought down from his room to celebrate the transition to 1944; the radio stars gathered on the roof of their building.
The narrator concludes that he will never forget those radio voices, although with each passing of a New Year's Eve they seem to grow dimmer and dimmer. The film's soundtrack, which features songs from the 1930s and 40s, plays an integral part in the plot, it was released on cassette and compact disc in 1987. The film was screened out of competition at the 1987 Cannes Film Festival. Radio Days was released on DVD by MGM November 6, 2001. A limited edition Blu-ray of 3,000 units was released by Twilight Time July 8, 2014. Radio Days holds a "Fresh" 88% positive rating on Rotten Tomatoes, with an average score of 7.9/10. In his four-star review, noted critic Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times described Radio Days as Allen’s answer to Federico Fellini’s Amarcord and referred to it as "so ambitious and so audacious that it defies description. It's a kaleidoscope of dozens of characters and scenes - the most elaborate production Allen has made - and it's inexhaustible, spinning out one delight after another."
Vincent Canby of The New York Times referred to Allen as the "prodigal cinema resource" and spoke of the film saying, "Radio Days is as free in form as it is generous of spirit."David Denby wrote for New York that: " The real glue, however, is the lullingly beautiful popular music of the period — Cole Porter and Warren, big-band jazz, torch singers, Carmen Miranda. The music matched to images of old wood and brick buildings and old glamour spots, produces a mood of distanced, bittersweet nostalgia. Radio Days becomes a satiric commemorations of forgotten lives."In a poll held by Empire magazine of the 500 greatest films made, Radio Days was voted number 304. According to his brother-in-law Jan Harlan, Stanley Kubrick loved Radio Days so much that he watched it "twice within two days, because'it was like watching a home movie,' he told me... He adored it." Nominated – Best Achievement in Art Direction: Art Direction: Santo Loquasto Set Decoration: Carol Joffe, Leslie Bloom, George DeTitta Jr. Nominated – Best Original Screenplay: Woody Allen Won – Best Costume Design: Jeffery Kurland Won – Best Production Design: Santo Loquasto Nominated – Best Actress in a Supporting Role: Dianne Wiest Nominated – Best Editing: Susan E. Morse Nominated – Best Film: Robert Greenhut, Woody Allen Nominated – Best Screenplay Original: Woody Allen Nominated – Best Sound: Robert Hein, James Sabat, Lee Dichter Nominated – WGA Screen Award for Best Screenplay Written Directly for the Screen: Woody Allen Woody Allen On Location by Thierry de Navacelle.
Order of Canada
The Order of Canada is a Canadian national order and the second highest honour for merit in the system of orders and medals of Canada. It comes second only to membership in the Order of Merit, the personal gift of Canada's monarch. To coincide with the centennial of Canadian Confederation, the three-tiered order was established in 1967 as a fellowship that recognizes the outstanding merit or distinguished service of Canadians who make a major difference to Canada through lifelong contributions in every field of endeavour, as well as the efforts by non-Canadians who have made the world better by their actions. Membership is accorded to those who exemplify the order's Latin motto, desiderantes meliorem patriam, meaning "they desire a better country", a phrase taken from Hebrews 11:16; the three tiers of the order are Companion and Member. The Canadian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, is Sovereign of the order and the serving governor general Julie Payette, is its Chancellor and Principal Companion and administers the order on behalf of the Sovereign.
Appointees to the order are recommended by an advisory board and formally inducted by the governor general or the sovereign. As of August 2017, 6,898 people have been appointed to the Order of Canada, including scientists, politicians, athletes, business people, film stars and others; some have resigned or have been removed from the order, while other appointments have been controversial. Appointees receive the right to armorial bearings; the process of founding the Order of Canada began in early 1966 and came to a conclusion on 17 April 1967, when the organization was instituted by Queen Elizabeth II, on the advice of the Canadian prime minister, Lester B. Pearson, assisted with the establishment of the order by John Matheson; the association was launched on 1 July 1967, the 100th anniversary of Canadian Confederation, with Governor General Roland Michener being the first inductee to the order, to the level of Companion, on 7 July of the same year, 90 more people were appointed, including Vincent Massey, Louis St. Laurent, Hugh MacLennan, David Bauer, Gabrielle Roy, Donald Creighton, Thérèse Casgrain, Wilder Penfield, Arthur Lismer, Brock Chisholm, M. J. Coldwell, Edwin Baker, Alex Colville, Maurice Richard.
During a visit to London, United Kingdom in 1970, Michener presented the Queen with her Sovereign's badge for the Order of Canada, which she first wore during a banquet in Yellowknife in July 1970. From the Order of Canada grew a Canadian honours system, thereby reducing the use of British honours. Among the civilian awards of the Canadian honours system, the Order of Canada comes third, after the Cross of Valour and membership in the Order of Merit, within the personal gift of Canada's monarch. By the 1980s, Canada's provinces decorations; the Canadian monarch, seen as the fount of honour, is at the apex of the Order of Canada as its Sovereign, followed by the governor general, who serves as the fellowship's Chancellor. Thereafter follow three grades, which are, in order of precedence: Companion and Member, each having accordant post-nominal letters that members are entitled to use; each incumbent governor general is installed as the Principal Companion for the duration of his or her time in the viceregal post and continues as an extraordinary Companion thereafter.
Additionally, any governor general, viceregal consort, former governor general, former viceregal consort, or member of the Canadian Royal Family may be appointed as an extraordinary Companion, Officer, or Member. Promotions in grade are possible, though this is ordinarily not done within five years of the initial appointment, a maximum of five honorary appointments into any of the three grades may be made by the governor general each year; as of March 2016, there have been 21 honorary appointments. There were in effect, only two ranks to the Order of Canada: Companion and the Medal of Service. There was, however a third award, the Medal of Courage, meant to recognize acts of gallantry; this latter decoration fell in rank between the other two levels, but was anomalous within the Order of Canada, being a separate award of a different nature rather than a middle grade of the order. Without having been awarded, the Medal of Courage was on 1 July 1972 replaced by the autonomous Cross of Valour and, at the same time, the levels of Officer and Member were introduced, with all existing holders of the Medal of Service created as Officers.
Lester Pearson's vision of a three-tiered structure to the order was thus fulfilled. Companions of the Order of Canada have demonstrated the highest degree of merit to Canada and humanity, on either the national or international scene. Up to 15 Companions are appointed annually, with an imposed limit of 165 living Companions at any given time, not including those appointed as extraordinary Companions or in an honorary capacity; as of August 2017, there are 146 living Companions. Since 1994, substantive members are the only regular citizens who are empowered to administer the Canadian Oath of Citizenship. Officers of the Order of Canada have demonstrated an outstanding level of talent and service to Canadians, up to 64 may be appointed each year, not including those inducted as extraordinary Officers or in an ho