Richard Burchett was a British artist and educator on the fringes of the Pre-Raphaelite movement, for over twenty years the Headmaster of what became the Royal College of Art. He was described as "a prominent figure in the art-schools, a well-instructed painter, a teacher exceptionally equipped with all the learning of his craft" by his ex-pupil, the poet Austin Dobson. Burchett's pupils included the varied talents of Kate Greenaway, Christopher Dresser, Elizabeth Thompson, Sir George Clausen, Sir Luke Fildes, Gertrude Jekyll, Hubert von Herkomer, William Harbutt and Helen Allingham. Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll, Queen Victoria's daughter, a talented artist, was a student; as an artist he achieved some reputation for large history paintings, decorated public buildings including parts of the Palace of Westminster and the Victoria and Albert Museum, but his View across Sandown Bay, Isle of Wight is seen by modern art historians as his best work. Burchett published collections of his lectures as text-books for the South Kensington system of art education, which he helped to devise.
Burchett was born in Brighton on 30 January 1815. He attended the "London Mechanics Institute" in Chancery Lane, before in about 1841 entering the "Government School of Design", founded three years before in 1837, which he was to head, which became the Royal College of Art. In 1845 he was a ringleader of students protesting to the Board of Trade about the teaching methods, in what was at the time a controversy that attracted a great deal of public attention, a Parliamentary Committee of Enquiry, he gave evidence to this in 1846-7, by which time he had become a master at the school, remaining on the staff until his death in 1875, from 1852 as Headmaster. Burchett spent most of his time throughout his adult life on his work at the school, that his most regarded work today is an atypical landscape subject is an indication of how much his personal painting was neglected for teaching, public commissions through the school. According to the Memoirs of William Bell Scott, who had worked under him, Burchett was: "an able, self-dependent actor in the affairs of life, yet one whose action was to his own benefit, although to the benefit of those under him in his official position".
In the mid-1850s Burchett converted to Roman Catholicism. He married twice, had several children. What appear to be a son and grandson are recorded exhibiting paintings in London. Ebenezer Stanley Burchett worked at South Kensington and was Head Master of the Bedford Park School of Arts & Crafts. In 1870 Richard Burchett is described as "formerly of 43 Brompton Square, but now of 8 Bedford Road, Clapham." Burchett was in bad health for the last years of his life, when he died in Dublin, on 27 May 1875, he was staying with his wife's uncle, Sir Samuel Ferguson, for his health. He had only been in the School for 133 days in 1872. In 1870, he began proceedings for bankruptcy. Scott says he "took to a sort of farming at considerable expense... He began to get into deep water, into the hands of 20 per cent money-lenders. Still he fought bravely with his difficulties, when his large salary was placed under trustees, he went on with his historic subjects", his venture was ill-timed. A series of twelve dividends to his creditors, between 1871 and September 1876, paid off at least 7s 73⁄4d in the pound - dividends number 1, 7 & 8 seem not to appear in the London Gazette search results.
His will was probated at less than £200, Frayling records that a letter from his widow asking for a pension was found unanswered in the school files thirteen years later. Obituaries were published in the Athenaeum, the Art Journal, The Graphic. Burchett exhibited five works all large history paintings, at the Royal Academy between 1847, including The Death of Marmion, "famous in its day" according to Hugh Thomas) and 1873; these are rather generously described as "in the Pre-Raphaelite style" by the DNB. He exhibited a work at the British Institution in 1855, his best-known work in this genre is Sanctuary, the snappy modern title for Edward IV Withheld by Ecclesiastics from Pursuing Lancastrian Fugitives into a Church, in the Guildhall Art Gallery, showing an incident after the Battle of Tewkesbury of 1471, during the Wars of the Roses. William Bell Scott has an anecdote of Burchett, who "had chosen the subject as a glorious example of the power of the Church and the faith of the prince at that blessed period in Merry England" failing to sell the painting to an "extreme Radical" shipping magnate: ""I admire the picture, Mr. Burchett, it is excellently painted, I like it for its subject.
Superstition, you see, turns them into caitiffs!" This knocked over poor Burchett so much, the transaction came to nothing" Scott comments that Burchett: "gave himself up to historical painting on a rather large scale, just the kind of art which English taste and the R. Academy as the mediocre exponent of the same would like to crush out of existence"; however the work which has attracted the most attention a
Little, Brown and Company
Little and Company is an American publisher founded in 1837 by Charles Coffin Little and his partner, James Brown, for close to two centuries has published fiction and nonfiction by American authors. Early lists featured Little Women by Louisa May Alcott, Emily Dickinson's poetry, Bartlett's Familiar Quotations; as of 2016, Brown & Company is a division of the Hachette Book Group. Little and Company had its roots in the book selling trade, it was founded in 1837 in Boston by James Brown. They formed the partnership "for the purpose of Publishing and Selling Books." It can trace its roots before that to 1784 to a bookshop owned by Ebenezer Batelle on Marlborough Street. They published works of Benjamin Franklin and George Washington and they were specialized in legal publishing and importing titles. For many years, it was the most extensive law publisher in the United States, the largest importer of standard English law and miscellaneous works, introducing American buyers to the Encyclopædia Britannica, the dictionaries of William Smith, many other standard works.
In the early years Little and Brown published the Works of Daniel Webster, George Bancroft's History of the United States, William H. Prescott's Ferdinand and Isabella, Jones Very's first book of poetry, Letters of John Adams and works by James Russell Lowell and Francis Parkman. Little and Company was the American publisher for Edward Gibbon's The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire; the firm was the original publisher of United States Statutes at Large beginning in 1845, under authority granted by a joint resolution of Congress. In 1874, Congress transferred the authority to publish the Statutes at Large to the Government Printing Office, responsible for producing the set since that time. 1 U. S. C. § 113 still recognizes their edition of the laws and treaties of the United States are competent evidence of the several public and private Acts of Congress and international agreements other than treaties of the United States. In 1853, Brown began publishing the works of British poets from Chaucer to Wordsworth.
Ninety-six volumes were published in the series in five years. In 1859, John Bartlett became a partner in the firm, he held the rights to his Familiar Quotations, Little, Brown published the 15th edition of the work in 1980, 125 years after its first publication. John Murray Brown, James Brown's son, took over when Augustus Flagg retired in 1884. In the 1890s, Brown expanded into general publishing, including fiction. In 1896, it published Quo Vadis. In 1898, Brown purchased a list of titles from the Roberts Brothers firm. 19th century employees included Charles Carroll Soule. John Murray Brown died in 1908 and James W. McIntyre became managing partner; when McIntyre died in 1913, Brown incorporated. In 1925, Brown entered into an agreement to publish all Atlantic Monthly books; this arrangement lasted until 1985. During this time the joint Atlantic Monthly Press/Little Brown imprint published All Quiet on the Western Front, Herge's The Adventures of Tintin, James Truslow Adams's The Adams Family, Charles Nordhoff and James Norman Hall's Mutiny on the Bounty and its sequels, James Hilton's Goodbye, Mr. Chips, Walter D. Edmonds's Drums Along the Mohawk, William Least Heat-Moon's Blue Highways, Tracy Kidder's The Soul of a New Machine, J. D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye.
Salinger terminated his contract with the publishing house sometime in the 1970s, though his novel was still published by Little, Brown. Other prominent figures published by Little, Brown in the 20th and early 21st centuries have included Nagaru Tanigawa, Donald Barthelme, Louisa M. Alcott, Catherine Drinker Bowen, Bernie Brillstein, Thornton Burgess, Hortense Calisher, Bruce Catton, A. J. Cronin, Peter De Vries, J. Frank Dobie, C. S. Forester, John Fowles, Malcolm Gladwell, Pete Hamill, Cynthia Harrod-Eagles, Lillian Hellman, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. Henry Kissinger, Elizabeth Kostova, Norman Mailer, William Manchester, Nelson Mandela, John P. Marquand and Johnson, Stephenie Meyer, Rick Moody, Ogden Nash, Edwin O'Connor, Erich Maria Remarque, Alice Sebold, David Sedaris, George Stephanopoulos, Gwyn Thomas, Gore Vidal, David Foster Wallace, Evelyn Waugh, P. G. Wodehouse, James Patterson and Herman Wouk. Little, Brown published the photography of Ansel Adams; the imprint was purchased by Time Inc. in 1968, was made part of the Time Warner Book Group when Time merged with Warner Communications to form Time Warner in 1989.
All editing staff moved from Boston to Time Warner Book Group offices in New York City by 2001. In 1996, Brown's legal and medical publishing division was purchased by Wolters Kluwer. In 2001, Michael Pietsch became Publisher of Brown. Little, Brown expanded into the UK in 1992 when TWBG bought MacDonald & Co from Maxwell Communications, taking on its Abacus and Orbit lists, authors including Iain Banks. Feminist publisher Virago Press followed in 1996. In 1996, Wolters Kluwer acquired Little, Brown's professional division and incorporated it into its Aspen and Lippincott-Raven imprints. In 2006, the Time Warner Book Group was sold to French publisher Hachette Livre. Following this, the Little, Brown imprint is used by Hachette Livre's U. S. publishing company, Hachette Book Group USA. In 2011, Brown launched an imprint devoted to suspense publishing: Mulholland Books. In 2018, Brown launched an imprint devoted to health, lifestyle and science: Little, Brown Spark; the company received the Publisher of the Year Award three times.
On April 1, 2013, Reagan Arthur became publisher of Brown. Badminton Library Books in the United States List
Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria
The Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria was celebrated on 20 June 1887 on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of Queen Victoria's accession on 20 June 1837. It was celebrated with a banquet to which princes were invited. On 20 June 1887 the Queen had breakfast outdoors under the trees at Frogmore, where Prince Albert had been buried, she travelled by train from Windsor station to Paddington to Buckingham Palace for a royal banquet that evening. Fifty foreign kings and princes, along with the governing heads of Britain's overseas colonies and dominions, attended, she wrote in her diary: Had a large family dinner. All the Royalties assembled in the Bow Room, we dined in the Supper-room, which looked splendid with the buffet covered with the gold plate; the table was a large horseshoe one, with many lights on it. The King of Denmark took me in, Willy of Greece sat on my other side; the Princes were all in uniform, the Princesses were all beautifully dressed. Afterwards we went into the Ballroom; the following day, she participated in a procession in an open landau through London to Westminster Abbey escorted by Colonial Indian cavalry.
During prayers for the Queen at the Abbey, a beam of sunlight fell upon her bowed head, which the future Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii observing noted as a mark of divine favor. On her return to the Palace, she was cheered by the crowd. In the ballroom she distributed. In the evening, she put on a gown embroidered with silver roses and shamrocks and attended a banquet. Afterwards she received a procession of Indian princes, she was wheeled in her chair to sit and watch fireworks in the palace garden. At the Jubilee she engaged two Indian Muslims as waiters. A commemorative bust of Victoria was commissioned from the sculptor Francis John Williamson. Many copies were made, distributed throughout the British Empire. A special Golden Jubilee Medal was instituted and awarded to participants of the jubilee celebrations. Writer and geographer John Francon Williams published The Jubilee Atlas of the British Empire to commemorate Victoria's Jubilee and her Jubilee year; the Queen of the United Kingdom The German Crown Princess and Crown Prince, the Queen's daughter and son-in-law Prince and Princess Wilhelm of Prussia, the Queen's grandson and granddaughter-in-law The Hereditary Princess and Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Meiningen, the Queen's granddaughter and grandson-in-law Princess Feodora of Saxe-Meiningen, the Queen's great-granddaughter Prince Henry of Prussia, the Queen's grandson Princess Viktoria of Prussia, the Queen's granddaughter Princess Sophia of Prussia, the Queen's granddaughter Princess Margaret of Prussia, the Queen's granddaughter The Prince and Princess of Wales, the Queen's son and daughter-in-law Prince Albert Victor of Wales, the Queen's grandson Prince George of Wales, the Queen's grandson Princess Louise of Wales, the Queen's granddaughter Princess Victoria of Wales, the Queen's granddaughter Princess Maud of Wales, the Queen's granddaughter The Grand Duke of Hesse, the Queen's son-in-law Princess and Prince Louis of Battenberg, the Queen's granddaughter and grandson-in-law Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna and Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich of Russia, the Queen's granddaughter and grandson-in-law Princess Irene of Hesse and by Rhine, the Queen's granddaughter The Hereditary Grand Duke of Hesse, the Queen's grandson Princess Alix of Hesse and by Rhine, the Queen's granddaughter The Duke and Duchess of Edinburgh, the Queen's son and daughter-in-law Prince Alfred of Edinburgh, the Queen's grandson Princess Marie of Edinburgh, the Queen's granddaughter Princess Victoria Melita of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the Queen's granddaughter Princess Alexandra of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the Queen's granddaughter Princess and Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein, the Queen's daughter and son-in-law Prince Christian Victor of Schleswig-Holstein, the Queen's grandson Prince Albert of Schleswig-Holstein, the Queen's grandson Princess Helena Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein, the Queen's granddaughter Princess Marie Louise of Schleswig-Holstein, the Queen's granddaughter The Marchioness and Marquess of Lorne, the Queen's daughter and son-in-law The Duke and Duchess of Connaught and Strathearn, the Queen's son and daughter-in-law Princess Margaret of Connaught, the Queen's granddaughter Prince Arthur of Connaught, the Queen's grandson The Duchess of Albany, the Queen's daughter-in-law Princess and Prince Henry of Battenberg, the Queen's daughter and son-in-law The Duke of Cambridge, the Queen's first cousin The Grand Duchess and Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, the Queen's first cousin and her husband The Hereditary Grand Duke and Hereditary Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, the Queen's first cousin once removed and his wife The Duchess and Duke of Teck, the Queen's first cousin and her husband Princess Mary of Teck, the Queen's first cousin once removed Prince Adolphus of Teck, the Queen's first cousin once removed Prince Francis of Teck, the Queen's first cousin once removed Prince Alexander of Teck, the Queen's first cousin once removed Princess Frederica of Hanover and Baron Alphons von Pawel-Rammingen, the Queen's first cousin once removed and her husband The Hon. Aubrey FitzClarence, great-grandson of King William IV The Prince and Princess of Leiningen, the Queen's half-nephew and half-niece-in-law Princess Alberta of Leiningen, the Queen's half-great-niece The Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg, the Queen's half-nephew Prince and Princess Victor of Hohenlohe-Langenburg, the Queen's half-nephew and half-niece-in-law Countess Feodora Gleichen, the Queen's half-great-niece Count Edward Gleichen, the Queen's half-great-nephew Countess Victoria Gleichen, t
Courtship is the period of development towards an intimate relationship wherein a couple get to know each other and decide if there will be an engagement. A courtship may be an informal and private matter between two people or may be a public affair, or a formal arrangement with family approval. Traditionally, in the case of a formal engagement, it has been perceived that it is the role of a male to "court" or "woo" a female, thus encouraging her to understand him and her receptiveness to a proposal of marriage; the average duration of courtship varies throughout the world. Furthermore, there is vast individual variation between couples. Courtship may be omitted, as in cases of some arranged marriages where the couple do not meet before the wedding. In the United Kingdom, a poll of 3,000 engaged or married couples resulted in an average duration between first meeting and accepted proposal of marriage of 2 years and 11 months, with the women feeling ready to accept at an average of 2 years and 7 months.
Regarding duration between proposal and wedding, the UK poll above gave an average of 2 years and 3 months. The date is casual in most European-influenced cultures, but in some traditional societies, courtship is a structured activity, with specific formal rules. In some societies, the parents or community propose potential partners and allow limited dating to determine whether the parties are suited. In Japan, there is a such type of courtship called Omiai, with similar practices called "Xiangqin" in the Greater China Area. Parents will hire a matchmaker to provide pictures and résumés of potential mates, if the couple agrees, there will be a formal meeting with the matchmaker and parents in attendance; the matchmaker and parents will exert pressure on the couple to decide whether they want to marry or not after a few dates. Courtship in the Philippines is one known complex form of courtship. Unlike what is seen in other societies, it takes a far more subdued and indirect approach, it is complex in that it involves stages, it is considered normal for courtship to last a year or longer.
It is common to see the male showing off by sending love letters and love poems, singing romantic songs, buying gifts for the female. The parents are seen as part of the courtship practice, as their approval is needed before courtship may begin or before the female gives the male an answer to his advances. In more closed societies, courtship is eliminated altogether by the practice of arranged marriages in which partners are chosen for young people by their parents. Forbidding experimental and serial courtship and sanctioning only arranged matches is a means of guarding the chastity of young people and a matter of furthering family interests, which, in such cultures, may be considered more important than individual romantic preferences. Throughout history, courtship has included traditions such as exchanging valentines, written correspondence, similar communication-based courting. Over recent decades, the concept of arranged marriage has changed or been mixed with other forms of dating, including Eastern and Indian ones.
In the earlier 1800s, young adults were expected to court with the intention of finding a marriage partner, rather than for social reasons. In more traditional forms of Christianity, this concept of courtship has been retained, with John Piper defining courtship and distinguishing this concept from dating, stating that: Courtship ordinarily begins when a single man approaches a single woman by going through the woman's father, conducts his relationship with the woman under the authority of her father, family, or church, whichever is most appropriate. Courtship always has marriage as its direct goal... Dating, a more modern approach, begins when either the man or the woman initiates a more-than-friends relationship with the other, they conduct that relationship outside of any oversight or authority. Dating may not have marriage as its goal. Christian minister Patricia Bootsma delineates this distinction, writing that in contrast to the modern conception of dating, in "courtship, time together in groups with family or friends is encouraged, there is oversight by and accountability to parents or mentors".
She further states that with courtship, "commitment happens before intimacy". In America, in the 1820s, the phrase "date" was most associated with prostitution. However, by the Jazz Age of the 1920s, dating for fun was becoming a cultural expectation, by the 1930s, it was assumed that any popular young person would have lots of dates; this form of dating, was more chaste than is seen today, since premarital sex was not considered the norm. Courtship is used by a number of theorists to explain sexual identity. Scientific research into courtship began in the 1980s after which time academic researchers started to generate theories about modern dating practices and norms. Researchers have found that, contrary to popular beliefs, courtship is triggered and controlled by women, driven by non-verbal behaviours to which men respond; this is supported by other theorists who specialise in the study of body language. There are some feminist scholars, who regard courtship as a constructed process organised to subjugate women.
Farrell reports, for example, that magazines about marriage and romantic fiction continue to attract a 98% female readership. Systematic research into court
A lady-in-waiting or court lady is a female personal assistant at a court, royal or feudal, attending on a royal woman or a high-ranking noblewoman. In Europe, a lady-in-waiting was a noblewoman, but of lower rank than of the woman on whom she attended. Although she may either have been a retainer or may not have received compensation for the service she rendered, a lady-in-waiting was considered more of a courtesan or companion to her mistress than a servant. In other parts of the world outside Europe, the lady-in-waiting referred to as palace woman, was in practice a servant or a slave rather than a high-ranking woman, but still had about the same tasks, functioning as companion and secretary to her mistress. In courts where polygamy was practiced, a court lady was formally available to the monarch for sexual services, she could become his wife or concubine. Lady-in-waiting or court lady is a generic term for women whose relative rank and official functions varied, although such distinctions were often honorary.
A royal woman may or may not be free to select her ladies, when she has such freedom, her choices are heavily influenced by the sovereign, her parents, her husband, or the sovereign's ministers. The development of the office of lady-in-waiting in Europe is connected to that of the development of a royal court. During the Carolingian Empire in the 9th century, Hincmar describes the royal household of Charles the Bald in the De Ordine Palatii from 882, in which he states that court officials took orders from the queen as well as the king. Merovingian queens are assumed to have had their personal servants, in the 9th century it is confirmed that Carolingian queens had an entourage of guards from the nobility as a sign of their dignity, some officials are stated to belong to the queen rather than the king. In the late 12th century, the queens of France are confirmed to have had their own household, noblewomen are mentioned as ladies-in-waiting. During the Middle Ages, the household of a European queen consort was small and the number of employed ladies-in-waiting, rather than wives of noblemen accompanying their husbands to court, was small: in 1286, the queen of France had only five ladies-in-waiting in her employ, it was not until 1316 that her household was separated from that of the royal children.
The role of ladies-in-waiting in Europe changed during the age of the Renaissance, when a new ceremonial court life, where women played a significant part, developed as representation of power in the courts of Italy and spread to Burgundy, from Burgundy to France, to the rest of the courts of Europe. The court of the Duchy of Burgundy was the most elaborate in Europe in the 15th century and became an example to France when the French royal court expanded in the late 15th century and introduced new offices for both men and women to be able to answer to the new renaissance ideal. From small circle of married femmes and unmarried filles, with a humble place in the background during the Middle Ages, the number of French ladies-in-waiting were expanded, divided into an advanced hierarchy with several offices and given an important and public role to play in the new ceremonial court life in early 16th-century France; this example was followed by other courts in Europe, where courts expanded and became more ceremonial during the 16th century, the offices and visibility of women expanded in the early modern age.
During the late 19th century and the early 20th century, most European courts started to reduce their court staff due to new economic and political circumstances which made court representation more questionable. The duties of ladies-in-waiting varied from court to court, but functions discharged by ladies-in-waiting included proficiency in the etiquette and dances prevalent at court. A number of tribes and cultural areas in the African continent, such as the Lobedu people of Southern Africa, had a similar custom on ladies-in-waiting in historic times. Within certain traditional states of the Bini and Yoruba peoples in Nigeria, the queen mothers and high priestesses were considered "ritually male" due to their social eminence. Due to this fact, they were attended on by women who belonged to their harems in much the same way as their male counterparts were served by women who belonged to theirs. Although these women functioned as ladies-in-waiting, were members of powerful families of the local nobility in their own right, were not used for sexual purposes, they were none-the-less referred to as their principals' wives.
In the late Middle Ages, when the court of the emperor no longer moved around the household of the empress, as well as the equivalent household of the German princely consorts, started to develop a less fluid and more strict organisation with set court offices. The court model of the Duchy of Burgundy, as well as the Spanish court model, came to influence the organisation of the Austrian imperial court during the 16th-century, when the Burgundian Netherlands and Austria was united through the Habsburg dynasty. In the early and mid 16th-century, the female courtiers kept by female Habsburgs in the Netherlands and Austria was composed of one hofmesterees or dame d'honneur who served as the principal lady in wa
Carl, 3rd Prince of Leiningen
Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Emich, Prince of Leiningen, KG was the third Prince of Leiningen and maternal half-brother of Queen Victoria. Leiningen served as a Bavarian lieutenant general, before he played an important role in German politics as the first Prime Minister of the Provisorische Zentralgewalt government formed by the Frankfurt Parliament in 1848. A member of the Hardenburg branch of the Leiningen family, Carl was born in Amorbach, the son of Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen by his second marriage with Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, he was the only son, as Emich Carl's son by his first wife, had died in 1800. Prince Emich Carl had received the Principality of Leiningen during the German mediatisation in 1803, as a compensation for the lost Hardenburg estates in the Palatinate occupied by French revolutionary troops, took his residence at the secularised Amorbach Abbey; the princely territory, soon after passed to the newly established Grand Duchy of Baden, the Kingdom of Bavaria and the Grand Duchy of Hesse.
Prince Emich Carl died on 4 July 1814 and Carl succeeded him as third Prince of Leiningen. On 11 July 1818, his widowed mother married Prince Edward, the fourth son of King George III of the United Kingdom, at Kew Palace, Surrey. In 1819, Carl and his younger sister Princess Feodora were taken from Amorbach to London, where their half-sister Princess Victoria of Kent was born on 24 May at Kensington Palace. On 13 February 1829, Carl married the Bohemian countess Maria von Klebelsberg, daughter of Count Maximilian von Klebelsberg and his wife Maria Anna von Turba, they had two sons: Ernst Leopold, 4th Prince of Leiningen he married Princess Marie of Baden on 11 September 1858. They had two children. Prince Eduard Friedrich Maximilian Johann of Leiningen. Carl had attended a private school in Bern and from 1821 onwards studied law at the University of Göttingen with the jurist Karl Friedrich Eichhorn one of the principal authorities on German constitutional law and leading proponent of the German Historical School of jurisprudence.
At the British court, his multifaceted interests in art were aroused. From 1828, he had Waldleiningen Castle near Mörschenhardt erected as his private residence, a Romantic complex resembling Neo-Gothic castles in Britain, such as Abbotsford House. Carl was made a Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1837; as a mediatized house, the Princes of the Leiningen were members of the Landtag diet in Baden, as well as in Bavaria and Hesse. Prince Carl became president of the Bavarian upper house in 1842 and pursued a career in the Bavarian Army as Lieutenant general à la suite of the Cavalry. On 20 April 1842, he and 20 other noblemen gathered at Biebrich Palace, where they established the Adelsverein to organize the settlement of German emigrants in Texas. By the German revolutions of 1848–49, Leiningen had achieved much reputation as a liberal reformer and freethinker, he advocated the implementation of parliamentarism and criticized aristocracy's privileges. With a Catholic head of state and a Lutheran head of government, an equilibrium was reached in German dualism.
His cabinet could rely on a liberal and left-wing majority in the newly established Frankfurt Parliament, however, as early as on 5 September, he resigned over the Schleswig-Holstein Question when in the First Schleswig War King Frederick William IV of Prussia unilaterally signed an armistice with Denmark at Malmö. The delegates of the Frankfurt assembly reacted with outrage and Leiningen, unable to assert the powers of the central authority, was forced to step down, he was succeeded by the Austrian politician Anton von Schmerling, who acted as Prime Minister until December. In 1851, he resigned as president of the Adelsverein and was succeeded by Prince Hermann of Wied. Shortly after his niece Victoria became engaged to Prince Frederick of Prussia, in 1855, he suffered a severe apoplectic attack. A second attack in November the following year was fatal, he died at Waldleiningen Castle at the age of fifty-two, with his sister Feodora at his bedside. Hermann Nehlsen Fürst Karl zu Leiningen. In: Gerhard Köbler, Hermann Nehlsen: Wirkungen europäischer Rechtskultur.
Festschrift für Karl Kroeschell zum 70. Geburtstag. Verlag C. H. Beck, München, ISBN 3-406-42994-7, S. 763f. Friedrich Oswald, "Leiningen, Karl Emich Fürst zu", Neue Deutsche Biographie, 14, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 145–146 Sarah Tytler, The Life of Her Most Gracious Majesty the Queen, vol. II Fürstenhaus zu Leiningen Texas State Historical Association
1838 Coronation Honours
The 1838 Coronation Honours were appointments by Queen Victoria to various orders and honours on the occasion of her coronation on 28 June 1838. The honours were published in The London Gazette on 20 July and 24 July 1838; the recipients of honours are displayed here as they were styled before their new honour, arranged by honour, with classes and divisions as appropriate. Major Edward Alexander Campbell of the Bengal Cavalry Duncan MacDougall, late Lieutenant-Colonel of the 79th Regiment of Highlanders, Knight Commander of the Royal and Military Order of St. Ferdinand Major-General Jeffrey Prendergast, of the Honourable East India Company's Service Major Henry Bayly, Knight of the Royal Hanoverian Guelphic Order Major William Lloyd, of the Honourable East India Company's Service Charles Shaw, Knight Commander of the Royal Portuguese Military Order of the Tower and Sword, Knight Commander of the Spanish Military Order of San Fernando Charles Frederick Williams, of Lennox lodge, Hants. and Upper Bedford-place, in the county of Middlesex Edward Johnson, of Greenhill, Weymouth, in the county of Dorset, of the Royal and Distinguished Order of Charles the Third of Spain John Kirkland, of Hampton and Pall-mall, in the county of Middlesex William Newbigging of Edinburgh William Hyde Pearson of Clapham, in the county of Surrey Admiral Sir William Sidney Smith Lieutenant-General Sir John Lambert Lieutenant-General the Honourable Sir Robert William O'Callaghan Major-General Sir Alexander Dickson Major-General Sir Alexander Caldwell of the Bengal Army and East India Company Major-General Sir James Law Lushington of the Madras Army and East India Company Archibald, Earl of Gosford Lord George William Russell, Her Majesty's Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to His Majesty the King of Prussia Charles Augustus Lord Howard de Walden, Her Majesty's Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Her Most Faithful Majesty Richard Jenkins, of the East India Company's Civil Service ArmyAdmiral John Lawford Major-General Andrew Pilkington Major-General John Gardiner Major-General Sir Arthur Benjamin Clifton Major-General Lord Greenock Major-General Sir Willoughby Cotton Major-General Sir John George Woodford Major-General Sir Patrick Lindesay Major-General Charles James Napier Major-General Sir Evan John Murray MacGregor Major-General Edward Gibbs Major-General George Thomas Napier Major-General the Honourable Hercules R. Pakenham Major-General Sir John Thomas Jones Major-General Sir John Harvey Major-General Sir Leonard Greenwell Major-General Sir Robert Henry Dick Major-General Sir Neil Douglas Rear-Admiral Sir John Acworth Ommanney Major-General Alexander Cameron Major-General John Fox Burgoyne East India CompanyMajor-General John Rose of the Bengal Infantry Major-General Thomas Corsellis of the Bombay Infantry Major-General William Richards of the Bengal Infantry Major-General Thomas Whitehead of the Bengal Infantry Major-General John Doveton of the Madras Cavalry Major-General David Foulis of the Madras Cavalry Major-General Sir Thomas Anburey of the Bengal Engineers Royal NavyCaptain Sir Edward Thomas Troubridge Captain Cuthbert Featherstone Daly Captain Edward Pelham Brenton Captain Richard Arthur Captain James Andrew Worthy Captain Robert Morgan George Festing Captain Barrington Reynolds Captain Robert MaunsellArmyColonel William Wood, 41st foot Colonel William Warre.
Unattached Colonel George C. D'Aguilar, Deputy Adjutant-General in Ireland Colonel Henry Sullivan, 6th Foot Colonel Stephen A. Goodman, 48th Foot Colonel Edward Wynyard, unattached Colonel George Brown, Rifle Brigade Colonel Charles Edward Conyers, Inspecting Field Officer Colonel James Allan, 57th Foot Colonel David Forbes, 78th Foot Colonel Henry Adolphus Proctor, 6th Foot Colonel Edward Parkinson, 11th Foot Colonel Thomas Francis Wade, Unattached Colonel Richard Egerton, Unattached Colonel William Chalmers, 57th Foot Colonel Chatham Horace Churchill, 31st Foot, Quartermaster-General in India Colonel James Grant, 23d Foot Colonel Thomas William Taylor, Lieutenant-Governor, Royal Military College Colonel John Morillyon Wilson, 77th Foot Colonel Thomas Willshire, 2nd Foot Colonel Henry Oglander, 26th Foot Colonel Edward Fleming, Inspecting Field Officer Colonel Philip Bainbridge, Assistant Quartermaster-General Colonel Sempronius Stretton, 84th Foot Colonel Thomas E. Napier, Chasseurs Britanniques Colonel Nathaniel Thorn, Assistant Quartermaster-General Colonel William Henry Sewell, 31st Foot, Deputy Quartermaster-General in India Colonel Joseph Thackwell, 3rd Dragoons Colonel Alexander Macdonald, Royal Artillery Colonel Sir William L. Herries, Unattached Colonel Thomas Staunton St. Clair, Unattached Colonel George William Paty, 94th Foot Colonel Thomas James Wemyss, 99th Foot Colonel Robert Burd Gabriel, 2nd Dragoons Colonel William Rowan, Unattached Colonel James Shaw Kennedy, Unattached Colonel George Leigh Goldie, 11th Foot Colonel George Couper, Unattached Colonel Henry Rainey, Unattached Colonel the Honourable Charles Gore, Deputy Quartermaster-General in Canada Colonel Griffith George Lewis, Royal Engineers Colonel George Judd Harding, Royal Engineers Lieutenant-Colonel John Gurwood, Unattached Lieutenant-Colonel Walter Frederick O'Reilly, Royal African Corps Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander Kennedy Clark, 7th Dragoon Guards Lieutenant-Colonel Edward T. Michell, Royal Artillery Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Blanchard, Royal Engineers Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Dyneley, Royal Artillery Lieutenant-Colonel William Reid, Royal Engineers Lieutenant-Colonel William Bolden Dundas, Royal Artillery Lieutenant-Colonel John Neave Wells, Royal Engineers Lieutenant-Colonel William Brereton, Royal Artillery Lieutenant-Colonel John Owen, Royal Marines Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Cornwallis Dansey, Royal