Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams play with 15 teams in each league; the NL and AL were formed as separate legal entities in 1901 respectively. After cooperating but remaining separate entities beginning in 1903, the leagues merged into a single organization led by the Commissioner of Baseball in 2000; the organization oversees Minor League Baseball, which comprises 256 teams affiliated with the Major League clubs. With the World Baseball Softball Confederation, MLB manages the international World Baseball Classic tournament. Baseball's first all-professional team was founded in Cincinnati in 1869; the first few decades of professional baseball were characterized by rivalries between leagues and by players who jumped from one team or league to another. The period before 1920 in baseball was known as the dead-ball era. Baseball survived a conspiracy to fix the 1919 World Series, which came to be known as the Black Sox Scandal.
The sport rose in popularity in the 1920s, survived potential downturns during the Great Depression and World War II. Shortly after the war, Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color barrier; the 1950s and 1960s were a time of expansion for the AL and NL new stadiums and artificial turf surfaces began to change the game in the 1970s and 1980s. Home runs dominated the game during the 1990s, media reports began to discuss the use of anabolic steroids among Major League players in the mid-2000s. In 2006, an investigation produced the Mitchell Report, which implicated many players in the use of performance-enhancing substances, including at least one player from each team. Today, MLB is composed of 1 in Canada. Teams play 162 games each season and five teams in each league advance to a four-round postseason tournament that culminates in the World Series, a best-of-seven championship series between the two league champions that dates to 1903. Baseball broadcasts are aired on television and the Internet throughout North America and in several other countries throughout the world.
MLB has the highest season attendance of any sports league in the world with more than 73 million spectators in 2015. MLB is governed by the Major League Baseball Constitution; this document has undergone several incarnations since its creation in 1876. Under the direction of the Commissioner of Baseball, MLB hires and maintains the sport's umpiring crews, negotiates marketing and television contracts. MLB maintains a unique, controlling relationship over the sport, including most aspects of Minor League Baseball; this is due in large part to the 1922 U. S. Supreme Court ruling in Federal Baseball Club v. National League, which held that baseball is not interstate commerce and therefore not subject to federal antitrust law; this ruling has been weakened only in subsequent years. The weakened ruling granted more stability to the owners of teams and has resulted in values increasing at double-digit rates. There were several challenges to MLB's primacy in the sport between the 1870s and the Federal League in 1916.
The chief executive of MLB is the commissioner Rob Manfred. The chief operating officer is Tony Petitti. There are five other executives: president, chief communications officer, chief legal officer, chief financial officer, chief baseball officer; the multimedia branch of MLB, based in Manhattan, is MLB Advanced Media. This branch oversees each of the 30 teams' websites, its charter states that MLB Advanced Media holds editorial independence from the league, but it is under the same ownership group and revenue-sharing plan. MLB Productions is a structured wing of the league, focusing on video and traditional broadcast media. MLB owns 67 percent of MLB Network, with the other 33 percent split between several cable operators and satellite provider DirecTV, it operates out of studios in Secaucus, New Jersey, has editorial independence from the league. In 1920, the weak National Commission, created to manage relationships between the two leagues, was replaced with the much more powerful Commissioner of Baseball, who had the power to make decisions for all of professional baseball unilaterally.
From 1901 to 1960, the American and National Leagues fielded eight teams apiece. In the 1960s, MLB expansion added eight teams, including the first non-U. S. Team. Two teams were added in the 1970s. From 1969 through 1993, each league consisted of an West Division. A third division, the Central Division, was formed in each league in 1994; until 1996, the two leagues met on the field only during the All-Star Game. Regular-season interleague play was introduced in 1997. In March 1995 two new franchises, the Arizona Diamondbacks and Tampa Bay Devil Rays, were awarded by MLB, to begin play in 1998; this addition brought the total number of franchises to 30. In early 1997, MLB decided to assign one new team to each league: Tampa Bay joined the AL and Arizona joined the NL; the original plan was to have an odd number of teams in each league, but in order for every team to be able to play daily, this would have required interleague play to be scheduled throughout the entire season. However, it
Pocatello is the county seat and largest city of Bannock County, with a small portion on the Fort Hall Indian Reservation in neighboring Power County, in the southeastern part of the U. S. state of Idaho. It is the principal city of the Pocatello metropolitan area, which encompasses all of Bannock county; as of the 2010 census the population of Pocatello was 54,255. Pocatello is the fifth-largest city in the state, just behind Idaho Falls. In 2007, Pocatello was ranked twentieth on Forbes list of Best Small Places for Business and Careers. Pocatello is the home of the manufacturing facility of ON Semiconductor; the city is at an elevation of 4,462 feet above sea level and is served by the Pocatello Regional Airport. Founded in 1889, Pocatello was known as the "Gateway to the Northwest"; as pioneers, gold miners and settlers traveled the Oregon Trail, they passed through the Portneuf Gap south of town. Stage and freight lines and the railroad soon followed, turning the community into a trade center and transportation junction.
The name "Pocatello" is named after the Shoshone Tribe chief of the same name who granted the railroad a right-of-way through the Fort Hall Indian Reservation. Shoshone and Bannock Indian tribes inhabited southeastern Idaho for hundreds of years before the epic trek by Lewis and Clark across Idaho in 1805, their reports of the many riches of the region attracted fur trappers and traders to southeastern Idaho. Nathaniel Wyeth of Massachusetts established one of the first permanent settlements at Fort Hall in 1834, only a few miles northeast of Pocatello; when over-trapping and a shift in fashion to silk hats put an end to the fur trade, Fort Hall became a supply point for immigrants traveling the Oregon Trail. Although thousands of immigrants passed through Idaho, it was not until the discovery of gold in 1860 that attracted settlers in large numbers to Idaho; the gold rush brought a need for goods and services to many towns, the Portneuf Valley, home of Pocatello, was the corridor used by stage and freight lines.
The coming of the railroad provided further development of Idaho's mineral resources and "Pocatello junction" became an important transportation crossroads as the Union Pacific Railroad expanded its service. After the gold rush played out, the settlers who remained turned to agriculture. With the help of irrigation from the nearby Snake River, the region became a large supplier of potatoes and other crops. Residential and commercial development appeared by 1882; the Pocatello flag used from 2001 to 2017 was considered by the North American Vexillological Association as the worst city flag in North America. In April 2016, the city's newly created flag design committee met for the first time. Attending the meeting was Roman Mars – whose 2015 TED Talk made Pocatello's flag infamous. On July 20, 2017, after a year and a half of work by the flag committee, the Pocatello City Council approved the adoption of a new flag with the informal name of "Mountains Left" out of a total of 709 designs. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 32.38 square miles, of which 32.22 square miles is land and 0.16 square miles is water.
Pocatello experiences a semi-arid climate, with winters that are moderately long and cold, hot, dry summers. As of the census of 2010, there were 54,255 people, 20,832 households, 13,253 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,683.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 22,404 housing units at an average density of 695.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 90.5% White, 1.0% African American, 1.7% Native American, 1.6% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 2.3% from other races, 2.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.2% of the population. There were 20,832 households of which 33.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.2% were married couples living together, 11.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 36.4% were non-families. 27.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.10.
The median age in the city is 30.2 years. 25.8% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.9% male and 50.1% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 51,466 people, 19,334 households, 12,973 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,822.5 people per square mile. There were 20,627 housing units at an average density of 730.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.32% White, 0.72% African American, 1.35% Native American, 1.15% Asian, 0.20% Pacific Islander, 2.18% from other races, 2.09% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.94% of the population. The top 5 ethnic groups in Pocatello are: English – 21%, German – 16%, Irish – 9%, Danish – 4% and Swedish – 4%. There were 19,334 households out of which 34.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.6% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.9% were non-families. 25.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.10. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.6% under the age of 18, 16.7% from 18 to 24, 27.4% from 25 to 44, 18.9% from 45 to 64, 10.4% who we
New York Yankees
The New York Yankees are an American professional baseball team based in the New York City borough of the Bronx. The Yankees compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the American League East division, they are one of two major league clubs based in New York City, the other being the New York Mets of the National League. In the 1901 season, the club began play in the AL as the Baltimore Orioles. Frank Farrell and Bill Devery purchased the franchise and moved it to New York City, renaming the club the New York Highlanders; the Highlanders were renamed the Yankees in 1913. The team is owned by Yankee Global Enterprises, an LLC controlled by the family of the late George Steinbrenner, who purchased the team in 1973. Brian Cashman is the team's general manager, Aaron Boone is the team's field manager; the team's home games were played at the original Yankee Stadium from 1923 to 1973 and from 1976 to 2008. In 1974 and 1975, the Yankees shared Shea Stadium with the Mets, in addition to the New York Jets, New York Giants.
In 2009, they moved into a new ballpark of the same name after the previous facility was closed and demolished. The team is perennially among the leaders in MLB attendance; as arguably the most successful sports club in the United States, the Yankees have won 40 AL pennants, 27 World Series championships, all of which are MLB records. The Yankees have won more titles than any other franchise in the four major North American sports leagues. Forty-four Yankees players and eleven Yankees managers have been inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame, including Babe Ruth, Lou Gehrig, Joe DiMaggio, Mickey Mantle, Yogi Berra, Whitey Ford. In pursuit of winning championships, the franchise has used a large payroll to attract talent during the Steinbrenner era. According to Forbes, the Yankees are the second highest valued sports franchise in the United States and the fifth in the world, with an estimated value of $4 billion; the Yankees have garnered enormous popularity and a dedicated fanbase, as well as widespread enmity from fans of other MLB teams.
The team's rivalry with the Boston Red Sox is one of the most well-known rivalries in U. S. sports. From 1903-2018, the Yankees overall win-loss record is 10275-7781. In 1900, Ban Johnson, the president of a minor league known as the Western League, changed the Western League name to the American League and asked the National League to classify it as a major league. Johnson held that his league would operate in friendly terms with the National league, but the National league ridiculed the plan. Johnson declared official major league status for his league in 1901. Plans to add a team in New York City were blocked by the NL's New York Giants. A team was instead placed in Baltimore, Maryland in 1901. Between 1901 and 1903, many players and coaches on the Orioles roster jumped to the Giants. In January 1903, a "peace conference" was held between the two leagues to settle disputes and try to coexist. At the conference, Johnson requested that an AL team be put in New York, to play alongside the NL's Giants.
It was put to a vote, 15 of the 16 major league owners agreed on it. The Orioles' new owners, Frank J. Farrell and William S. Devery moved the team to New York in 1903; the team's new ballpark, Hilltop Park, was constructed in one of Upper Manhattan's highest points—between 165th and 168th Streets. The team was named the New York Highlanders. Fans believed the name was chosen because of the team's elevated location in Upper Manhattan, or as a nod to team president Joseph Gordon's Scottish-Irish heritage; the team was referred to as the New York Americans. The team was referred to as the "Invaders" in the Evening Journal. New York Press Sports Editor Jim Price coined the unofficial nickname Yankees for the club as early as 1904, because it was easier to fit in headlines; the Highlanders finished second in the AL in 1904, 1906, 1910. In 1904, they lost the deciding game to the Boston Americans, who became the Boston Red Sox; that year, Highlander pitcher Jack Chesbro set the single-season wins record at 41.
At this time there was no formal World Series agreement wherein the AL and NL winners would play each other. The original Polo Grounds burned down in 1911 and the Highlanders shared Hilltop Park with the Giants during a two-month renovation period. From 1913 to 1922, the Highlanders shared the Polo Grounds with the Giants. While playing at the Polo Grounds, the name "Highlanders" fell into disuse among the press. In 1913 the team became known as the New York Yankees. By the middle of the decade, Yankees owners Farrell and Devery had become estranged and in need of money. At the start of 1915, they sold the team to Colonel Jacob Ruppert, a brewer, Captain Tillinghast L'Hommedieu Huston, a contractor-engineer. All the games of the 1921 and 1922 World Series were played in the Polo Grounds, when the Yankees squared off against their intracity rivals, the Giants. In the years around 1920, the Yankees, the Red Sox, the Chicago White Sox had a détente; the trades between the three ballclubs antagonized Ban Johnson and garnered the teams the nickname "The Insurrectos".
This détente paid off well for the Yankees. Most new players who contributed to the team's success came from the Red Sox, whose owner, Harry Frazee, was trading them for large sums of money to finance his theatrical productions. Pitcher-turned-outfielder Babe Ruth was the most talented of all the acquisition
Batting average (baseball)
In baseball, the batting average is defined by the number of hits divided by at bats. It is reported to three decimal places and read without the decimal: A player with a batting average of.300 is "batting three-hundred." If necessary to break ties, batting averages could be taken beyond the.001 measurement. In this context, a.001 is considered a "point," such that a.235 batter is 5 points higher than a.230 batter. Henry Chadwick, an English statistician raised on cricket, was an influential figure in the early history of baseball. In the late 19th century he adapted the concept behind the cricket batting average to devise a similar statistic for baseball. Rather than copy cricket's formulation of runs scored divided by outs, he realized that hits divided by at bats would provide a better measure of individual batting ability; this is because while in cricket, scoring runs is entirely dependent on one's own batting skill, in baseball it is dependent on having other good hitters on one's team.
Chadwick noted that hits are independent of teammates' skills, so used this as the basis for the baseball batting average. His reason for using at bats rather than outs is less obvious, but it leads to the intuitive idea of the batting average being a percentage reflecting how a batter gets on base, whereas hits divided by outs is not as simple to interpret in real terms. In modern times, a season batting average higher than.300 is considered to be excellent, an average higher than.400 a nearly unachievable goal. The last player to do so, with enough plate appearances to qualify for the batting championship, was Ted Williams of the Boston Red Sox, who hit.406 in 1941, though the best modern players either threaten to or do achieve it if only for brief periods of time. There have been numerous attempts to explain the disappearance of the.400 hitter, with one of the more rigorous discussions of this question appearing in Stephen Jay Gould's 1996 book Full House. Ty Cobb holds the record for highest career batting average with.366, 9 points higher than Rogers Hornsby who has the second highest average in history at.358.
The record for lowest career batting average for a player with more than 2,500 at-bats belongs to Bill Bergen, a catcher who played from 1901 to 1911 and recorded a.170 average in 3,028 career at-bats. The modern-era record for highest batting average for a season is held by Nap Lajoie, who hit.426 in 1901, the first year of play for the American League. The modern-era record for lowest batting average for a player that qualified for the batting title is held by Chris Davis, who hit.168 in 2018. While finishing six plate appearances short of qualifying for the batting title, Adam Dunn of the Chicago White Sox hit.159 for the 2011 season, nine points lower than the record. The highest batting average for a rookie was.408 in 1911 by Shoeless Joe Jackson. For non-pitchers, a batting average below.230 is considered poor, one below.200 is unacceptable. This latter level is sometimes referred to as "The Mendoza Line", named for Mario Mendoza, a stellar defensive shortstop whose defensive capabilities just made up for his offensive shortcomings.
The league batting average in Major League Baseball for 2016 was.255, the all-time league average is between.260 and.275. In rare instances, MLB players have concluded their careers with a perfect batting average of 1.000. John Paciorek had three hits in all three of his turns at bat. Esteban Yan went two-for-two, including a home run. Hal Deviney's two hits in his only plate appearances included a triple, while Steve Biras, Mike Hopkins, Chet Kehn, Jason Roach and Fred Schemanske went two-for-two. A few dozen others have hit safely in their one and only career at-bat. Sabermetrics, the study of baseball statistics, considers batting average a weak measure of performance because it does not correlate as well as other measures to runs scored, thereby causing it to have little predictive value. Batting average does not take into account walks or power, whereas other statistics such as on-base percentage and slugging percentage have been designed to measure such concepts. Adding these statistics together form a player's On-base plus slugging or "OPS".
This is seen as a much better, though not perfect, indicator of a player's overall batting ability as it is a measure of hitting for average, hitting for power and drawing bases on balls. In 1887, Major League Baseball counted bases on balls as hits; this skyrocketed batting averages, including some near.500, the experiment was abandoned the following season. The Major League Baseball batting averages championships is awarded annually to the player in each league who has the highest batting average. Ty Cobb holds the MLB record for most batting titles winning 11 in his pro career; the National League record of 8 batting titles is shared by Tony Gwynn. Most of Cobb's career and all of Wagner's career took place in what is known as the Dead-Ball Era, characterized by higher batting averages and much less power, whereas Gwynn's career took place in the Live-Ball Era. To determine which players are eligible to win the batting title, the following conditions have been used over the sport's history: Pre-1920 – A player is required to appear in at least 100 or more games when the schedule was 154 games, 90 games when the schedule was 140 games.
An exception to the rule was made for Ty Cobb in 1914, who appeared in 98 games but had a big lead and was a favorite of League President Ban Johnson. 1920–1949 – A player had to appear in 100 games to qualify in the National League.
Charles Dillon "Casey" Stengel, was an American Major League Baseball right fielder, manager, best known as the manager of both the championship New York Yankees of the 1950s and of the expansion New York Mets. He was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1966. Stengel was born in Kansas City, Missouri, in 1890. In 1910, he began a professional baseball career. After three seasons in the minor leagues, Stengel reached the major leagues late in 1912, as an outfielder, for the Brooklyn Dodgers, his six seasons there saw some success, among them playing for Brooklyn's 1916 National League championship team. After repeated clashes over pay with the Dodgers owner, Charlie Ebbets, Stengel was traded to the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1918. After returning to baseball, he continued his pay disputes, resulting in trades to the Philadelphia Phillies and to the New York Giants. There, he learned much about baseball from the manager, John McGraw, had some of the glorious moments in his career, such as hitting an inside-the-park home run in Game 1 of the 1923 World Series to defeat the Yankees.
His major league playing career ended with the Boston Braves in 1925, but he began a career as a manager. The first twenty years of Stengel's second career brought poor finishes during his MLB managerial stints with the Dodgers and Braves, he thereafter enjoyed some success on the minor league level, Yankee general manager George Weiss hired him as manager in October 1948. Stengel's Yankees won the World Series five consecutive times, the only time, achieved. Although the team won ten pennants in his twelve seasons, won seven World Series, his final two years brought less success, with a third-place finish in 1959, a loss in the 1960 World Series. By aged 70, he was dismissed by the Yankees shortly after the defeat. Stengel had become famous for his humorous and sometimes disjointed way of speech while with the Yankees, these skills of showmanship served the expansion Mets well when they hired him in late 1961, he promoted the team tirelessly, as well as managing it to a 40–120 win–loss record, the most losses of any 20th century MLB team.
The team finished last all four years he managed it, but was boosted by considerable support from fans. Stengel retired in 1965, became a fixture at baseball events for the rest of his life. Although Stengel is sometimes described as one of the great managers in major league history, others have contrasted his success during the Yankee years with his lack of success at other times, concluded he was only a good manager when given good players. Stengel is remembered as one of the great characters in baseball history. Charles Dillon Stengel was born on July 1890, in Kansas City, Missouri, his ancestry involves Irish. "Charlie" was the youngest of three children, the second son. Charlie Stengel played sandlot baseball as a child, played baseball and basketball at Kansas City's Central High School, his basketball team won the city championship. As a teenager, Stengel played on a number of semipro baseball teams, he played on the traveling team called the Kansas City Red Sox during the summers of 1908 and 1909, going as far west as Wyoming and earning a dollar a day.
He was offered a contract by the minor league Kansas City Blues for $135 a month, more money than his father was making. Since young Stengel was underage, his father had to agree. Louis Stengel recalled, "So I put down my paper and signed. You could never change that boy's mind anyway". Before reporting to spring training for the Blues in early 1910 at Excelsior Springs, Stengel was approached by his neighbor, Kid Nichols, a former star pitcher, who advised him to listen to his manager and to the older players, if he was minded to reject their advice, at least think it over for a month or so first. Stengel failed to make the ball club, part of the American Association, considered one of the top minor leagues. Kansas City optioned Stengel to the Kankakee Kays of the Class D Northern Association, a lower-level minor league, to gain experience as an outfielder, he had a. 251 batting average with Kankakee. He found a place with the Shelbyville Grays, who moved mid-season and became the Maysville Rivermen, of the Class D Blue Grass League, batting.221.
He returned to the Blues for the final week of the season, with his combined batting average for 1910 at.237. Uncertain of whether he would be successful as a baseball player, Stengel attended Western Dental College in the 1910–1911 offseason, he would tell stories of his woes as a left-handed would-be dentist using right-handed equipment. The Blues sold Stengel to the Aurora Blues of the Class C Wisconsin–Illinois League, he led the league with a.352 batting average. Brooklyn Dodgers scout Larry Sutton took a trip from Chicago to nearby Aurora, noticed Stengel, the Dodgers purchased his contract on September 1, 1911. Brooklyn outfielder Zach Wheat claimed credit for tipping off Sutton that Stengel was worth signing. Stengel returned to dental school for the offseason; the Dodgers assigned Stengel to the Montgomery Rebels of the Class A Southern Association for the 1912 season. Playing for manager Kid Elberfeld, Stengel batted
Nippon Professional Baseball
Nippon Professional Baseball or NPB is the highest level of baseball in Japan. Locally, it is called Puro Yakyū, meaning Professional Baseball. Outside Japan, it is just referred to as "Japanese baseball"; the roots of the league can be traced back to the formation of the "Greater Japan Tokyo Baseball Club" in Tokyo, founded 1934 and the original circuit for the sport in the Empire two years - Japanese Baseball League, even continued to play through the dark years of total warfare with Japan's invasion of Manchuria in 1931, intervening in the Chinese Civil War in 1937 with the wider Sino-Japanese War, into the greater World War II. The new NPB for Japan was formed when that sports organization reorganized in 1950 with creating its two leagues with six teams each of the Central League and the Pacific League with an annual season ending Japan Series championship play-off series of games starting that year for the JPB on the lines of the American World Series tournament. Nippon Professional Baseball consists of two leagues, the Central League and the Pacific League with six teams / franchises each.
There are two secondary-level professional minor leagues, the Eastern League and the Western League, that play shorter schedules for developing players. The season starts in late March or early April, ends in October, with two or three all-star games in July. In recent decades prior to 2007, the two leagues each scheduled between 130 and 140 regular season games, with the 146 games played by the Central League in 2005 and 2006 being the only exception. Both leagues have since adopted 73 each at home & on road. In general, Japanese teams play six games a week, with every Monday off. Following the conclusion of each regular season the best teams from each league go on to play in the "Nippon Series" or Japan Series championship play-off tournament on the lines of the American World Series since 1903. In 2004, the Pacific League played five fewer games than the Central League teams during the regular season and used a new playoff format to determine its champion; the teams in third and second place played in a best-of-three series with the winner of that series going on to play the first place team in a best-of-five format at its home ground.
In 2006, the Central League adopted the Pacific League's tournament as well, the tournament became known as the Climax Series with the two winners, one from each league, competing in the Japan Series. The NPB rules are those of the American Major League Baseball, but technical elements are different: The Nippon league uses a smaller baseball, strike zone, playing field; the Japanese baseball is wound more than an American baseball. The strike zone is narrower "inside" than away from the batter. Five Nippon league teams have fields whose small dimensions would violate the American Official Baseball Rules; the note set out at the end of Rule 1.04 specifies minimum dimensions for American ballparks built or renovated after 1958: 325 feet down each foul line and 400 feet to center field. American Major League Baseball players and sabermetricians describe play in the NPB as "AAAA". Play in the Pacific League is similar to that in American League baseball, with the use of designated hitters, unlike the Central League, which has no DH rule and is closer to National League baseball.
Unlike North American baseball, Japanese baseball games may end in a tie. If the score is tied after nine innings of play, up to three additional innings will be played. If there is no winner after 12 innings, the game is declared a tie. Similar to the current structure of the World Series, a team must win four games to clinch the Japan Series title. If the series must be extended, all games beyond game 7 are played with no innings limit, with game 8 being played in the same venue as game 7, game 9 and beyond played in the opposing team's venue following a moving day. Following the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami and the ensuing Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, special rules were implemented for the 2011 NPB season: For power conservation reasons, besides the usual 12-inning limit, no extra innings were allowed to commence during the regular season once 3 hours, 30 minutes had elapsed from the game start time; this time included delays due to weather. Due to the delayed start of the season and because of post-season commitments to the champion, the Japan Series' extension rules were modified in 2011 if the series was tied after seven games, only one extra game would be played.
Most Japanese teams have a six-man starting rotation. Although each team roster has 28 players, similar to other professional sports, there is a 25 player limit for each game. Managers scratch three players before each game including the most recent starting pitchers, similar to professional basketball. Financial problems plague many teams in the league, it is believed that with the exception of the Yomiuri Giants and the Hanshin Tigers, all teams are operating with considerable subsid
First base, or 1B, is the first of four stations on a baseball diamond which must be touched in succession by a baserunner to score a run for that player's team. A first baseman is the player on the team playing defense who fields the area nearest first base, is responsible for the majority of plays made at that base. In the numbering system used to record defensive plays, the first baseman is assigned the number 3. Called first sacker or cornerman, the first baseman is ideally a tall player who throws left-handed and possesses good flexibility and quick reflexes. Flexibility is needed because the first baseman receives throws from the other infielders, the catcher and the pitcher after they have fielded ground balls. In order for the runner to be called out, the first baseman must be able to stretch towards the throw and catch it before the runner reaches first base. First base is referred to as "the other hot corner"—the "hot corner" being third base—and therefore, like the third baseman, he must have quick reflexes to field the hardest hit balls down the foul line by left-handed pull hitters and right-handed hitters hitting to the opposite field.
They are power hitters who have a substantial number of home runs and extra base hits while maintaining a.270 plus batting average. Good defensive first basemen, according to baseball writer and historian Bill James, are capable of playing off first base so that they can field ground balls hit to the fair side of first base; the first baseman relies upon the pitcher to cover first base to receive the ball to complete the out. Indications of a good defensive first baseman include a large number of assists and a low number of throwing errors by other infielders; the nature of play at first base requires first basemen to stay close to the bag to hold runners or to reach the bag before the batter. First basemen are not expected to have the range required of a third baseman, second baseman or an outfielder; as a result, first base is not perceived to be as physically demanding as other positions. However, it can be a hard position to play. Though many play at first base their entire career, it is common for veteran players to be moved to first base to extend their careers or to accommodate other acquired players.
Facing a possible trade or a considerable reduction in playing time, a player will opt to move to first base instead. Catchers and corner outfielders are moved to first base due to deteriorating health or if their fielding abilities at their original position are detrimental to the team. Unlike the pitcher and catcher, who must start every play in a designated area the first baseman and the other fielders can vary their positioning in response to what they anticipate will be the actions of the batter and runner once play begins; when first base is not occupied by a baserunner, the first baseman stands behind first base and off the foul line. The distance he plays from the base and foul line is dependent on the current hitter and any runners on base; the exact position may depend on the first baseman's experience and fielding ability. For a known right-handed pull hitter, the first baseman might position himself further towards the second baseman's normal fielding position. For a known left-handed pull hitter, the first baseman will position himself closer to the foul line to stop a ball hit down the line.
To protect against a bunt on the first base side of the infield, the first baseman will position himself in front of the base and move towards the hitter as the pitch is thrown. As soon as the pitcher commits to throwing towards home plate, the first baseman will charge towards the hitter to field the bunt. During these plays, it is the responsibility of the second baseman to cover first base. With a base runner present at first base, the first baseman stands with his right foot touching the base to prepare for a pickoff attempt. Once the pitcher commits to throwing towards home plate, the first baseman comes off the bag in front of the runner and gets in a fielding position. If the bases are loaded, or if the runner on first base is not a base stealing threat, the first baseman will position himself behind the runner and appropriate for the current batter; when waiting for a throw from another player, the first baseman stands with his off-glove foot touching the base stretches toward the throw.
This stretch decreases the amount of time it takes the throw to get to first and encourages the umpire to call close plays in favor of the fielding team. Veteran first basemen are known to pull off the bag early on close plays to convince the umpire that the ball reached his glove before the runner reached first base; the first baseman has the responsibility of cutting off throws from any of the three outfield positions on their way to home plate. Though situational, the first baseman only receives throws from the center or right fielder; the first baseman is at the end of a double play, though he can be at the beginning and end of a double play. Unusual double plays involving the first baseman include the 3–6–3, 3–4–3, 3–2–3, or a 3–6–1 double play. In a 3–6–3 or 3–4–3 double play, the first baseman fields the ball, throws to second, where the shortstop or second baseman catches the ball to make the first out and throws back to the first baseman who reaches first base in time to tag first base before the batter reaches first base.
For a 3–2–3 double play, the bases must be loaded for the force-out at home plate or the catcher must tag the runner coming from